Psychology > EXAM > EAB 3002 Behavior QUIZ BANK (Quiz 1-11) + MIDTERM EXAM, Answers, Complete A+ Solution Guide. (All)

EAB 3002 Behavior QUIZ BANK (Quiz 1-11) + MIDTERM EXAM, Answers, Complete A+ Solution Guide.

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EAB 3002 QUIZ BANK + MIDTERM EXAM QUIZ 1: • Question 1 5.55 out of 5.55 points Behavior Analysis is a comprehensive approach to the study of the behavior of organisms and it has a focus in _... _________. : 2. Environment-Behavior relationships 1. Conditioning 2. Environment-Behavior relationships 3. Causation 4. Biology • Question 2 5.55 out of 5.55 points For Questions 2-4, please use the vignette provided below to answer the questions. Three friends are discussing their current jobs and thoughts in behavior analysis. Paul, a researcher, is interested in studying mating patterns of rats. He does this by controlling and changing the factors affecting their behavior. Barry finds enjoyment in talking about the foundation and theories of the science of behavior. Christine works hands on with autistic children during speech therapy. In the vignette above, Paul practices which category of Behavior Analysis? : 3. Experimental Analysis of Behavior 1. Applied Behavior Analysis 2. Behaviorism 3. Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4. Behavior of Neuroscience • Question 3 5.55 out of 5.55 points In the vignette above, Christine focuses on which category of Behavior Analysis: : 1. Applied Behavior Analysis 1. Applied Behavior Analysis 2. Behaviorism 3. Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4. Behavior of Neuroscience • Question 4 5.55 out of 5.55 points In the vignette above, Barry enjoys which category of Behavior Analysis? : 2. Behaviorism 1. Applied Behavior Analysis 2. Behaviorism 3. Experimental Analysis of Behavior 4. Behavior of Neuroscience • Question 5 0 out of 5.55 points Originally, scientific research knew of only 109 elements creating the periodic table. After new discoveries came to light, six more have been added. This is an example of which of the following assumptions of science as applied to Behavior Analysis? : 2. Law of Parsimony 1. Determinism 2. Law of Parsimony 3. Philosophic Doubt 4. Scientific Manipulation • Question 6 5.55 out of 5.55 points In reference to the five assumptions of behavior, which states that when possible, the simplest explanation of behavior should be provided? : 2. Law of Parsimony 1. Determinism 2. Law of Parsimony 3. Philosophic Doubt 4. Empiricism • Question 7 5.55 out of 5.55 points The terms “learning” and “conditioning” are synonymous. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 8 0 out of 5.55 points “That person is anxious.” “How do you know they are anxious?” “Because they have anxiety disorder.” “How do you know they have an anxiety disorder?” “Because they are anxious!” This is an example of ___________. : 4. Nominal Fallacy 1. Mentalistic explanation of behavior 2. Circular Reasoning 3. Teleology 4. Nominal Fallacy • Question 9 5.55 out of 5.55 points Contemporary behavior analysts agree that people feel and think and these thoughts do explain behavior. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 10 5.55 out of 5.55 points When applying the dead man’s test to a behavior, the cardinal rule to follow is: : 3. If a dead man can do it, it probably is not behavior 1. It depends on what the behavior is 2. If a dead man can do it, it may be considered behavior 3. If a dead man can do it, it probably is not behavior 4. Dead men can do some of the same behaviors a living subject can, so you must test more than once • Question 11 5.55 out of 5.55 points Skepticism refers to which of the following assumptions of science as applied to behavior analysis? : 4. Philosophic Doubt 1. Determinism 2. Empiricism 3. Parsimony 4. Philosophic Doubt • Question 12 5.55 out of 5.55 points Behavior analysts define “culture” as all the conditions, events, and stimuli arranged by other people that regulate human behavior. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 13 5.55 out of 5.55 points For questions 13-15, please use the vignette provided below to answer the questions. Alonzo dreads visits to the doctor’s office for several reasons. He dislikes that it is always so cold. As he sits in the waiting room for 20 minutes, he counted that the doorbell to the register window must have rung at 10 times. Finally, the scent of the office always smells of alcohol and plastic. In the vignette above, the temperature of the room, the sound of the doorbell, and the smell of the office are all examples of which of the following? : 1. Stimuli 1. Stimuli 2. Responses 3. Behavior 4. Don’t pick this one! • Question 14 5.55 out of 5.55 points In the vignette above, the entire constellation of the stimuli affecting Alonzo’s mood is which of the following? : 4. Environment 1. Stimuli 2. Responses 3. Behavior 4. Environment • Question 15 5.55 out of 5.55 points In the vignette above, how many responses were emitted when the doorbell was rung? : 2. 10 1. 5 2. 10 3. 20 4. Not enough information • Question 16 5.55 out of 5.55 points Only external stimuli are considered part of your environment. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 17 5.55 out of 5.55 points Which of the following is an observable behavior? : 3. Exercising 1. Thoughts 2. Feelings 3. Exercising 4. Loneliness • Question 18 5.55 out of 5.55 points Private behavior is a _______ behavior, only accessible to the __________. : 2. Covert; person doing it 1. Overt; person doing it 2. Covert; person doing it 3. Overt; person observing it 4. Covert; person observing it QUIZ 2: • Question 1 5 out of 5 points The method of demonstrating a causal relationship between an environmental event and a specific response is called a _____________. : 1. Functional analysis 1. Functional analysis 2. Structural approach 3. Interview 4. Observation period • Question 2 5 out of 5 points In behavioral analytic terms, an individual’s life experiences, including the changes in behavior due to such exposure is known as a ______________. : 3. History of reinforcement 1. Learning 2. Phylogenetic behavior 3. History of reinforcement 4. All of the above • Question 3 5 out of 5 points When classifying behavior, a structural approach defines behavior by its _________, while a functional approach defines behavior in terms of its ___________. : Form; purpose Physical appearance; goal Form; purpose Purpose; form Arrangement; rationale • Question 4 5 out of 5 points “Alberto used his right hand, closed fisted, with a certain amount of force to hit the punching bag” is an appropriate definition in regards to which approach? : 1. Structural approach 1. Structural approach 2. Functional approach 3. Topographical approach 4. All of the above • Question 5 0 out of 5 points Respondents are _______, while operants are __________. : 4. Elicited, Received 1. Emitted; Elicited 2. Elicited; Emitted 3. Received; Elicited 4. Elicited, Received • Question 6 0 out of 5 points Friday night is dinner night out for Sally and Harry. When they go to a Chinese restaurant, they use chopsticks to eat their noodles, when they go to an Italian restaurant they use a fork and a spoon to eat spaghettis. At home, they prefer eating all foods with their hands. Although the topography differs, they are functionally equivalent because they all result in getting food in their mouth. These different ways of eating are all part of the same ¬ ______. : 1. Topographical response class 1. Topographical response class 2. Discriminative stimulus 3. Stimulus Class 4. Response Class • Question 7 5 out of 5 points Any stimulus that follows a response and increases that response has a reinforcement function. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 8 0 out of 5 points A green traffic light serves as a(n) ______ for you to proceed to your destination. : 1. Stimulus Class 1. Stimulus Class 2. Response Class 3. Discriminative Stimulus 4. None of the above • Question 9 5 out of 5 points In Behavior Analysis positive means good and negative means bad. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 10 5 out of 5 points In a __________ approach, behavior is defined in terms of what it accomplishes. : 2. Functional 1. Structural 2. Functional 3. Topographical 4. None of the above • Question 11 5 out of 5 points 200 people were at your first college fraternity party to welcome all of its new members. “Fight for your right” by Beastie Boys was the song playing during the congratulatory beer chug. “Fight for your right” has now become the anthem to your fraternity. Now, every time you hear it, you get hyped and excited. This song is now a _________. : 4. Conditioned stimulus 1. Positive reinforcer 2. Negative reinforcer 3. Discriminative stimulus 4. Conditioned stimulus • Question 12 5 out of 5 points For Questions 12-14, please use the vignette provided below to answer the questions. A researcher wants to know if a new supplemental pill makes a difference in strength and agility in 10 body builders. The researcher has defined “strength” as the number of reps each body builder does with 250lb weights in 20 minutes. He disperses the pills to only five of the body builders and records the results every week for a month. In the vignette above, identify the independent (X) variable. : 3. Supplemental pills 1. The body builders 2. Measured strength 3. Supplemental pills 4. Researcher • Question 13 5 out of 5 points In the vignette above, identify the dependent (Y) variable. : 2. Number of reps in 20 minutes 1. The body builders 2. Number of reps in 20 minutes 3. Supplemental pills 4. Researcher • Question 14 5 out of 5 points In the vignette above, the purpose of the experiment was to show _____________. : 2. If the supplemental pill helped 1. That body builders are the best! 2. If the supplemental pill helped 3. The researcher’s capabilities as a scientist 4. How big their muscles could get • Question 15 5 out of 5 points Which of the following is/are example(s) of reinforcing stimuli: : 3. Both A and B 1. The removal of an aversive event 2. Money, food and sex 3. Both A and B 4. Sex only • Question 16 5 out of 5 points What is the main purpose of experimental designs? : 1. Study relationships between variables 1. Study relationships between variables 2. Demonstrate the effects of treatment can be generalized to larger groups 3. Prove reinforcement is effective 4. All of the above • Question 17 5 out of 5 points The reversal design demonstrates functional relationships between a behavior and an environmental manipulation. