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WGU 785 Final Exam

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Hemophilia Pedigree - Father has hemophilia, mother does not. What is the outcome for their kids? His daughters would be carriers. This is x-link recessive. Autosomal: Dominant: Autosomal: mal... es and females equally affected. Dominant: non-carrier parents 00:32 01:21 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) The process of copying DNA in the lab. Uses Template DNA, Nucleotides (dNTPS), DNA Polymerase, and DNA primers. 3 Steps of PCR 1. Denaturation: DNA is heated to 95C to separate it. 2. Annealing: reaction is cooled to 50C; primers stick to the DNA you want to copy and add DNA polymerase. 3. Elongation: reaction heated to 70C and DNA polymerase, adding nucleotides building a new DNA strand. Base Excision Repair (BER) How you repair a mutation. BER is used to repair damage to a base caused by harmful molecules. You remove the base that is damaged and replace it. BER removes a single nucleotide DNA glycolsylase - sees damaged DNA and removes it. DNA polymerase-puts the right one back in while DNA ligase seals it. Mismatch repair (MMR) occurs during: replication. DNA polymerase proofreads but sometimes a mismatch pair gets through. MMR removes a large section of the nucleotides from the new DNA and DNA polymerase tries again. (Ex: C-T instead of C-A) Mismatch Repair corrects what kind of DNA damage? When a base is mismatched due to errors in replication. Such as G-T instead of G-C. DNA polymerase comes by and fixes it. What happens when DNA polymerase binds to DNA to make RNA? TRANSCRIPTION! DNA polymerase takes the individual nucleotides and matches them to the parental sequences to ensure a correct pair. It must bind with RNA primer to work. What is needed for DNA replication? DNA polymerase Nonsense Mutation Change in 1 nucleotide produces a STOP codon Stop= nonsense because it is no more. Silent Mutation Change in 1 nucleotide but codes for the same amino acid. Silent= the change doesn't change the name of the protein Missense Mutation Change in 1 nucleotide leads to a code for a different amino acid. Missense = mistake was made. [Show More]

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