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NUR 3031 Patho Final Review Updated

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NUR 3031 Pathophysiology Final Review Updated 2023  Cellular Injury Reversible  Although impairing cell function, does not result in cell death.  Two patterns under microscope: 1... Cellular swelling: occurs with impairment of Na+/K+ pump, usually as a result of hypoxic cell injury 2 Fatty change: linked to intracellular accumulations of fat; reversible, usually indicates severe injury. Irreversible  Cell death or necrosis can occur.  Apoptosis (Programmed cell death): a form of cell death necessary to make way for new cells; NORMAL PROCESS IN THE BODY  Necrosis: cell death and degradation; UNREGULATED death; cell swells and ruptures; inflammation results. Cells may undergo liquefaction, coagulation, infarction, or caseous necrosis Gangrene  Large area of necrotic tissue; Three types: 1 Dry gangrene: lack of arterial blood supply but venous flow can carry fluid OUT of tissue 2 wEt gangrene: lack of venous flow lets fluid ACCUMULATE in tissue (E fluid can ‘E’nter) 3 Gas gangrene: Clostridium infection produces toxins and bubbles Cellular stressors  Hypoxia: lack of oxygen in air, respiratory disease, ischemia, anemia, edema, or inability of cells to use oxygen. Causes: ATP DEPLETION or “POWER FAILURE”; AEROBIC metabolism STOPS, less ATP is produced, Na+/K+ pump is impeded, cell swells up, lactic acid is produced due to ANAEROBIC metabolism.  Heat and Cold: extremes of heat and cold cause damage to the cells  Electricity: can cause extensive tissue injury and disruption of neural/ cardiac impulses  Chemical agents: injures cell membrane, block enzymatic pathways, and disrupt osmotic/ionic balance  Biologic agents: are able to replicate and continue to produce injurious effects  Radiation: ionizing radiation, ultraviolet radiation, nonionizing radiation  Nutritional imbalances: Nutritional excess/deficiency can predispose cells to injury Atrophy  decrease cell size causing reduce oxygen consumption and other cellular functions.  General causes: 1 Disuse: reduction in muscle use 2 Denervation: atrophy in muscles of paralyzed limbs 3 Loss of endocrine stimulation: in relationship with disuse atrophy 4 Inadequate nutrition and ischemia: cells decrease size and energy requirements due to lack of nutrition and oxygen. Hypertrophy  increase cell size and with it an increase in the amount of functioning tissue mass.  Pathogenic Hypertrophy: thickening of urinary bladder and myocardial hypertrophy. Hyperplasia  increase in the number of cells in an organ or tissue.  Occurs in tissues such as epidermis, intestinal epithelium, and glandular tissue.  2 types of PHYSIOLOGICAL HYPERPLASIA: 1 Hormonal hyperplasia: Breast and uterine enlargement during pregnancy, due to estrogen. 2 Compensatory hyperplasia: Regeneration of the liver that occurs after partial hepatectomy, or with the removal of a kidney.  Most forms on NO [Show More]

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