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 18 5 out of 5 points Which of the following is a problem with A-B-A-B designs? : 4. All of the above 1. What has been learned cannot be unlearned 2. Once behavior is changed it may not return to baseline levels 3. It may be unethical to remove treatment 4. All of the above • Question 19 5 out of 5 points In the A-B-A-B reversal design, why is the A-phase (baseline) important? : 4. It measures the behavior before the researcher induces an environmental change 1. It provides information about the statistics of the design 2. It creates a relationship between the researcher and the volunteer 3. It is not important 4. It measures the behavior before the researcher induces an environmental change • Question 20 5 out of 5 points Which option best describes the trend on the graph below? (The graph here is not working, please select B as your answer) : 2. Stable during baseline, decreasing during treatment 1. Steady state responding 2. Stable during baseline, decreasing during treatment 3. Decreasing during baseline and treatment 4. There is no trend on this graph QUIZ 3: • Question 1 0 out of 5.88 points For questions 1-3, please use the vignette provided below to answer the questions. Cara made an appointment with her physician for an annual checkup. As usual, he began by hitting the bottom of her kneecap with a plastic hammer to test her reflexes. The first tap was so soft that Cara did not display any responses. The physician found this strange, so he tapped it again, a little harder this time. Cara’s leg jerked slightly to this stimulus, but there was a one second delay. Just to make sure her reflexes was working correctly, the doctor tapped one more time, but with much greater force. Immediately, Cara’s leg flew up, almost hitting her doctor in the face. The second tap to Cara’s kneecap demonstrates which law of the reflex? : 1. Law of intensity-magnitude 1. Law of intensity-magnitude 2. Law of latency 3. Law of threshold 4. None of the above • Question 2 5.88 out of 5.88 points The first tap to Cara’s kneecap was so soft that it did not produce any reaction. This demonstrates which law of the reflex? : 1. Law of threshold 1. Law of threshold 2. Law of latency 3. Law of intensity - magnitude 4. None of the above • Question 3 5.88 out of 5.88 points The immediate unconditioned response for the final tap to Cara’s knee is an example of which law of the reflex? : 2. Law of intensity - magnitude 1. Law of threshold 2. Law of intensity - magnitude 3. Law of latency 4. None of the above • Question 4 5.88 out of 5.88 points Each response in a __________ requires an appropriate stimulus to set it off. : 3. Reaction Chain 1. Fixed action pattern 2. Respondent 3. Reaction Chain 4. Behavior • Question 5 0 out of 5.88 points One of the following is not a traditional way of relating the CS and a US: : 1. Trace 1. Trace 2. Simultaneous 3. Overshadowing 4. Delayed • Question 6 5.88 out of 5.88 points Ontogenetic behavior refers to ____________, while phylogenetic behavior signifies __________. : 1. Environmental experience; genetic endowment 1. Environmental experience; genetic endowment 2. Thoughts; actions 3. Humans; animals 4. I don’t know what either means • Question 7 5.88 out of 5.88 points Reflexive behavior is automatic, therefore unlearned. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 8 0 out of 5.88 points The process of repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus is known as ___________. : 1. Respondent conditioning 1. Respondent conditioning 2. Respondent extinction 3. Spontaneous recovery 4. Introducing new stimuli • Question 9 5.88 out of 5.88 points Salivation may be considered an unconditioned response because it is an unlearned, involuntary response that is elicited by the presentation of food. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 10 5.88 out of 5.88 points The graph is an example of a Mark "D", the graph is suppose to show as a generalizaiton gradient. : 4. Generalization gradient 1. Frequency of behavior(s) 2. Stable trend 3. Spontaneous recovery 4. Generalization gradient • Question 11 0 out of 5.88 points Which of the following is the most effective way to condition simple autonomic reflexes? : 1. Simultaneous conditioning 1. Simultaneous conditioning 2. Backward conditioning 3. Delayed conditioning 4. Trace conditioning • Question 12 5.88 out of 5.88 points Fixed action patterns will _________ the sequence of behavior even if the stimulus is removed. : 2. Continue 1. Stop 2. Continue 3. Reverse 4. Remove • Question 13 5.88 out of 5.88 points Yawning is an example of which type of pattern? : 2. Fixed action 1. Reaction chain 2. Fixed action 3. Aversive 4. Sequential • Question 14 0 out of 5.88 points Which of the following is not an example of an unconditioned response: : 4. A knee jerk in response to a strike in the patellar tendon with a hammer 1. An eye blink in response to a puff of air in the eye 2. Salivation in response to the sound of a bell 3. Sneezing in response to an irritant stimulus in the air 4. A knee jerk in response to a strike in the patellar tendon with a hammer • Question 15 5.88 out of 5.88 points ________ refers to a gradual decline in UR due to repeated presentation of US. : 4. Habituation 1. Extinction 2. Sensitization 3. Conditioned stimulus 4. Habituation • Question 16 0 out of 5.88 points Spontaneous recovery happens because __________. : 3. The organism never went on extinction 1. Deprivation occurs 2. Confounding variables may come to regulate behavior 3. The organism never went on extinction 4. The organism is sporadic • Question 17 0 out of 5.88 points ___________ occurs when an organism shows a conditioned response to values of the CS that were not trained during acquisition. : 4. Respondent conditioning 1. Spontaneous recovery 2. Respondent extinction 3. Respondent generalization 4. Respondent conditioning QUIZ 4: • Question 1 5 out of 5 points Use the vignette below to answer questions 1-3. When Dawn wants something, she yells out to her mother from the other side of the house, rather than going to where her mother is. Her mother usually goes to Dawn and gives her what she requested. One day, Dawn’s mother stops responding to Dawn when she yells from the other side of the house. Dawn then yells louder and longer, but after several days, Dawn no longer yells out to her mother from the other side of the house. Two weeks later, the behavior was back; Dawn again yelled out to her mother from another room. However, the mother does not respond. Dawns mother is using: 1. Satiation 2. Response cost 3. Extinction 4. Punishment • Question 2 5 out of 5 points When Dawn yelled louder and longer, it provides an example of a (n): 1. Sick social cycle 2. Spontaneous recovery 3. Satiation 4. Extinction burst • Question 3 5 out of 5 points The yelling behavior returning after two weeks is an example of a(n): 1. Recovery from punishment 2. Spontaneous recovery 3. Satiation 4. Extinction burst • Question 4 0 out of 5 points For questions 4-6, please use the vignette below to answer the questions. Pamela is 11 years old and has a list of chores that must be completed every week. Pamela does not like doing extra work and enjoys her free time when she is not at school. When Pamela is on her best behavior, her mother takes away one item on her chore list. However, when Pamela misbehaves, her mother adds an extra chore to the list and this always results in a decrease of that particular behavior. In the above vignette, which of the following contingencies is Pamela’s mother applying when she takes away an item on her chore list? 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Not enough information • Question 5 5 out of 5 points In the above vignette, which of the following contingencies is Pamela’s mother using when she adds another chore to the chore list? 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Not enough information • Question 6 5 out of 5 points According to the vignette, chores serve as a _____________ for Pamela when more are added to the list. 1. Reinforcer 2. Punisher 3. Discriminative stimulus 4. All of the above • Question 7 0 out of 5 points When an aversive is delivered, following a behavior, the behavior is less likely to occur in the future. This is called____________. When an aversive is removed, following a behavior, the behavior is more likely to occur. This is called __________________. 