TEST BANK NCLEX EXAM Ref # 4366 The nurse receives a client from the post anesthesia care unit following a left femoral-popliteal bypass graft procedure. Which of the following assessments require... s immediate notification of the health care provider? • Left foot is cool to the touch • Absent lef t pedal pulse using Doppler analysis • Inability to palpate the left pedal pulse • Acute pain in the left lower leg Although the inability to palpate the left pedal pulse, a cool extremity, and increased pain in the left lower leg are important findings, they all require additional nursing assessment prior to contacting the health care provider. In clients without palpable pedal pulses, the next step in the assessment is to perform a Doppler analysis. The inability to locate the left pedal pulse using the Doppler analysis requires immediately notifying the health care provider. Ref # 1028 There's a new medication order that reads: "administer 1 gtt ciprofloxacin solution OD Q 4 h" What action should the nurse take? Call the prescriber to clarify and rewrite the order Abbreviations, symbols and dose designations can be misinterpreted and lead to medication errors. "OD" can mean "right eye" (oculus dexter) or "once daily"; it should never be used when communicating medical information. The abbreviation "Q" should be written out as "every." Although "gtt" is not on the official "Do Not Use List", it's best to use "drop" instead. Asking other nurses to interpret an order is a potentially dangerous "workaround." The nurse should call the health care provider who prescribed the medication and clarify the order. Ref # 1440 Which individual is at greatest risk for the development of hypertension? 45 year-old African-American attorney The incidence of hypertension is greater among African-Americans than other groups in the United States. The incidence among the Hispanic population is rising. Ref # 2446 A woman, who delivered five days ago and who had been diagnosed with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH), calls a hospital triage nurse hotline to ask for advice. She states, "I have had the worst headache for the past two days. It pounds and by the middle of the afternoon everything I look at looks wavy. Nothing I have taken helps." What should the nurse do next? Ask the client to stay on the line, get the address, and send an ambulance to the home The woman is at risk for seizure activity. The ambulance needs to bring the woman to the hospital for evaluation and treatment. For at-risk clients, PIH may progress to preeclampsia and eclampsia prior to, during, or after delivery; this may occur up to 10 days after delivery. Ref # 2065 A client expresses anger when a call light is not answered within five minutes. The client demanded a blanket. How should the nurse respond? "I see this is frustrating for you. I have a few minutes so let's talk." This is the best response because it gives credence to the client's feelings and then concerns. To say "let's talk" and ask a why question is not a therapeutic approach because it does not acknowledge or validate the client's feelings. To apologize and not notice the client's feelings is inappropriate. To say it could have waited a few minutes is rude and non-accepting of the client's verbalized needs. Ref # 2134 The client is admitted to an ambulatory surgery center and undergoes a right inguinal orchiectomy. Which option is the priority before the client can be discharged to home Post-operative pain is managed An orchiectomy is the surgical removal of one or both testicles. It is usually performed to treat cancer (testicular, prostate or cancer of the male breast), but it may also be performed to prevent cancer (with an undescended testicle.) Due to the location of the incision, pain management is the priority. Most men will be able to eat regularly when they get home; they should at least tolerate liquids before discharge. It's important that the client is able to get up and walk with assistance, but this is not the priority. Psychological counseling may be needed as part of long-term aftercare, but this is not an immediate priority. Ref # 1524 A nurse is teaching a group of adults about modifiable cardiac risk factors. Which of the following should the nurse focus on first? Smoking cessation Smoking cessation is the priority for clients at risk for cardiac disease. Smoking's effects result in reduction of cell oxygenation and constriction of the blood vessels. All of the other factors should be addressed at some point in time. Ref # 1721 The clinic nurse is assisting with medical billing. The nurse uses the DRG (Diagnosis Related Group) manual for which purpose? Determine reimbursement for a medical diagnosis DRGs are the basis of prospective payment plans for reimbursement for Medicare clients. Other insurance companies often use it as a standard for determining payment. KEYWORDS DRG diagnosis related group reimbursement Ref # 1328 A nurse is planning care for a 2 year-old hospitalized child. Which issue will produce the most stress at this age? Separation anxiety While a toddler will experience all of the stresses, separation from parents is the major stressor. Separation anxiety peaks in the toddler years. Ref # 2319 The nurse is reviewing the laboratory results for several clients. Which of the laboratory result indicates a client with partly compensated metabolic acidosis? PaCO2 30 mm Hg Metabolic acidosis can be caused by many conditions, including renal failure, shock, severe diarrhea, dehydration, diabetic acidosis, and salicylate poisoning. With metabolic acidosis, you should expect a low pH (less than 7.35) and a low HCO3 (less than 22 mEq/L.) Compensation means the body is trying to get the pH back in balance; therefore, a