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PATHO 3129: Pathophysiology Review for Exam 1, Answered

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PATHO 3129: Pathophysiology Review for Exam 1, Answered-1. Know the differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes a. Prokaryotes – i. Bacteria and Archaea ii. no nucleus (single, circular chromo... some) iii. genes not surrounded by a membrane iv. cell walls composed of a polysaccharide called peptidoglycan, though some bacteria lack cell walls v. smaller than eukaryotes vi. Lack histones (they coil stuff) vii. live singly, in pairs, chains, or clusters viii. enjoy moist environments like Yellowstone National Park b. Eukaryotes – i. Fungi and Yeasts ii. Cells contain a nucleus, or nuclear membrane that surrounds their DNA iii. Fungi obtain food from other organisms iv. Microscopic fungi are molds 1. Grow as long intertwined filaments v. Yeasts are unicellular 1. Reproduce asexually by budding. 2. Eukaryotic organelles are specialized structures that act like tiny organs to carry on the various cell functions. a. Nucleus – the largest organelle and usually the only one visible via microscope. i. The cell’s genetic control center ii. Shelters the DNA iii. RBC’s do not have a nucleus. iv. RNA made in nucleus but leaves v. Nucleoplasm found in the nucleus b. Mitochondria – i. Cell power house ii. ATP synthesis iii. Round or bean-shaped iv. Responsible for cellular respiration c. Endoplasmic reticulum – i. synthesizes steroids and other lipids, manufactures all cell membranes. ii. Smooth 1. Tubular, branch more extensively, no Ribosomes. 2. Detoxifies alcohol (liver and kidneys) iii. Rough 1. Parallel, flattened sacs with Ribosomes d. Peroxisome – i. Provides the peroxide ii. Contain enzymes for detoxifying free radicals, alcohol, other drugs iii. Oxidizes fatty acids e. Golgi apparatus i. The cell post office – it receives, sorts, and packages proteins. ii. Synthesizes carbohydrates and finishes protein and glycoprotein synthesis. f. Lysosome – i. membrane bounded enzymes “package” that digest cell components to recycle nutrients - autophagy g. Plasma membrane i. Involved in intracellular communication ii. Regulates material exchange between cytoplasm and extracellular fluid iii. Prevents escape of cell contents h. Ribosome – [Show More]

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