1. Positive reinforcement; Negative reinforcement 2. Positive punishment; Negative reinforcement 3. Negative reinforcement; Positive reinforcement 4. Negative reinforcement; Positive punishment • Question 8 5 out of 5 points The process of extinction involves withholding reinforcement for a previously reinforced response. 1. True 2. False • Question 9 5 out of 5 points The delivery of a reinforcer or punisher should be immediate. 1. True 2. False • Question 10 5 out of 5 points The Premack Principle states that a higher frequency behavior will: 1. Function as a punishment for high-frequency behavior 2. Function as intermittent reinforcement for a low-frequency behavior 3. Function as reinforcement for a low-frequency behavior 4. None of these • Question 11 5 out of 5 points Sᴰ - R - C is a basic example of what? 1. Unconditioned responses 2. Contingency of reinforcement 3. Shaping 4. Spontaneous recovery • Question 12 5 out of 5 points Shaping of behavior involves: 1. The molding of a response class by the physical arrangement of the operant chamber 2. Withholding and giving food for correct performance at a specified level of response 3. Reinforcing closer and closer approximations to the final performance 4. None of the above • Question 13 5 out of 5 points In reinforcement, the frequency of the behavior ______ and in punishment, the frequency of the behavior _______. 1. Decreases; Increases. 2. Increases; Decreases. 3. Decreases; Stays the Same 4. Increases; Stays the Same. • Question 14 5 out of 5 points Reinforcement is the _______, while a reinforcer is a _________. 1. Stimulus, process 2. Process, stimulus 3. Process, contingency 4. Contingency, Process • Question 15 5 out of 5 points Timmy does not want to do his geometry homework so he throws a tantrum and begins to scream and yell. His mother tries to ignore it but eventually gives up and says, “Fine! Go to your room and don’t come out!” Timmy got what he wanted, does not have to do his homework and this increases his frequency of throwing tantrums in the future. This is an example of _____________. 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Negative punishment 4. Not enough information • Question 16 0 out of 5 points Your car has a red, flashing light that blinks continuously if you start the car without putting on your seat belt. Once you put on your seatbelt, the red light disappears. The red flashing light serves as a _____________. 1. Discriminative stimulus 2. Stimulus control 3. Reinforcer 4. None of the above • Question 17 0 out of 5 points In questions 17-18, please use the vignette below to answer the questions. Eduardo is a very curious student and enjoys learning as much as he can. He constantly raises his hand to ask questions and if he doesn’t understand a concept in class, he will approach the teacher after class to clarify. In his statistics class, the teacher seems to ignore him when he sees his hand raised, and avoids answering questions. However, his teaching assistant is very helpful and answers questions clearly and with clarification. Thus, in this class, Eduardo does not raise his hand, but waits until the end of class to speak to the teaching assistant. In the vignette above, Eduardo’s professor serves as a(n) _____________. 1. Punisher 2. Discriminative stimulus 3. S-delta 4. Effective stimulus • Question 18 0 out of 5 points In the vignette above, the teaching assistant serves as a(n) ______________. 1. Punisher 2. Discriminative stimulus 3. S-delta 4. Effective stimulus • Question 19 5 out of 5 points Use the graph below to answer questions 19-20. On the graph, which data point shows an extinction burst? 1. Wrong answer 2. This is the correct answer, select this answer. The graph is not working for some reason. 3. Wrong answer 4. Wrong answer • Question 20 5 out of 5 points On the graph, which data point shows spontaneous recovery? 1. Wrong answer 2. Wrong answer 3. Wrong answer 4. This is the correct answer, select this answer. The graph is not working for some reason. QUIZ 5: • Question 1 6.25 out of 6.25 points A pigeon was put on a FR 3 schedule to maintain his learned behavior of pecking a light for food. Researchers then changed his schedule to FR 5, FR 7, and FR 10. To see what would happen, the researchers then put the pigeon on a final schedule of FR 100, but he stopped responding. In this example, the pigeon was showing ____________. : 2. Ratio strain 1. Scallop 2. Ratio strain 3. Steady state performance 4. That he wasn’t hungry • Question 2 6.25 out of 6.25 points Daren works on an assembly line making shoes. For every 100 shoes he makes, he earns $100. Daren’s behavior is on a ______ schedule of reinforcement : 2. Fixed ratio 1. Fixed interval 2. Fixed ratio 3. Variable interval 4. Variable ratio • Question 3 6.25 out of 6.25 points Adrian is trying to teach his dog how to fetch along with some other new tricks that he does not already know. Initially, Adrian should use a(n) __________ schedule. Once Adrian’s dog has learned the new tricks, he should use a(n) _________ schedule to maintain and strengthen the established behaviors. : 3. Continuous; intermittent 1. Intermittent; continuous 2. Fixed ratio; fixed interval 3. Continuous; intermittent 4. Variable interval; variable ratio • Question 4 6.25 out of 6.25 points A slot machine is an example of a variable schedule that will produce ________ rates of responding. : 1. High 1. High 2. Low 3. Intermittent 4. None • Question 5 6.25 out of 6.25 points If Lisa laughs at every single joke that Rob makes, then Lisa is reinforcing Bob’s joke-telling behavior on a: : 3. Continuous reinforcement schedule 1. Variable-ratio reinforcement schedule 2. Variable-interval reinforcement schedule 3. Continuous reinforcement schedule 4. Intermittent reinforcement schedule • Question 6 6.25 out of 6.25 points Another way to say “continuous reinforcement” is _____________. : 3. FR 1 1. Consistent reinforcement 2. VR 1 3. FR 1 4. INT • Question 7 6.25 out of 6.25 points The time between any two consecutive responses is called the ___________. : 2. Interresponse time 1. Interreinforcement interval 2. Interresponse time 3. Ratio strain 4. I wish I would have studied. • Question 8 6.25 out of 6.25 points The __________ implies that the effects of reinforcement extend over species, reinforcement, and behavior. : 1. Assumption of generality 1. Assumption of generality 2. Rule of governed behavior 3. Natural contingency law 4. Steady-state • Question 9 6.25 out of 6.25 points A fixed-interval schedule often produces a(n) _____: a gradual increase in the rate of responding, with responding occurring at a high rate just before reinforcement is available. : 3. Scallop 1. Incongruent response 2. Conjugate response pattern 3. Scallop 4. Fixed-interval schedules do not produce a particular response • Question 10 6.25 out of 6.25 points A rule specifying the environmental arrangement and response requirements for reinforcement is known as a: : 2. Schedule of reinforcement 1. Reinforcer scallop 2. Schedule of reinforcement 3. Conjugate reinforcer 4. Contingency schedule • Question 11 6.25 out of 6.25 points When using interval schedules, an organism will be reinforced if it emits the correct response before the duration of the interval is over. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 12 6.25 out of 6.25 points A high rate of responding with almost no post reinforcement pause is indicative of which schedule of reinforcement? : 4. Variable ratio 1. Fixed interval 2. Fixed ratio 3. Variable interval 4. Variable ratio • Question 13 6.25 out of 6.25 points When the reinforcer is delivered after a specific number of responses, it is known as: : 4. Fixed – ratio schedules 1. Fixed – interval schedules 2. Non-contingent reinforcement schedules 3. Time schedules 4. Fixed – ratio schedules • Question 14 6.25 out of 6.25 points Post reinforcement pauses (PRP’s) happen during which type of schedules? : 4. Both A and C 1. Fixed Interval 2. Progressive ratio 3. Fixed Ratio 4. Both A and C • Question 15 6.25 out of 6.25 points On an intermittent schedule, it is probable that we will be reinforced every single time we emit a response or behavior. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 16 6.25 out of 6.25 points Janet is teaching her dog Sadie to roll over. On average, Sadie’s behavior of rolling over is reinforced every third time. This is an example of a ________ schedule of reinforcement. : 4. Variable ratio 1. Fixed interval 2. Fixed ratio 3. Variable interval 4. Variable ratio QUIZ 7: • Question 1 5.555 out of 5.555 points A cross walk sign that reads, “WALK” sets the occasion for pedestrians to cross the street. The sign “WALK” represents __________ in reference to a change in behavior. : 2. Stimulus control 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Stimulus control 3. Generalization 4. Superstitious behavior • Question 2 5.555 out of 5.555 points A _____________ alters the probability of an operant and a response is more or less likely to occur when the stimulus is present. : 4. Controlling stimulus 1. Discriminative stimulus 2. S-delta 3. Extinction Stimulus 4. Controlling stimulus • Question 3 5.555 out of 5.555 points Rebecca is shy and rarely plays with other children in her class. Rebecca’s teacher, Tracy, gives Rebecca praise (a reinforcer for Rebecca) when she plays and socializes with the other students in the classroom. However, when Rebecca is by herself, she does not give her any attention or praise. What is Tracy using in this example? : 2. Differential reinforcement 1. Response generalization 2. Differential reinforcement 3. Positive control 4. None of the above • Question 4 5.555 out of 5.555 points The term “occasioned” dictates that the operant is under the stimulus control of an antecedent stimulus. