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TEST BANK FOR PORTH’S PATHOPHYSIOLOGY 10TH EDITION BY NORRIS CHAPTER 3: Cellular Adaptation, Injury, and Death

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1. Of the following situations, which one would be an example of a maladaptive cellular change? A) An 18-year-old body builder who has developed extremely large pectoral muscles following years of we... ight lifting B) A 31-year-old marathon runner who has developed hypertrophied myocardial cells C) A 54-year-old female who has developed ovarian atrophy following loss of estrogen stimulation during menopause D) A 44-year-old male with a 60-pack-per year smoking history who was diagnosed with a histological grade 3 lung cancer Ans: D Feedback: In many adaptive cellular responses, the expression of the differentiation genes is altered. When working with cancer patients, histological grade or differentiation refers to how much the tumor cells resemble normal cells of the same tissue type. In body builders and athletes, cells' hypertrophy is based on the increase in workload placed on the muscle. Reproductive atrophy is expected due to the loss of estrogen stimulation during menopause. 2. A client is experiencing muscle atrophy following 2 weeks in traction after a motor vehicle accident. Which of the following factors has most likely contributed to the atrophy of the client's muscle cells? A) High levels of insulin and IGF-1 in the client's blood during immobilization B) Denervation of the affected muscles during the time of traction C) A reduction of skeletal muscle use secondary to the traction treatment D) Reduced oxygen consumption and cellular function that ensures muscle cell survival Ans: C Feedback: Disuse atrophy results from the reduction in skeletal muscle use such as that following encasement in plaster casts or traction. Low levels of insulin and IGF-1 contribute to atrophy, and denervation only occurs in paralyzed limbs. Reduced oxygen consumption and cellular function are the mechanisms of cell atrophy but not the causes of the process. 3. The nurse is teaching new nursing assistants on the unit about the phenomenon of muscle hypertrophy. Which of the following clients on the unit is most likely to experience muscle hypertrophy? A client with A) urinary incontinence following a cerebral vascular accident (CVA). B) hypertension, obesity, and decreased activity tolerance. C) peripheral edema secondary to heart failure (HF). D) possible rejection symptoms following a liver transplant. Ans: B Feedback: Hypertension is a common cause of adaptive hypertrophy, in which cardiac muscle cells increase in size in response to the increased work of circulation over time. The other diagnoses are not associated with muscle hypertrophy. 4. Which of the following clients is at a high risk for developing dilated cardiomyopathy? A) A 17-year-old with a diving injury resulting in paraplegia B) A 4-year-old child born with cerebral palsy and confined to a wheelchair C) A 44-year-old noncompliant female who forgets to take her hypertensive medications D) A 78-year-old patient with Alzheimer disease who received a third-degree burn following an oven fire Ans: C Feedback: In hypertension, the increased workload required to pump blood against an elevated arterial pressure in the aorta results in a progressive increase in LV muscle mass and need for coronary blood flow. The pressure overload causes hypertrophied cells to have greater width and length. Paraplegia, cerebral palsy, and Alzheimer disease do not increase the workload of the cardiac muscle per se. [Show More]

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