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HESI - Medical Surgical Nursing Questions with Correct Answers Graded A+

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HESI - Medical Surgical Nursing Questions with Correct Answers Graded A+ When describing patient education approaches, the nurse educator would explain that informal teaching is an approach that ... a. follows formalized plans b. has standardized content c. often occurs one-to-one d. addresses group needs -ANS>> C. Informal teaching is individualized one on one teaching which represents the majority of patient education done by nurses that occurs when an intervention is explained or a question is answered. Group needs are often the focus of formal patient education courses or classes. Informal teaching does not necessarily follow a specific formalized plan. It may be planned with specific content, but it is individualized responses to patient needs. Formal teaching involves the use of a curriculum/course plan with standardized content. A patient expresses a strong interest in returning to their work, family, and hobbies after having a stroke. Which theory type would the nurse use to develop a plan of care for the best results of this patient's motivation style? a. field b. biological c. cognitive d. sociologic -ANS>> C. Cognitive theorists believe that attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction (ARCS) are the conditions that, when integrated, motivate someone to learn. Field theorists place significance on how achievement, power, the need for affiliation, and avoidance motives influence individual behavior. Sociologic theories are not involved in motivation. The nurse is assessing a group of clients. Which clients are at greater risk for hypothermia or frostbite? (select all that apply) a. an older woman with hypertension b. a young man with a body mass index of 42 c. a young many who has just consumed six martinis d. an older man who smokes a pack of cigarettes a day e. a young woman who is anorexic f. a young woman who is diabetic -ANS>> C, D, E, F clients with poor nutrition, fatigue, and multiple chronic illnesses are at greater risk for hypothermia. Clients who smoke, consume alcohol, or have impaired peripheral circulation have a higher incidence of frostbite. Which statement made by a nurse represents the need for further education regarding pain management in older adult clients? a. older adults tend to report pain less often than younger adults b. older clients usually have more experience with pain than younger clients c. older adults are at greatest risk for under treated pain d. older clients have a different pain mechanism and do not feel it as much -ANS>> D There is no evidence to support the idea that older adult clients perceive pain any differently than younger clients. The other statements are accurate regarding older clients and pain. The nurse is working at a first aid booth for a spring training game on a hot day. A spectator comes in, reporting that he is not feeling well. Vital signs are temp 104.1 F, pulse 132 BPM, respirs 26 breaths/min, and blood pressure 106/66 mm Hg. He trips over his feet as the nurse leads him to a cot. What is the priory action of the nurse? a. admin tylenol 650 mg orally b. encourage rest, and reassess in 15 minutes c. sponge the victim with cool water and remove his shirt d. encourage drinking of cool water or sports drink -ANS>> C The spectator shows signs of heat stroke, which is a medical emergency. The spectator should be transported to the ED ASAP. The nurs should take actions to lower his body temp in teh meantime by removing his shirt and sponging his body with cool water. Lowering body temp by drinking cool fluids or taking acetaminophen is not as effective in an emergency situation. The client needs to be cooled quickly and is a priority for treatment The client is receiving an IV of 60 mEq of potassium chloride ina 1000 mL solution of dextrose 5% in 0.45% saline. The client states that the area around the IV site burns. What intervention does the nurse perform first? a. assess for a blood return b. notify the physician c. document the finding d. stop the IV infusion -ANS>> D Potassium is a severe tissue irritant. The safest action is to discontinue the solution that contains the potassium and discontinue the IV altogether, in which case the client would need another site started. Assessing for a blood return may or may not be successful. The solution could be diluted (less potassium) and the rate could be slowed once it is determined that the needle is in the vein. A nurse is caring for an older adult client who lives alone. Which economic situation presents the most serious problem for this client? a. costs of creating a living will b. stock market fluctuations c. increased provider benefits d. social security as the basis of income -ANS>> D Older adults on fixed incomes are unable to adjust their income to meet rising costs associated with meeting basic needs Controlling pain is important to promoting wellness. Unrelieved pain has been associated with a. prolonged stress response and a cascade of harmful effects system wide. b. decreased tumor growth and longevity c. large tidal volumes and decreased lung capacity d. decreased carbohydrate, protein, and fat destruction -ANS>> A Pain triggers a number of physiologic stress responses in the human body. Unrelieved pain can prolong the stress response and produce a cascade of harmful effects in all body systems. The stress response causes the endocrine system to release excessive amounts of hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, and glucagon. Insulin and testosterone levels decrease. Increased endocrine activity in turn initiates a number of metabolic processes, in particular, accelerated carbohydrate, protein, and fat destruction, whcih can result in weight loss, tachycardia, increased respiratory rate, shock, and even death. The immune system is also affected by pain as demonstrated by research showing a link between unrelieved pain and a higher incidence of nosocomial infections and increased tumor growth. Large tidal volumes are not associated with pain while decreased lung capacity is associated with unrelieved pain. Decreased tumor growth and longevity are not associated with unrelieved pain. Decreased carbs, protein, and fat are not associated with pain or stress response. Which intervention in a client with dehydration induced confusion is most likely to relieve the confusion? a. increasing the IV flow rate to 250 mL/hr b. applying oxygen by mask or nasal cannula c. placing the client in a high Fowler's position d. Measuring intake and output every four hours -ANS>> A Dehydration most frequently