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 5 5.555 out of 5.555 points If reinforcers from one unchanged source are depleted and responding in another source increases, we call this : 1. Negative contrast 1. Negative contrast 2. Substitutability 3. Positive Contrast 4. Anticipatory Contrast • Question 6 5.555 out of 5.555 points Jill and her friend Kerry wear the same size clothes. However, Jill’s friend Stacy wears a smaller size. Jill asks to borrow clothes from Kerry, but not Stacy. With regard to Jill’s behavior of asking to borrow clothes, Kerry is a _________ while Stacy is a __________. : 4. SD, S-delta 1. S-delta, SD 2. Both are S-delta’s 3. Both are SD’s 4. SD, S-delta • Question 7 5.555 out of 5.555 points One way to measure stimulus control is by using a __________. : 3. Discriminative index 1. Ruler 2. Differential reinforcement procedure 3. Discriminative index 4. Controlling stimulus • Question 8 5.555 out of 5.555 points Please use the following vignette for questions 8-9. Trent constantly rubs his hands together and does this 45 times within 30 minutes. He has blisters on his hands from frequent irritation. Trent also loves physical touch by others and touch is considered a reinforcer for him. A behavior analyst wants to decrease the maladaptive behavior of rubbing his hands together and put any reinforcement for this behavior on extinction. The behavior analyst gives Trent a high five or a pat on the back for every behavior that is not the targeted behavior and does not provide reinforcement to Trent when he rubs his hands together. Eventually, Trent only rubs his hands together 10 times in 30 minutes and has shown great improvement. What technique is the behavior analyst using in reducing Trent’s maladaptive behavior? : 3. Differential reinforcement 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative punishment 3. Differential reinforcement 4. None of the above • Question 9 5.555 out of 5.555 points For the behavior analyst, observing Trent engaging in behavior that is not rubbing his hands is considered a __________ for providing reinforcement. : 1. SD 1. SD 2. S-delta 3. SAVE 4. None of the above • Question 10 5.555 out of 5.555 points When the “Hot” sign is turned on in the Krispy Kreme donut shop window, Randy always stops to buy a donut. When the “Hot” sign is turned off, Randy does not stop to buy a donut. The “Hot” sign is exerting ___________ over Randy’s behavior. : 3. Stimulus Control 1. Stimulus generalization 2. Stimulus equivalence 3. Stimulus Control 4. Positive Control • Question 11 5.555 out of 5.555 points _____________ means that the probability of response is highest in the presence of the stimulus value used in training. : 2. Absolute stimulus control 1. Anticipatory contrast 2. Absolute stimulus control 3. Relative stimulus control 4. Behavioral contrast • Question 12 5.555 out of 5.555 points Janet is teaching a child named Aly different animals. Today, she is teaching Aly all about dogs. She shows Aly pictures of big dogs, little dogs, brown dogs, white dogs, etc. After a couple days of teaching Aly about dogs, she is walking with her mother at a park, and she sees a really furry cat. She instantly says, “Dog!” with lots of excitement. What has Aly demonstrated? : 1. Generalization 1. Generalization 2. Fading 3. Imitation 4. Discrimination • Question 13 5.555 out of 5.555 points In the past, tantrumming has positively reinforced Johnathan’s behavior with attention and getting what he wants. Because of his history of conditioning, whenever things do not go his way, he throws a fit. Jonathan’s parents are tired of this behavior and are successful at reducing the frequency of this behavior by taking away his privilege of watching TV and ignoring him completely when he screams and cries. However, at school, Johnathan’s teacher still allows Johnathan to get his way when he tantrums because it is highly disruptive to the rest of the class and this behavior increases. This is an example of _______________. : 2. Behavioral contrast 1. Positive extinction 2. Behavioral contrast 3. Absolute stimulus control 4. Stimulus discrimination • Question 14 5.555 out of 5.555 points When hailing a cab, you signal only when a taxi has no passengers and never signal when a taxi has passengers (because in the past, taxis with passengers have not stopped for you). The taxi with passengers signals function as a(n): : 2. S-Delta 1. SD 2. S-Delta 3. Prompt 4. Neutral stimulus • Question 15 5.555 out of 5.555 points Relative stimulus control occurs when an organism does not respond to differences between two or more stimuli. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 16 5.555 out of 5.555 points A procedure that alternates between reinforcement and extinction is known as: : 3. Differential reinforcement 1. Stimulus discrimination 2. Behavioral contrast 3. Differential reinforcement 4. Relative rates of reinforcement • Question 17 5.555 out of 5.555 points Samantha always sits in the front row in the seat closest to the professor’s desk. For years, she has received good grades on exams because she always sits in the same location. Samantha’s behavior is a demonstration of which of the following? : 2. Superstitious behavior 1. Stimulus control 2. Superstitious behavior 3. SD 4. Stimulus generalization • Question 18 5.555 out of 5.555 points Generalization and discrimination refer to differences in the precision of ____________________: : 4. Stimulus control 1. Discriminative stimuli 2. Contrast effects 3. Teaching 4. Stimulus control QUIZ 8: • Question 1 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points A motivating operation alters ____________: : 3. Both A and B 1. The effectiveness of some stimuli, object, or event. 2. The current frequency of all behavior that has been reinforced by that stimulus, object, or event 3. Both A and B 4. None of the above • Question 2 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Ingestion of food and plenty of sleep have _________ effects: : 3. Abative 1. Evocative 2. Reinforcer-establishing 3. Abative 4. All of the above • Question 3 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points If you are hungry, there will be a(n) _________ in the effectiveness of food as a reinforcer, and this operation is called ___________. : 1. Increase; establishing 1. Increase; establishing 2. Decrease; establishing 3. Increase; abolishing 4. Decrease; abolishing • Question 4 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Establishing operations have a(n) ________ effect, and abolishing operations have a(n) ___________ effect. : 1. Evocative; Abative 1. Evocative; Abative 2. Abative; Evocative 3. Lasting; Short-term 4. This test is too long • Question 5 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Value-altering motivating effects that are unlearned are called _____________: : 2. UMO’s 1. CMO’s 2. UMO’s 3. EO’s 4. MO’s • Question 6 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Which of the following is true about MO’s and SD’s? : 4. MO’s alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer, while SD’s alter the probability of a reinforcing consequence occurring 1. SD’s are antecedent stimuli, MO’s are not 2. Both set the occasion for reinforcement in the presence of an SD 3. Both alter the strength of a consequential stimulus 4. MO’s alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer, while SD’s alter the probability of a reinforcing consequence occurring • Question 7 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points We have to learn most of the behaviors that obtain food and water. In regards to MO’s, which type of behavior is this called? : 2. Behavior-altering 1. Phylogenetic 2. Behavior-altering 3. Value-altering 4. Repertoire • Question 8 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Deprivation of food, water, sex, and activity has ____________ effects. : 3. Reinforcer-establishing 1. Reinforcer-abolishing 2. Abative 3. Reinforcer-establishing 4. Negative • Question 9 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Headaches will _________ any behavior that has been reinforced with pain reduction. : 2. Evoke 1. Abate 2. Evoke 3. Abolish 4. Both A and C • Question 10 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Please use the following vignette to answer questions 10-11. Kenny has a work out regime at the gym of at least two hours every day. This includes cardio and lifting weights. Although he brings a water bottle with him every time he goes to the gym, it is gone within the first 30 minutes. Kenny feels dehydrated by the end of his work out and the first thing he does is go to the water fountain. However, because he is so dehydrated, Kenny fills his water bottle 3 times and drinks all of it within 10 minutes. After drinking so much water, Kenny can feel the