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WGU 785 FINAL EXAM COMPLETE UPDATE Hemophilia Pedigree - Father has hemophilia, mother does not. What is the outcome for their kids? ANSWERS: His daughters would be carriers. This is x-link recessiv... e. Autosomal: Dominant: ANSWERS: Autosomal: males and females equally affected. Dominant: non-carrier parents polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ANSWERS: The process of copying DNA in the lab. Uses Template DNA, Nucleotides (dNTPS), DNA Polymerase, and DNA primers. 3 Steps of PCR ANSWERS: 1. Denaturation: DNA is heated to 95C to separate it. 2. Annealing: reaction is cooled to 50C; primers stick to the DNA you want to copy and add DNA polymerase. 3. Elongation: reaction heated to 70C and DNA polymerase, adding nucleotides building a new DNA strand. Base Excision Repair (BER) ANSWERS: How you repair a mutation. BER is used to repair damage to a base caused by harmful molecules. You remove the base that is damaged and replace it. *BER removes a single nucleotide* DNA glycosylase - sees damaged DNA and removes it. DNA polymerase-puts the right one back in while DNA ligase seals it. Mismatch repair (MMR) occurs during: ANSWERS: replication. DNA polymerase proofreads but sometimes a mismatch pair gets through. MMR removes a large section of the nucleotides from the new DNA and DNA polymerase tries again. (Ex: C-T instead of C-A) Mismatch Repair corrects what kind of DNA damage? ANSWERS: When a base is mismatched due to errors in replication. Such as G-T instead of G-C. DNA polymerase comes by and fixes it. What happens when DNA polymerase binds to DNA to make RNA? ANSWERS: TRANSCRIPTION! DNA polymerase takes the individual nucleotides and matches them to the parental sequences to ensure a correct pair. It must bind with RNA primer to work. What is needed for DNA replication? ANSWERS: DNA polymerase Nonsense Mutation ANSWERS: Change in 1 nucleotide produces a STOP codon Stop= nonsense because it is no more. Silent MutationANSWERS: Change in 1 nucleotide but codes for the same amino acid. Silent= the change doesn't change the name of the protein Missense Mutation ANSWERS: Change in 1 nucleotide leads to a code for a different amino acid. Missense = mistake was made. What happens during RNA splicing? ANSWERS: During RNA splicing introns are cut out, the remaining exons are joined together. 5'ATG AGT CTC TCT 3' Find the DNA template strand. ANSWERS: 3'TAC TCA GAG AGA 5' The DNA template strand is complimentary. So start with the opposite number, then go L-R with the complimentary letter. 5'ATG AGT CTC TCT 3' What is the corresponding mRNA sequence? ANSWERS: 5'AUG AGU CUC UCU 3' This sequence is the same as the coding strand except T changes to U because it is RNA. RNA doesn't have T. How would a mutation from CTC to ATC affect the protein sequence? (CTC/ATC - co [Show More]

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