pure metabolic acidosis should elicit a compensatory decrease in PaCO3 (normal is 35-45 mm Hg.) The hemoglobin is within normal limits (WNL) for both males and females. The chloride and sodium results are also WNL. Ref # 2391 A client with a diagnosis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has died. Which type of precautions is appropriate to use when performing postmortem care? Contact precautionsThe resistant bacteria remain alive for up to three days after the client dies. Therefore, contact precautions must still be used. The body should also be labeled as MRSA-contaminated so that the funeral home staff can protect themselves as well. Gown and gloves are required. Ref # 1436 A client has a chest tube inserted immediately after surgery for a left lower lobectomy. During the repositioning of the client during the first postop check, the nurse notices 75 mL of a dark, red fluid flowing into the collection chamber of the chest drain system. What is the appropriate nursing action? Continue to monitor the rate of drainage It is not unusual for blood to collect in the chest and be released into the chest drain when the client changes position this soon after surgery. The dark color of the blood indicates it is not active bleeding inside of the chest. Sanguinous drainage should be expected within the initial 24 hours postop, progressing to serosanguinous and then to a serous type. If the drainage exceeds 100 mL/hr, the nurse should call the surgeon. Ref # 1623 A client is transported to the emergency department after a motor vehicle accident. When assessing the client 30 minutes after admission, the nurse notes several physical changes. Which finding would require the nurse's immediate attention? Tracheal deviation Tracheal deviation is a sign that a mediastinal shift has occurred, most likely due to a tension pneumothorax. Air escaping from the injured lung into the pleural cavity causes pressure to build, collapsing the lung and shifting the mediastinum to the opposite side. This obstructs venous return to the heart, leading to circulatory instability and may result in cardiac arrest. This is a medical emergency, requiring emergency placement of a chest tube to remove air from the pleural cavity relieving the pressure. Ref # 1319 The client is diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (CF). The nurse would expect the client to be treated with oral pancreatic enzymes and which type of diet? High fat, high-calorie CF affects the cells that produce mucus, sweat and digestive juices. Someone with CF needs a high-energy diet that includes high-fat and high-calorie foods, extra fiber to prevent intestinal blockage and extra salt (especially during hot weather.) People with CF are at risk for osteoporosis and need calcium and dairy products. Someone with celiac disease or with a gluten intolerance, not CF, needs a gluten-free diet. Ref # 1646 The nurse is assessing a 4 year-old child who is in skeletal traction 24 hours after surgical repair of a fractured femur. The child is crying and reports having severe pain. The right foot is pale and there is no palpable pulse. What action should the nurse take first? Notify the health care provider Pain and absence of a pulse within 48-72 hours after a severe injury to an extremity suggests acute compartment syndrome. This condition occurs when there's a build up of pressure within the muscles; this pressure decreases blood flow and can cause muscle and nerve damage. Acute compartment syndrome is a medical emergency. Surgery is needed immediately; delaying surgery can lead to permanent damage to the extremity. Ref # 1927 The nurse is examining a 2 year-old child with a tentative diagnosis of Wilm's tumor. The nurse would be most concerned about which statement by the mother? "Urinary output seems to be less over the past two days." Wilm's tumor is a malignant tumor of the kidney that can lead to kidney dysfunction; therefore, a recent decrease in urinary output should be investigated further as it may be a sign of renal dysfunction. Increasing abdominal girth is a common finding in Wilm's tumor, but does not require immediate intervention by the nurse. Ref # 1370 A child is treated with succimer for lead poisoning. Which of these assessments should the nurse perform first? Check complete blood count (CBC) with differential Succimer (Chemet) is used in the management of lead or other heavy metal poisoning. Although it has generally well tolerated and has a relatively low toxicity, it may cause neutropenia. Therapy should be withheld or discontinued if the absolute neutrophil count (ANC) is below 1200/µ Ref # 1773The client with a T-2 spinal cord injury reports having a "pounding" headache. Further assessment by the nurse reveals excessive sweating, rash, pilomotor erection, facial flushing, congested nasal passages and a heart rate of 50. What action should the nurse take next? Check the client for bladder distention and the urinary catheter for kinks These are findings of autonomic dysreflexia, also called hyperreflexia. This response occurs in clients with a spinal cord injury above the T-6 level. It is typically initiated by any noxious stimulus below the level of injury such as a full bladder, an enema or bowel movement, fecal impaction, uterine contractions, changing of the catheter and vaginal or rectal examinations. The stimulus creates an exaggerated response of the sympathetic nervous system and can be a life- threatening event. The BP is typically extremely high. The priority action of the nurse is to identify and relieve the cause of the stimulus. Ref # 2144 A 67 year-old client is admitted with substernal chest pressure that radiates to the jaw. The admitting diagnosis is acute myocardial infarction (MI). What should be the priority nursing diagnosis for this client during the first 24 hours? Altered tissue perfusion In the immediate post MI period, altered tissue perfusion is priority, as an area of myocardial tissue has been damaged by a lack of blood flow and oxygenation. Interventions should be directed toward promoting tissue perfusion and oxygenation. The other problems are also relevant, but tissue perfusion is the priority. Ref # 1740An external disaster has occurred in the town. The triage nurse from the emergency department is transported to the site and assigned to triage the injured. Which of these clients would the nurse tag as "to be seen last" by the providers at the scene? A middle-aged person with deep abrasions that are over 90% of the body The clients that are least likely to survive are to be tagged as the "last to be seen." Deep abrasions are usually treated as second or third degree burns because the fluid loss is great. ref # 1750The nurse is caring for a client who is in the advanced stage of multiple myeloma. Which action should be included in the plan of care? Careful repositioning Multiple myeloma occurs when abnormal plasma cells (myeloma cells) collect in several bones. This disease may also harm other tissues and organs, especially the kidneys. This type of cancer causes hypercalcemia, renal failure, anemia,and bone damage. Because multiple myeloma can cause erosion of bone mass and fractures, extra care should be taken when moving or positioning a client due to the risk of pathological fractures. Ref # 2332 The nurse is teaching the client with chronic renal failure (CRF) about medications. The client questions the purpose of taking aluminum hydroxide. What is the best explanation for the nurse to give the client about the therapeutic effects of this medication? It decreases serum phosphate Aluminum binds phosphates that tend to accumulate in the client with chronic renal failure due to decreased filtration capacity of the kidney. Antacids such as Amphojel are commonly used to decrease serum phosphate. Ref # 1771The nurse is caring for a client in the late stages of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Which finding would the nurse expect? (Stephen hawkins) Shallow respirations ALS is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord. In ALS, upper and lower motor neurons degenerate (die) and stop sending messages to muscles; all muscles under voluntary control eventually weaken and atrophy. People eventually lose their ability to speak, eat, move and breathe. However, ALS does not impair a person's mind or intelligence. ALS does not affect a person's ability to see, smell, taste, hear or recognize touch. Ref # 1625 A nurse is caring for a client two hours after a right lower lobectomy. During the assessment of the chest drainage unit (CDU), the nurse notes bubbling in the water-seal chamber. What is the first action the nurse should take? Assess the chest tube dressing, tubing and drainage system The first action the nurse should take is to thoroughly check the dressing, tubing and drainage system. Usually intermittent bubbling in the water-seal chamber right after surgery indicates an air leak from the pleural space; this is a common finding and should resolve as the lung re-expands. Continuous bubbling usually means a leak in the CDU, such as a loose connection or a leak around the insertion site. Other nursing actions will include assessing the color and amount of the drainage and assessing the lungs. After the initial post-operative period, the nurse will assist the client to change positions and cough and deep breath to help re-expand the lung and promote fluid drainage. Ref # 1551Today's prothrombin time for a client receiving warfarin 20 seconds. The normal range listed by the lab is 10 to 14 seconds. What is an appropriate nursing action? Recognize that this is a therapeutic level For the client on warfarin therapy, this prothrombin level is within the therapeutic range. Therapeutic levels for warfarin are usually 1 1/2 to 2 times the normal levels. Ref # 1599 The nurse is teaching a client with coronary artery disease about nutrition. What information should the nurse be sure to emphasize Avoid large and heavy meals Eating large, heavy meals can pull blood away from the heart for the digestion process. This may result in angina for clients with coronary artery disease. Sodium for clients with cardiac disease is limited to two grams per day. Three meals a day is a correct approach. However, it does not mention the size of the meal, which is more important. Ref # 1749 The client, who is receiving chemotherapy through a central venous access device (CVAD) at home, is admitted to the intensive care unity (ICU) with a diagnosis of sepsis. Which of the following nursing interventions is the priority? Prepare the client for insertion of a new CVAD Many cases of sepsis occur in immunocompromised clients and clients with chronic and debilitating diseases. Since it's likely the existing CVAD is the source of the infection, it should be cultured and removed. A new central line (usually an internal jugular or subclavian) needs to be inserted since large amounts of IV fluids are needed to restore perfusion. The new central line will also allow venous access for labs, medications and measuring central venous pressure. Together with central venous pressure monitoring, an indwelling urinary catheter will help guide fluid volume replacement. Many hospitals have restrictions on visitors with known or recent infections to help protect all clients. Ref # 1525 The client is scheduled for coronary artery bypass. Based on principles of teaching and learning, what is the best initial approach by the nurse during pre-op teaching? Assess the