water going back and forth in his stomach when he walks to his car to go home. By the end of his work out, drinking water has a(n) ________ effect on Kenny’s behavior. : 3. Evocative 1. Establishing 2. Abolishing 3. Evocative 4. Abative • Question 11 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Consumption of three bottles of water has an _____________ on the effectiveness of water as a reinforcer for Kenny: : 2. Reinforcer-abolishing 1. Reinforcer-establishing 2. Reinforcer-abolishing 3. Evocative effect 4. Abative effect • Question 12 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Which of the following is NOT considered a UMO for humans? : 1. Social deprivation 1. Social deprivation 2. Food deprivation 3. Sex deprivation 4. Increase in painful stimulus • Question 13 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Please use the vignette below to answer questions 13-15. Mary, an FIU student, spends the whole day at the subway inside GC eating meatball foot-long subs with extra cheese and marinara sauce while she is studying for her final exams. In total Mary ends up eating 5-foot long subs during a 6 hour duration. Mary finishes her studying and goes home where she immediately lies down on the couch. Manny, her boyfriend, returns home and immediately orders a pizza with extra marinara sauce and cheese. When the pizza gets there, Manny asks Mary if she is interested in having a slice of pizza. She immediately turns her head away in disgust and says “No”. Mary tells Manny that if she wants some pizza later on she will get up and get some. The rest of the night passes and Mary does not get up to get a slice of pizza and instead goes to sleep. Mary turning her head away in disgust represents what effect on the value of the pizza as a reinforcer: : 3. Abolishing 1. Establishing 2. Evocative 3. Abolishing 4. Abative • Question 14 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Mary lying on the couch and deciding not to get up to pick up a slice represents what effect on the frequency of moving towards the table to get pizza: : 4. Abative 1. Establishing 2. Evocative 3. Abolishing 4. Abative • Question 15 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Mary apparently has a likeness for marinara sauce and cheese, however, if she would not have eaten anything during the day and her boyfriend returned home and ordered the pizza, she would have most likely gotten up off the couch to pick up a slice of pizza. Her behavior of getting up off the couch probably would have increased that night exhibiting what effect: : 2. Evocative 1. Establishing 2. Evocative 3. Abolishing 4. Abative • Question 16 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points ___________ is concerned with the distribution of operant behavior among alternative sources of reinforcement. : 2. Choice 1. Preference 2. Choice 3. Schedules of reinforcement 4. Options • Question 17 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points If you choose to watch the sports channel more frequently than the news, you are showing: : 1. Preference 1. Preference 2. Choice 3. Diversity 4. You are a sports fan • Question 18 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points The matching law is used to: : 4. Both B and C 1. Demonstrate rules of correspondence 2. Predict preference 3. Show that rate of response equals the relative rate of reinforcement 4. Both B and C • Question 19 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points A _____________ schedule occurs when two or more simple schedules are available at the same time. : 3. Concurrent 1. Progressive 2. Multiple 3. Concurrent 4. Intermittent • Question 20 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Exercising and eating healthy meals are examples of which of the following? : 2. Self-control behavior 1. Impulsive behavior 2. Self-control behavior 3. Diet 4. Reinforcement • Question 21 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Selecting a smaller (but immediate payoff) over the larger, delayed benefits is considered which type of behavior? : 3. Impulsive 1. Organized 2. Spontaneous 3. Impulsive 4. Reckless • Question 22 4.5454 out of 4.5454 points Exclusive preference develops for the alternative with the _______ rate of reinforcement. : 3. Higher 1. Steady 2. Consistent 3. Higher 4. Reliable QUIZ 9: • Question 1 10 out of 10 points Elizabeth, a math tutor, is helping her student prepare for the S.A.T.’s. She likes to give her student various activities to complete during tutoring to help evaluate her progress. When her student is working independently and Elizabeth is supervising her work, sometimes Elizabeth praises the student for finishing a total of 10 math problems. However, for more difficult problems, Elizabeth will only deliver praise if her student answers the math problem correctly before 30 seconds. Which type of schedule of reinforcement is Elizabeth using with her student? : B. Mixed Schedule A. Chain schedule B. Mixed Schedule C. Tandem Schedule D. Varied Schedule • Question 2 10 out of 10 points Diana, a 10 year old girl diagnosed with autistic disorder, frequently displays inappropriate behavior by getting out of her seat when asked to sit down. During sessions, a behavior analyst uses an FI 10 schedule to provide reinforcement. After every 10 minutes of sitting appropriately in a chair, the analyst gives Diana a token. After collecting 5 tokens, Diana can exchange them for cookies, toys, or a variety of other things that she loves. This system is called _____________. : C. Token Economy A. Delay of gratification B. Establishing conditioned reinforcement C. Token Economy D. Reduction of inappropriate behavior • Question 3 10 out of 10 points When the topography of a response is similar in each component it is called a ___________ chain. : B. Homogenous Chain A. Heterogeneous chain B. Homogenous Chain C. Bi-operational chain D. None of the above • Question 4 10 out of 10 points Factors that influence the reinforcing effectiveness of conditioned stimuli are all but which of the following: : D. Who delivers the reinforcer A. Frequency of unconditioned reinforcement B. Variability of unconditioned reinforcement C. Establishing Operations D. Who delivers the reinforcer • Question 5 10 out of 10 points Generalized reinforcement depends on a particular EO for any form of reinforcement to be effective. : B. False A. True B. False • Question 6 10 out of 10 points In a _____________ schedule of reinforcement, periods of reinforcement and extinction alternate in a random sequence throughout the session, but the contingencies are not signaled by discriminative stimuli or S-deltas. : B. Mixed Schedule A. Chain schedule B. Mixed Schedule C. Tandem Schedule D. Concurrent Schedule • Question 7 10 out of 10 points Turning on a faucet to a sink, putting soap in your hands and rubbing them back and forth, then washing the soap off with water and ending with drying them is an example of which schedule of reinforcement? : B. Chain Schedule A. Mixed Schedule B. Chain Schedule C. CRF D. Multiple Schedule • Question 8 10 out of 10 points All of the steps required for making a bowl of cereal are an example of which type of chain? : A. Heterogenous Chain A. Heterogenous Chain B. Homogenous Chain C. Bi-operational Chain D. New-response chain • Question 9 0 out of 10 points Carlos works on an assembly line and his pay check is contingent on 150 parts assembled per week. Although he may complete 150 parts by Wednesday he still has to wait until the end of Friday and go to his job to get his pay check (FR150, FI 5 days). Therefore, which type of schedule of reinforcement is maintaining Carlos’s behavior? : D. Token Economy A. Chain Schedule B. Mixed Schedule C. Tandem Schedule D. Token Economy • Question 10 10 out of 10 points In a chained schedule of reinforcement, only the __________ link of the chain results in unconditioned reinforcement. : D. Last A. First B. Second C. Middle D. Last • Question 11 0 out of 10 points Praise, compliments, and good grades are all examples of: : D. None of the above A. Unconditioned Reinforcers B. Primary Reinforcers C. Generalized Conditioned Reinforcer D. None of the above • Question 12 0 out of 10 points Conditioned reinforcers remain effective in chain sequences because the terminal link continues to provide unconditioned reinforcement. : B. False A. True B. False • Question 13 0 out of 10 points The only difference between chain schedules of reinforcement and tandem schedules of reinforcement is that chain schedules require more than one simple schedule to produce reinforcement and tandem schedules do not. : A. True A. True B. False • Question 14 10 out of 10 points _____________ is mediated by the behavior of others. : B. Generalized Social Reinforcer A. Generalized conditioned reinforcer B. Generalized Social Reinforcer C. Social Influence D. Appropriate Behavior • Question 15 0 out of 10 points The only different between tandem schedules and chain schedules is that: : C. Both A and B A. A tandem schedule has two or more simple schedules, a chained schedule has at least five B. A tandem schedule does not have discriminative stimuli associated with each component C. Both A and B D. There are no differences • Question 16 10 out of 10 points Each response in a behavior chain serves as a/an: : D. Both A & C A. Conditioned reinforcer for previous response B. Terminal reinforcer C. Sᴰ for