leads to poor cerebra perfusion and cerebral hypoxia, causing confusion. Applying oxygen can reduce confusion, even if perfusion is still less than optimum. Increasing the IV flow rate would increase perfusion. However, depending on the degree of dehydration, rehydrating the person too rapidly with IV fluids can lead to cerebral edema. Which client is at greatest risk for dehydration? a. younger adult client on bedrest b. older adult client receiving hypotonic IV fluid c. older adult client with cognitive impairment d. younger adult client receiving hypertonic IV fluid -ANS>> C Older adults, because they have less total body water than younger adults, are at greater risk for development of dehydration. Anyone who is cognitively impaired and cannot obtain fluids independently or cannot make his or her need for fluids known is at high risk for dehydration A nurse is caring for several clients. Which client does the nurse assess most carefully for hyperkalemia? a. client with type 2 diabetes taking an oral anti-diabetic agent b. client with heart failure using a salt substitute c. client taking a thiazide diuretic for hypertension d. client taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs daily -ANS>> B Many salt substitutes are composed of potassium chloride. Heavy use cna contribute to the development of hyperkalemia. The client should be taught to read labels and to choose a salt substitute that does not contain potassium. NSAIDs promote the retention of sodium but not potassium. An older adult client presents with signs and symptoms related to dig toxicity. Which age related change may have contributed to this problem? a. decreased renal blood flow b. increased gastrointestinal motility c. decreased ratio of adipose tissue to lean body mass d. increased total body water -ANS>> A Decreased renal blood flow and reduced glomerular filtration can result in slower medication excretion time, potentially leading to toxic drug accumulation. Aging results in decreased total body water and gastrointestinal motility and an increase in the ratio of adipose tissue to lean body mass, but is not related to dig toxicity. A client is being treated for dehydration. Which statement made by the client indicates understanding of this condition? a. I will use a salt substitute when making and eating my meals. b. I must drink a quart of water or other liquid each day. c. I will not drink liquids after 6 PM so I won't have to get up at night. d. I will weigh myself each morning before I eat or drink. -ANS>> D Because 1 L of water weighs 1 kg, change in body weight is a good measure of excess fluid loss or fluid retention. Weight loss greater than 0.5 lb daily is indicative of excessive fluid loss. The other statements are not indicative of practices that will prevent dehydration. The nurse notes that the handgrip of the client with hypokalemia has diminished since the previous assessment one hour ago. Which intervention by the nurse is the priority? a. assess the client's respiratory rate, rhythm, and depth b. document findings and monitor the client c. measure the client's pulse and blood pressure d. call the health care provider -ANS>> A In a client with hypokkalemia, progressive skeletal muscle weakness is associated with increasing severity of hypokalemia. The most life-threatening complication of hypokalemia is respiratory insufficiency. It is imperative for the nurse to perform a respiratory assessment first to make sure that the client is not in immediate jeopardy. Next, the nurse would call the health care provider to obtain orders for potassium replacement. The physician orders Lasix (furosemide) 60 mg po every day for your patient. On hand you have Lasix 40 mg. How many tablets will you give the patient? a. 3 b. 1 c. 1 1/2 d. 2 1/5 -ANS>> C 60/40 (desired/have) A client has been taught to restrict dietary sodium. Which food selection by the client indicates to the nurse that teaching has been effective? a. a grilled cheese sandwich with tomato soup b. Chinese take-out, including steamed rice c. a chicken leg, one slice of bread with butter, and steamed carrots d. slices of ham and cheese on whole grain crackers -ANS>> C Clients on restricted sodium diets generally should avoid processed, smoked, and pickled foods and those with sauces and other condiments. Foods lowest in sodium include fish, poultry, and fresh produce. The chinese food likely would have soy sauce, the tomato soup is processed, and the crackers are a snack food - a category of foods often high in sodium. When a client is assessed, which behavior best indicates that he or she is experiencing changes associated with acute pain? a. inability to concentrate b. expressed hopelessness c. psychosocial withdrawal d. anger and hostility -ANS>> A The characteristics most common to chronic pain are psychosocial withdrawal, anger and hostility, depression, and hopelessness. The inability to concentrate is associated much more with acute pain, before any physiologic or behavioral adaptation has occurred. A nurse is caring for several clients at risk for overhydration. The nurse assesses the older client with which finding first? A) Has had diabetes mellitus for 12 years B) Had abdominal surgery and has a nasogastric tube C) Just received 3 units of packed red blood cells D) Uses sodium-containing antacids frequently -ANS>> C Blood replacement therapy involves intravenous fluid administration, which inherently increases the risk for overhydration. The fact that the fluid consists of packed red blood cells greatly increases the risk, because this fluid increases the colloidal oncotic pressure of the blood, causing fluid to move from interstitial and intracellular spaces into the plasma volume. An older adult may not have sufficient cardiac or renal reserve to manage this extra fluid. The client with a stroke was admitted to a medical-surgical unit. Which tasks does the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel? A) Assess level of consciousness. B) Evaluate the pulse oximetry reading. C) Assist the client with meals. D) Complete the nursing care plan. -ANS>> C The nurse needs to know the five rights of delegation: right task, right circumstances, right person, right communication, and right supervision. Unlicensed assistive personnel can help with feeding, but only the nurse can care plan, assess the level of consciousness, and evaluate the oxygenation of the client. Interrelated concepts to the professional nursing role a nurse manager would consider when addressing concerns about the quality of patient education include: A) adherence. B) developmental level. C) motivation. D) technology. -ANS>> D [Show More]

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