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PSY 330 Chapter 13 Questions and Answers Graded A+

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Which of the following provides evidence of stereotype threat? - ANSWER Women perform worse on math tests when they believe that the test is important, but they perform the same as men when they belie... ve the test is meaningless. As discussed in the textbook, people are MOST likely to base their stereotypes of a given outgroup on - ANSWER what they have heard about the outgroup from members of the ingroup. The idea that people blame their problems and misfortunes on outgroups, and hold negative attitudes toward outgroups accordingly, is known as __________. - ANSWER scapegoat theory In a well-known study conducted by Rosenthal and Jacobson (1968), schoolteachers were told that certain of their students-who were in fact chosen by the researchers at random-were "intellectual bloomers" and had tremendous academic potential. When these students were tested at the end of the year, it was found that their IQ scores had indeed significantly increased (presumably as a result of the special attention and treatment they had received from their teachers). This research MOST clearly demonstrates - ANSWER the self-fulfilling prophecy Recall Muzafer Sherif's research with two groups of 11-year boys camping at Robber's Cave (the "Eagles" and the "Rattlers"). Which of the following theories BEST accounts for the kind of prejudice that existed between these groups? - ANSWER Realistic conflict theory Research suggests that, by and large, stereotypes function as - ANSWER expectations or hypothesis Jussim and Harber's (2005) research on the self-fulfilling prophecy and in the classroom found that - ANSWER the effects are quite small- teacher expectations are accurate Which of the following is the BEST definition of "stereotyping"? - ANSWER Beliefs that associate groups of people with certain traits. Because realistic conflict theory describes people competing over scarce resources, one could argue that it is simply theory applied _____________________to group conflict. - ANSWER frustration-aggression theory Researchers have examined whether obese men and women earn less than others, controlling for the same set of qualifications. This has shown that - ANSWER obesity negatively impacts both men and women, but especially women Men tend to be rated less positively when they are seated next to an obese woman than when they are seated next to an average-weight woman. This tendency is known as - ANSWER stigma by association In Muzafer Sherif's research with 11-year-old boys at a summer camp in Robber's Cave, it was found that __________ tended to increase prejudice, while __________ tended to reduce it. - ANSWER competition; super ordinate goals Compared to when two individuals compete, when two groups of people compete, they tend to be extreme and hostile. This is known as - ANSWER the discontinuity effect The idea that regular interactions among members of different groups reduce prejudice, so long as the interactions occur under favorable conditions, is known as - ANSWER the contact hypothesis Research suggests that stereotyping __________ allow people to save mental energy __________ enable them to process information more quickly. - ANSWER does; does The term __________ is used to refer to a negative attitude or feeling toward an individual based solely on that individual's membership in a certain group. - ANSWER "prejudice" In a well-known study using archival data, researchers Hovland and Sears found that-in the southern U.S., between 1882 and 1930-there was a statistically significant correlation between the market price of cotton and the frequency of interracial lynching incidents. This study has typically been interpreted as supporting - ANSWER scapegoat theory The outgroup homogeneity effect appears to stem from the fact that - ANSWER people have limited contact and experience with outgroup members Whereas the self-fulfilling prophecy states that people often end up doing exactly what they expect they will do, or fear that they will do, the self-defeating prophecy states that people often end up __________ what they expect they will do, or fear that they will do. - ANSWER doing the exact opposite of Do implicit or explicit prejudiced attitudes do a better job of predicting workplace discrimination in hiring practices? - ANSWER implicit attitudes are more predictive What does the textbook suggest about the accuracy of common stereotypes-do they seem to contain a kernel of truth? - ANSWER Most common stereotypes are fairly accurate both in terms of their content and in terms of the supposed magnitude of their effects. Researchers Plant and Devine have identified two basic motives that people have for overcoming prejudice: internal and external. According to these researchers, the internal motive is based on - ANSWER a strong inner belief that prejudice is wrong If discrimination is a behavior, then a stereotype is __________ and a prejudice is __________. - ANSWER a cognition; an affect When people try to hide, or control, their implicit prejudices, it takes a toll on their ability to __________ when it comes to other tasks. - ANSWER self-regulate Compared to others, obese people tend to be rated as __________. - ANSWER less attractive, less successful, less hardworking, and less intelligent Which of the following comes closest to the textbook's conclusion regarding the elimination of prejudice? - ANSWER While it is possible to meaningfully reduce specific prejudices, the tendencies for stereotyping and ingroup favoritism appear to be innate (natural) Suppose that some people have just been randomly assigned to two different teams. Research suggests that these people would be likely to exhibit discriminatory behavior (favoring the ingroup, and disfavoring the outgroup) - ANSWER immediately, as soon as the groups had been defined Implicit prejudiced attitudes are - ANSWER fairly common and do a good job of predicting behavior Research on prejudice against lesbian and gay people has shown that, in