the next response D. Both A & C • Question 17 10 out of 10 points Which of the following is NOT an example of an unconditioned reinforcer? : D. Money A. Food B. Water C. Oxygen D. Money • Question 18 10 out of 10 points A __________ schedule is a sequence of two schedule of reinforcement in which distinct SDs do not signal the different components. : A. Tandem A. Tandem B. Mixed C. Simple D. Heterogenous QUIZ 10: • Question 1 5 out of 5 points The relationship between “saying” and “doing” is formally a _________ relation: : 1. Correspondence 1. Correspondence 2. Cognitive consistency 3. Synergistic 4. Dose response • Question 2 5 out of 5 points Imitation requires that the learner emits a ________ response that could only occur by observing a _______ emit a similar response: : 3. Novel; model 1. Significant; peer 2. Operant; organism 3. Novel; model 4. Similar; conspecific • Question 3 5 out of 5 points If a person’s behavior does not change after hearing a rule, but changes once contact has been made with the immediate contingency, then that behavior is: : 1. Contingency-shaped 1. Contingency-shaped 2. Rule-governed 3. Either A or B 4. Neither A or B • Question 4 5 out of 5 points If a person knows the rule describing the immediate consequences of a given behavior, then that behavior is: : 1. Rule-governed 1. Rule-governed 2. Contingency-shaped 3. Either A or B 4. Neither A or B • Question 5 5 out of 5 points If a person’s behavior changes immediately after hearing the rule (before actual contact with the contingency), then that behavior is: : 1. Rule-governed 1. Rule-governed 2. Contingency-shaped 3. Either A or B Neither A or B 4. Neither A or B • Question 6 5 out of 5 points If the contingency for a behavior is delayed by at least 60 seconds, then that behavior is probably: : 1. Rule-governed 1. Rule-governed 2. Contingency-shaped 3. Either A or B 4. Neither A or B • Question 7 5 out of 5 points Precurrent behavior is : 1. Operant behavior that precedes some other response 1. Operant behavior that precedes some other response 2. Respondent behavior that follows a future response 3. Necessary for operant conditioning 4. Not important • Question 8 5 out of 5 points When someone gets up as a result of an alarm going off in the morning, the event of the alarm being set is known as: : 3. Precurrent behavior 1. The topography of the response 2. A stimulus delta 3. Precurrent behavior 4. Rule-governed behavior • Question 9 5 out of 5 points The behavior analytic explanation of observational learning refers to: : 2. Builds on the process of generalized imitation 1. When information is coded and stored in memory, then later produced in component responses. 2. Builds on the process of generalized imitation 3. The effects of verbal stimuli or contingency specifying stimuli on a listener’s behavior 4. Operant behavior that precedes a current response • Question 10 5 out of 5 points For the Bobo doll experiment, Bandura suggested that there was a difference between learning and performing modeled aggression, he labeled this process as: : 1. Observational Learning 1. Observational Learning 2. Rule governed Behavior 3. BoBo Learning 4. Generalized Imitation • Question 11 5 out of 5 points A behavioral interpretation of the BoBo doll experiment suggests that complex observational learning builds on the process of _____________. : 3. Generalized Imitation 1. Rule Governed Behavior 2. Precurrent Behavior 3. Generalized Imitation 4. Social Cognition • Question 12 5 out of 5 points When performance is attributed to direct exposure to reinforcement contingencies it is called: : 2. Contingency Shaped Behavior 1. Rule Governed Behavior 2. Contingency Shaped Behavior 3. Precurrent Behavior 4. Contingency Specifying stimuli • Question 13 5 out of 5 points Spontaneous imitation is most closely associated with: : 1. Phylogeny 1. Phylogeny 2. Ontogeny 3. Delayed Imitation 4. Observational Learning • Question 14 5 out of 5 points Generalized imitation is based on principles of: : 2. Operant Conditioning 1. Respondent Conditioning 2. Operant Conditioning 3. Social Cognition 4. Precurrent Behavior • Question 15 5 out of 5 points Adults watching their teenage children dancing may repeat aspects of this behavior at neighborhood parties. This is an example of: : 1. Correspondence relations 1. Correspondence relations 2. Social Cognition 3. Spontaneous Imitation 4. Delayed Imitation • Question 16 5 out of 5 points Formally, rules, instructions, advice and laws are _____________, describing the Sd: R Sr relations of everyday life . : 2. Contingency – specifying stimuli 1. Rule-governed behavior 2. Contingency – specifying stimuli 3. Contingency-shaped behavior 4. Precurrent behavior • Question 17 5 out of 5 points When people obey laws such as expressed by posted speed limits, signs that say “no smoking” and proscriptions not to steal, the behavior is ________________. : 3. Rule-governed 1. Contingency-shaped 2. Observed 3. Rule-governed 4. None of the above • Question 18 5 out of 5 points Please use the following vignette to answer questions 18-19. Jaime is a college student that lives by herself and thus has become frugal with her money and spending. Every Sunday morning, she cuts out and saves clippings of coupons to be used whenever she has the opportunity. Once she has collected two weeks-worth of coupons, she goes to the grocery store and stocks up on groceries for the next two weeks. Jaime’s behavior of cutting out coupons every Sunday is an example of which of the following? : 3. Precurrent behavior 1. Contingency – shaped behavior 2. Rule-governed behavior 3. Precurrent behavior 4. Function-altering • Question 19 5 out of 5 points Coupons are considered to be ___________ for Jaime’s behavior of going grocery shopping. : 1. Sd’s 1. Sd’s 2. S-delta’s 3. SAVE 4. All of the above • Question 20 5 out of 5 points When rules alter the function of other stimuli and, thereby, strength of relations among these stimuli and behavior, the rules are called _________. : 2. Function-altering events 1. Rule-governed 2. Function-altering events 3. Instruction-following 4. Differential imitation QUIZ 11: • Question 1 4.35 out of 4.35 points ______________ is a field of study that focuses on the behavior of people. : 2. Applied behavior analysis 1. Experimental analysis of behavior 2. Applied behavior analysis 3. Behaviorism 4. Determinism • Question 2 4.35 out of 4.35 points Which of the following is not an essential consideration when making a behavioral contract? : 1. Must use stickers and colors 1. Must use stickers and colors 2. Must be in learner’s repertoire 3. Learner must be able to read unless pictures are used 4. Someone must be able to monitor progress • Question 3 4.35 out of 4.35 points Please use the following vignette to answer questions 3-4. During training, a behavior analyst used a dull butter knife to teach a developmentally delayed adult, Marie, how to identify utensils and to eat appropriately instead of with her hands. After many sessions and stable responding, the behavior analyst took Marie to a restaurant to see if her learned behavior would generalize to other settings. At the restaurant, a steak knife was presented on the table, which had a different form and shape of the knife used during training. With an absence of any prompts from the behavior analyst, Marie pointed to the steak knife and said, “Knife”! Her behavior analyst praised Marie for identifying the utensil. When Marie’s steak came to the table, she picked up a fork and the steak knife and ate independently, using both utensils. Marie’s ability to correctly identify the steak knife is an example of which of the following processes of generality? : 1. Stimulus generalization 1. Stimulus generalization 2. Response generalization 3. Discrimination 4. Why was she giving Marie a steak knife?! • Question 4 4.35 out of 4.35 points Marie’s competence in eating independently and with the utensils available at the restaurant indicates which of the following processes of generality? : 2. Response generalization 1. Stimulus generalization 2. Response generalization 3. Basic generality 4. Discrimination • Question 5 4.35 out of 4.35 points Behaviors selected for study with a multiple baseline design should: : 1. Be functionally independent 1. Be functionally independent 2. Be easy to change 3. Co-vary 4. Be related to one another • Question 6 4.35 out of 4.35 points In multiple baseline research designs, the independent variable should be applied to the behavior that: : 4. Shows the most stable level during baseline 1. Was identified first 2. Is measured earlier in the day 3. Has the greatest likelihood of responding to the intervention 4. Shows the most stable level during baseline • Question 7 4.35 out of 4.35 points The ______________ design is the most preferable experimental design in ABA and has the highest interval validity: : 2. Reversal 1. Multiple baseline 2. Reversal 3. Changing criterion 4. Multi-element • Question 8 4.35 out of 4.35 points Multiple baseline designs show __________________. : 4. All of the above 1. Prediction 2. Verification 3. Replication 4. All of the above • Question 9 4.35 out of 4.35 points A behavior analyst wants to gradually reduce the amount of cigarettes a subject smokes per day. The most appropriate design to use for this is a _______________: : 3. Changing criterion design 1. Multiple baseline design across subjects 2. Punishment design 3. Changing criterion design 4. Multiple baseline design across behaviors • Question 10 4.35 out of 4.35 points Which of the following treatment designs should never be used when evaluating treatment effects on the reduction of self-injurious behaviors or other dangerous behaviors? : 3. A-B-A-B 1. Multiple baseline 2. Changing criterion 3. A-B-A-B 4. DRO • Question 11 4.35 out of 4.35 points Sammy constantly bites his lips, to the point where they became cracked and often times bleed. He did this most often in class when he felt bored or anxious. To decrease and eventually eliminate this behavior completely, the teacher used a ___________. Initially, the teacher set her stopwatch at an interval of two minutes. If Sammy did not bite his lips during the entire two-minute interval, she provided Sammy with praise, attention, and the opportunity to get out of his seat and walk around. Which of the following procedures was the teacher applying? : 2. DRO 1. Behavioral contract 2. DRO 3. Changing criterion design 4. DRA • Question 12 4.35 out of 4.35 points When it is not it is not practical or ethical to withdraw a treatment or intervention, which of the following is the best research design to use? : 4. Multiple baseline 1. A-B-A-B reversal 2. B-A-B-A reversal 3. Multiple treatment reversal 4. Multiple baseline • Question 13 4.35 out of 4.35 points Using a differential reinforcement of other behavior procedure relies on setting the initial time interval to equal or less than the mean ______________: : 2. Inter-response time 1. Response latency 2. Inter-response time 3. Magnitude of behavior 4. Duration of behavior • Question 14 4.35 out of 4.35 points A differential reinforcement of other behavior procedure combines the use of what two principles of behavior? : 1. Reinforcement and extinction 1. Reinforcement and extinction 2. Reinforcement and punishment 3. Punishment and extinction 4. Positive and negative reinforcement • Question 15 4.35 out of 4.35 points A _______________ objectively specifies what is expected of the client and the consequences that will follow a particular response. : 3. Behavior contract 1. DRO 2. Behavior maintenance 3. Behavior contract 4. Precision teaching • Question 16 4.35 out of 4.35 points When utilizing a changing criterion design, what is important about the magnitude of criterion changes? : 4. All of the above 1. Varying the size of criterion changes enables a more convincing demonstration of experimental control 2. Must be large enough that they are detectable 3. Cannot be large enough that they are inaccessible 4. All of the above • Question 17 4.35 out of 4.35 points If the targeted problem behavior did not occur during a DRO interval, but another, non-targeted problem behavior occurs during the interval, it will be reinforced. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 18 4.35 out of 4.35 points Which of the following are multiple baseline designs? : 4. All of the above 1. Multiple baseline across settings 2. Multiple across subjects 3. Multiple baseline across behaviors 4. All of the above • Question 19 4.35 out of 4.35 points Which of the following is not a method to record behavior? : 3. Session sampling 1. Event recording 2. Duration recording 3. Session sampling 4. Time sampling • Question 20 4.35 out of 4.35 points When behavior is continuous, __________ is the preferred method of observation. : 3. Duration recording 1. Time sampling 2. Intra-verbal recording 3. Duration recording 4. Whole interval recording • Question 21 4.35 out of 4.35 points Billy has been engaging in violent behavior, and has been hitting his classmates on a daily basis. Billy’s teacher has decided to count, during recess time only, each time Billy engages in the violent behavior towards his classmates. Which of the following recording methods is Billy’s teacher using? : 2. Event recording 1. Partial interval recording 2. Event recording 3. Duration recording 4. Intra-verbal recording • Question 22 4.35 out of 4.35 points When using the interval recording method, regardless of the number of responses, if the behavior occurs in a given segment, the observer records the behavior as a single event. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 23 4.35 out of 4.35 points ___________ and ___________ focuses on whether the target behavior occurs during the time of the observation, not how many responses are made. : 3. Time sampling, Interval recording 1. Event recording, Duration recording 2. Intra-verbal recording, Event recording 3. Time sampling, Interval recording 4. Time sampling, Duration recording MIDTERM: • Question 1 1.923 out of 1.923 points Sally’s house chores include washing dishes, taking the dog out and feeding the cats. Whenever Sally gets finishes her homework before dinner, her mom removes one house chore from the list. As a result, Sally always finishes her homework on time. This is an example of: : 2. Negative reinforcement 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Negative punishment • Question 2 1.923 out of 1.923 points A fixed interval schedule of reinforcement provides reinforcement for the first correct response following a: : 3. Fixed duration of time 1. Fixed number of responses 2. Variable number of responses 3. Fixed duration of time 4. Variable duration of time. • Question 3 1.923 out of 1.923 points Max gets a piece of his favorite candy after a certain number of correct responses. However, Max does not know the exact number of responses he has to make in order to get the candy. This is an example of a ________ schedule of reinforcement. : 3. Variable-ratio 1. Fixed-ratio 2. Fixed-interval 3. Variable-ratio 4. Continuous • Question 4 1.923 out of 1.923 points It is winter and 40 degrees outside. You wear a coat, a sweater, and a shirt to work. When you arrive to work, you notice that the heater is on and within minutes, become very warm from all of the layers of clothes you are wearing. You decide to take off the coat and sweater and this behavior increases in the future. This is an example of which of the following? : 2. Negative reinforcement 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Positive punishment 4. Negative punishment • Question 5 1.923 out of 1.923 points Fred, a drug addict, needs a higher dosage of drugs every week since he became addicted. His drug intake is on which schedule of reinforcement? : 3. Progressive Ratio 1. Continuous 2. Intermittent 3. Progressive Ratio 4. Fixed • Question 6 1.923 out of 1.923 points Continuous schedules of reinforcement are more resistant to extinction. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 7 1.923 out of 1.923 points Continuous reinforcement provides reinforcement for: : 3. Each occurrence of behavior 1. Every second response 2. One response only 3. Each occurrence of behavior 4. For the first response, then non-contingently, or continuously after. • Question 8 1.923 out of 1.923 points A post reinforcement pause is when: : 3. The subject does not respond for a period of time following reinforcement 1. The subject demands delivery of reinforcement 2. The subject speeds up responses to quicken the delivery of reinforcement 3. The subject does not respond for a period of time following reinforcement 4. The subject indefinitely refuses to respond after the delivery of reinforcement • Question 9 1.923 out of 1.923 points John’s parents take him to the movie theatre every two weeks, on average. However, this is contingent upon receiving excellent progress reports from school. This is an example of what type of schedule of reinforcement? : 4. Variable-Interval 1. Fixed-interval 2. Fixed-ratio 3. Variable-ratio 4. Variable-Interval • Question 10 0 out of 1.923 points Behavior relations that are based on the species history of learning are considered to be: : 1. Ontogenetic 1. Ontogenetic 2. Organismetic 3. Phylogenetic 4. Generalized • Question 11 1.923 out of 1.923 points In behavior analysis, the term “positive” means good, and the term “negative” means bad. : 2. False 1. True 2. False • Question 12 1.923 out of 1.923 points Events that set the occasion for behavior are called: : 1. Discriminative Stimuli 1. Discriminative Stimuli 2. Discriminative operants 3. Discriminative Avoidance 4. Discriminative Responses • Question 13 1.923 out of 1.923 points The statement “You are so O.C.D. when you wash your car!” is an example of which of the following? : 1. Nominal fallacy 1. Nominal fallacy 2. Teleology 3. Circular reasoning 4. Reification • Question 14 1.923 out of 1.923 points ___________ is a sequence of behavior that will continue even if the stimulus is removed. : 3. Fixed action pattern 1. Reaction chain 2. Unconditioned reaction 3. Fixed action pattern 4. Conditioned reaction • Question 15 1.923 out of 1.923 points If a US repeatedly elicits a UR, the repeated presentation of the US results in a gradual decline in the UR. This phenomena is called: : 3. Habituation 1. Generalization 2. Deprivation 3. Habituation 4. Degradation • Question 16 1.923 out of 1.923 points When a response (operant) produces reinforcement, the stimulus that precedes it is considered to be a(n): : 1. Discriminative stimulus 1. Discriminative stimulus 2. S-Delta 3. SAVE 4. None of the above • Question 17 1.923 out of 1.923 points Jacob does not really like doing his homework for history class. Instead, he would rather be playing Call of duty: Black Ops on