general, - ANSWER gay men experience more prejudice than lesbian women As discussed in the textbook, stereotyping is BEST thought of as - ANSWER a consequence of the human tendency for social categorization Suppose that Paul is gay, but he does not fit your stereotype of gay people: He wears baggy jeans, constantly swears, has sloppy table manners, and enjoys sports. Instead of changing the way you think about gay people as a group, however, you just decide that Paul belongs to a special class of gay people ("gay jocks"). This would be an example of - ANSWER subtyping When you meet a new person, stereotypes typically serve to - ANSWER provide you with hypothesis to be tested about that individual Most people assume that outgroup members are relatively similar to one another, while ingroup members are relatively different from one another. This tendency is known as - ANSWER the outgroup homogeneity bias As described in the textbook, college students sometimes stereotype female professors as less competent than male professors. However, this stereotype only seems to surface - ANSWER when students are evaluated negatively by a female professor Which of the following refers to the tendency that some people have to simultaneously (a) hold egalitarian values, and (b) experience negative feelings, or feelings of disease, when interacting with minority groups? - ANSWER aversive racism Research has demonstrated that eyewitnesses are more accurate at identifying people of their own racial or ethnic group than they are at identifying people of other ethnic or racial groups. This tendency is MOST related to the so-called - ANSWER "outgroup homogeneity bias" It would be MOST accurate to say that aversive racism captures the idea that - ANSWER people often have mixed feelings toward other groups and sometimes harbor prejudices despite themselves In the context of realistic conflict theory, the term "superordinate goal" refers to a goal that - ANSWER can only be achieved by cooperating and working with others Social psychologists use the term __________ to describe the feeling of fear that people sometimes have that they will confirm a certain stereotype. - ANSWER stereotype threat White people who are prejudiced against blacks, but externally motivated to respond without prejudice, tend to behave in unprejudiced ways when trying to look good or say the right thing in the presence of others. Right after being released from such pressure, they - ANSWER tend to respond with a backlash and actually express more prejudice than usual Suppose that Aretha grew up in New York, but currently works in California as a Human Resources Director. While she tries to be unbiased when reviewing job applications, she knows that she has a tendency to favor New York applicants over other applicants. That is, she tends to engage in - ANSWER ingroup favoritism Mark is a Southern gentleman. He always stands up when a woman enters the room and offers her his chair. He is quick to get the doors for his female companions, and he always pays when they go out. Mark is probably high on - ANSWER benevolent sexism According to the textbook, are the tendencies to engage in object categorization and social categorization (regardless of content) tendencies that seem to be innately programmed in people, or tendencies that seem to be culturally learned? - ANSWER both seem to be innately programmed Research suggests that, in general, prejudiced people and non-prejudiced people differ from one another in terms of - ANSWER their conscious responses to other groups Social psychologists use the term __________ to refer to unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong. - ANSWER "discrimination" Countries that value competition have ___________levels of conflict and ____________levels of economic success. - ANSWER high; high Research on prejudice and self-esteem suggests that - ANSWER people may hold prejudices, in part, because doing so bolsters their self-esteem The so-called "minimal group effect" MOST directly suggests that - ANSWER people are predisposed to divide the world into "us" and "them", and to show a preference for "us" Suppose that Ms. J. is a third-grade teacher. In her classroom, she requires that students study together in small, multi-ethnic work groups, in which each group member is responsible for collecting and communicating to fellow group members a different type of information. It appears that Ms. J. is using the cooperative learning technique known as __________. - ANSWER the jigsaw classroom Randi believes that, compared to white people, Asian people are spiritual. It would be MOST accurate to say that Randi's belief is an example of - ANSWER stereotyping Which of the following statements BEST summarizes the relationship between salience and stereotype formation? - ANSWER stereotyping can form simply on the basis of salience If something is said to be "salient," then it - ANSWER stands out or is noticeable or memorable According to the textbook, one critical reason why people hold on to their stereotypes-even in the face of refuting evidence-is that they tend to view pieces of refuting evidence as "exceptions," which constitute their own (new) categories. That is, they tend to create __________. - ANSWER subtypes __________ refer to characteristics of people that are considered socially unacceptable-for example, mental illnesses, disabilities, or scars. - ANSWER Stigma People who belong to a different category from yourself are - ANSWER outgroup members Researchers Darley and Gross (1983) showed different groups of people identical videotape footage of "Hannah," a girl who was said to come either from an impoverished background or from a wealthy background. They found that people stereotyped the girl as intellectually inferior when they were led to believe that she came from an impoverished background. However, this stereotype emerged only when participants saw footage of Hannah performing ambiguously on an oral exam. This finding is BEST explained by the concept of - ANSWER the confirmation bias [Show More]

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