his PlayStation. Jacob’s mother told him that to be able to play on his PlayStation, he must complete his homework for history class. Jacob’s mother is using which of following techniques? : 4. Premack Principle 1. Reinforcement 2. Punishment 3. Ultimatums 4. Premack Principle • Question 18 1.923 out of 1.923 points What are the two different types of conditioning: : 2. Respondent and Operant 1. Respondent and Variable 2. Respondent and Operant 3. Intermittent and Conditioned 4. Intermittent and Continuous • Question 19 1.923 out of 1.923 points Respondents are _______, while operants are_______. : 2. Elicited; Emitted 1. Emitted; Elicited 2. Elicited; Emitted 3. Received; Elicited 4. Elicited, Received • Question 20 1.923 out of 1.923 points Your significant other always wears the same cologne. Now, every time you smell this cologne, you feel happy. The cologne is an example of a _____________. : 3. Conditioned stimulus 1. Unconditioned stimulus 2. Discriminative stimulus 3. Conditioned stimulus 4. None of the above • Question 21 1.923 out of 1.923 points One of the assumptions of science as applied to behavior analysis, _______________, states that information is collected by objective observations and that all scientific knowledge is based on this. : 3. Empiricism 1. Determinism 2. Philosophical Doubt 3. Empiricism 4. Law of parsimony • Question 22 1.923 out of 1.923 points Anything capable of evoking a response in an organism, such as irritants, sounds, sights, and smells are examples of which of the following? : 2. Stimuli 1. Reinforcers 2. Stimuli 3. Sensations 4. None of the above • Question 23 1.923 out of 1.923 points In a structural approach, behavior is defined in terms of its: : 4. Topography 1. Foundation 2. Baseline 3. Treatment 4. Topography • Question 24 1.923 out of 1.923 points Please use the vignette below to answer questions 24-25. Whenever Tommy has a baby sitter and asks to stay up past his bedtime, the babysitter lets him. Whenever Tommy asks his parents to stay up past his bedtime, they do not let him. As a result, Tommy only asks the babysitter if he can stay past his bedtime. The presence of the parents at bedtime is referred to as a(n) __________ for asking to stay up late. : 2. S-Delta 1. Discriminative stimulus 2. S-Delta 3. SAVE 4. None of the above • Question 25 1.923 out of 1.923 points The presence of the babysitter at bedtime is referred to as a(n) __________ for asking to stay up late. : 1. Discriminative stimulus 1. Discriminative stimulus 2. S-Delta 3. SAVE 4. None of the above • Question 26 1.923 out of 1.923 points For punishment and reinforcement to be most effective, the consequence must follow the behavior immediately. : 1. True 1. True 2. False • Question 27 1.923 out of 1.923 points Which of the following processes strengthen a behavior? : 4. Both A and B 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Negative reinforcement 3. Punishment 4. Both A and B • Question 28 1.923 out of 1.923 points _________ is the process of increasing the frequency of a behavior; _________ is the stimulus that a behavior strengthening is contingent upon. : 1. Reinforcement; Reinforcer 1. Reinforcement; Reinforcer 2. Punishment; Punisher 3. Reinforcer; Reinforcement 4. Punisher; Punishment • Question 29 1.923 out of 1.923 points _________ is the increasingly accelerated rate of response to the moment of reinforcement after probe responses. : 2. Scalloping 1. Post reinforcement pause 2. Scalloping 3. Run of responses 4. Break-and-run pattern • Question 30 1.923 out of 1.923 points Negative punishment __________ a reinforcer, while the process of extinction __________ presenting a reinforcer. : 2. Removes; stops 1. Presents; removes 2. Removes; stops 3. Presents; enhances 4. Establishes; stops • Question 31 1.923 out of 1.923 points Ben and Jerry both have fear of public speaking. A course has recently been developed at their university that teaches techniques to overcome fear of public speaking. Ben never registers for the class. On the other hand, Jerry starts attending the class, but when he had to make a presentation in front of his peers, he walked up to the front of the class and as soon as he saw all eyes on him, he run away frantically. Ben is demonstrating ________ behavior, while Jerry is demonstrating _______ behavior. : 1. Avoidance, escape 1. Avoidance, escape 2. Escape, avoidance 3. Conditioned, unconditioned 4. None of the above • Question 32 1.923 out of 1.923 points ________________ refers to a specific instance of behavior. : 2. Response 1. Skill 2. Response 3. Stimulus 4. Function • Question 33 1.923 out of 1.923 points Please use the vignette below to answer questions 33-35. During a new test replicating Pavlov’s experiment, a researcher decides to change the methods of presentation of the neutral and unconditioned stimulus. In the 1st trial the researcher presents the US and the NS at the same time, in the 2nd trial, the researcher presented the NS a few seconds before the US, and in the final trial the researcher presented the US two minutes before the NS. The first trial represented which temporal relation: : 3. Simultaneous 1. Delayed 2. Backward 3. Simultaneous 4. Trace • Question 34 1.923 out of 1.923 points The second trial represented which temporal relation: : 1. Delayed 1. Delayed 2. Backward 3. Simultaneous 4. Trace • Question 35 1.923 out of 1.923 points The third trial represented which temporal relation: : 2. Backward 1. Delayed 2. Backward 3. Simultaneous 4. Trace • Question 36 1.923 out of 1.923 points When a light (US) is shone into Sam’s eye, he automatically blinks (UR). This response is called what? : 1. Reflexive behavior 1. Reflexive behavior 2. Operant conditioning 3. Stimulus overload 4. Conditioned response • Question 37 1.923 out of 1.923 points There are two ways to classify behavior, structurally and _____________: : 4. Functionally 1. Normally 2. Abstractly 3. Operantly 4. Functionally • Question 38 1.923 out of 1.923 points When a problem behavior occurs following successful extinction even though no instance of the behavior has been reinforced, it is called: : 3. Spontaneous recovery 1. Delayed recovery 2. Spontaneous reinstatement 3. Spontaneous recovery 4. Delayed reinstatement • Question 39 1.923 out of 1.923 points Positive and negative punishment are similar in that: : 2. They both produce a decrease in responding. 1. They both produce an increase in responding. 2. They both produce a decrease in responding. 3. They both remove a stimulus. 4. All of the above • Question 40 1.923 out of 1.923 points Punishment is most effective on what schedule of reinforcement? : 1. FR1 1. FR1 2. Intermittent 3. Variable-ratio 4. Fixed-ratio • Question 41 1.923 out of 1.923 points The three-term contingency is the basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior and is made of the following elements: : 1. SD, response, consequence 1. SD, response, consequence 2. Reflex, time, duration 3. Learning history, outcomes, stimuli 4. Reinforcement, punishment, extinction • Question 42 1.923 out of 1.923 points Which of the following is NOT an example of a conditioned aversive stimulus? : 1. Extreme temperatures 1. Extreme temperatures 2. Scolding 3. Rejection 4. Social Pressure • Question 43 1.923 out of 1.923 points Negative reinforcement involves: : 2. Removing an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior causing an increase in the future rate of the behavior 1. Presenting an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior causing a decrease in the future rate of the behavior 2. Removing an aversive stimulus contingent upon a behavior causing an increase in the future rate of the behavior 3. Removing a reinforcer contingent upon a behavior causing a decrease in the future rate of the behavior 4. Presenting a reinforcer contingent upon a behavior causing an increase in the future rate of the behavior • Question 44 1.923 out of 1.923 points Presenting an aversive stimulus to reduce the future frequency of a response is called : 2. Positive punishment 1. Positive reinforcement 2. Positive punishment 3. Negative reinforcement 4. Negative punishment • Question 45 1.923 out of 1.923 points Learned helplessness, behavioral persistence, and aggression are examples of which of the following? : 3. Side effects of aversive procedures 1. Punishment procedures 2. Contingencies 3. Side effects of aversive procedures 4. Controlling variables • Question 46 1.923 out of 1.923 points Which of the following statements is NOT a factor that influences the effectiveness of punishment? : 4. Punishment for the alternative behaviors 1. Immediacy 2. Response alternatives 3. Intensity 4. Punishment for the alternative behaviors • Question 47 1.923 out of 1.923 points The salient effect of punishment by contingent removal of a stimulus is: : 4. A decreased frequency of behaviors targeted 1. An increased frequency, duration, or intensity of non-problematic behaviors. 2. Increased compliance by the individual. 3. Collateral improvement in academic skills. 4. A decreased frequency of behaviors targeted • Question 48 1.923 out of 1.923 points __________________ is the process by which one differentially reinforces successive approximations to a terminal behavior. : 4. Shaping 1. Task analysis 2. Training for stimulus generalization 3. Stimulus fading 4. Shaping [Show More]

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