client's learning style As with any anticipatory teaching, assessment of the client's level of knowledge and learning style should occur first. If possible, the three senses of hearing, seeing and touching should be used during any teaching to enhance recall Ref # 1246 During assessment of orthostatic vital signs on a client with cardiomyopathy, the nurse finds that the systolic blood pressure (BP) decreased from 145 to 110 mm Hg between the supine and upright positions while the heart rate (HR) rose from 72 to 96 beats per minute. In addition, the client reports feeling lightheaded when standing up. The nurse should implement which of the following actions? Instruct client to increase fluid intake for several hours This client is experiencing postural hypotension, a decrease in systolic blood pressure 15 mm Hg accompanied by an increase in heart rate 15 to 20 beats above the baseline with a change in position from supine to upright. This is often accompanied by lightheadedness. Fluid replacement is appropriate, but must be instituted very cautiously, as this client with cardiomyopathy will also be very sensitive to changes in fluid status and fluid overload may develop rapidly with aggressive rehydration. After the client increases fluid intake for one to two hours, the client should be reassessed for resolution of the postural hypotension. Ref # 1595 The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with acute angina. The client is receiving an intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin. What is the priority assessment during this treatment? Blood pressure the vasodilatation that occurs as a result of this medication can cause profound hypotension. The client's blood pressure must be evaluated every 15 minutes until stable, and then every 30 minutes to every hour thereafter. Clients receiving IV nitroglycerin also require continuous ECG monitoring. Ref # 2159 A client, admitted to the unit because of severe depression and suicidal threats, is placed on suicidal precautions. The nurse should be aware that the danger of the client committing suicide is greatest at what period of time? When the client's mood improves with an increase in energy level Suicide potential is often increased when there is an improvement in mood and energy level. At this time ambivalence is often decreased and a decision is made to commit suicide. The clients have the energy to carry through with the plan for suicide. Ref # 1815 A mother asks about expected motor skill development for her 3 year- old child. Which activity is considered a typical motor skill for the 3 year-old? Riding a tricycle Three year-old children are developing gross motor skills that require large muscle movement. While there will always be some variation between children, movement milestones typically include pedaling a tricycle, standing on one foot for a few seconds, walking backwards and jumping with both feet. The other activities listed require more coordination and are movement milestones for older children Ref # 1539 The nurse needs to accurately assess gastric placement of a nasogastric tube prior to the administration of an enteral feeding. What is the priority action the nurse should take before starting the infusion? Check the pH of the aspirate Once the initial placement of the tube has been confirmed by x-ray, the nurse will check the pH of the aspirate before administering medications or enteral feeding solutions. Current practice recommendations include assessing the feeding tube placement by testing the pH of aspirates, measuring the external portion of the tube, and observing for changes in the volume and appearance of feeding tube aspirates. If tube placement is in doubt, an x-ray should be obtained. The other methods are older approaches that are no longer recommended. Ref # 2339 There is an order to administer intravenous gentamicin three times a day. What diagnostic finding indicates the client may be more likely to experience a toxic side effect of this medication? High serum creatinine Gentamicin is excreted unmodified by the kidneys. If there is any reduced renal function, toxicity can result. An elevated serum creatinine indicates reduced renal function and this puts the client at greater risk for toxicity. Reduced renal function will delay the excretion of many medications. Ref # 1582 A nurse is working in an OB-GYN clinic. A 40 year-old woman in the first trimester of an unplanned pregnancy provides a health history to the nurse. Which information should receive priority attention? She has been taking an ACE inhibitor for her blood pressure for the past two years. A report by the client that she has been taking medications in the first trimester of pregnancy should be followed up immediately. ACE inhibitors, commonly used to control high blood pressure, are pregnancy category X, as they can cause teratogenic effects on the developing fetus, increasing the risk of birth defects. Women who are taking medications and who are planning a pregnancy should be switched to medications that are not harmful to the developing fetus before they begin trying to get pregnant. Ref # 2266 The nurse is providing information to a client about a prescribed medication. Which one of these statements, if made by a client, indicates that teaching about propranolol (Inderal) has been effective? "I can have a heart attack if I stop this medication suddenly." Propranolol is commonly used to treat hypertension, abnormal heart rhythms, heart disease and certain types of tremor. It is in a class of medications called beta blockers. Suddenly discontinuing a beta blocker can cause angina, hypertension, arrhythmias, or even a heart attack. Ref # 1644 The nurse is developing a teaching plan for parents on safety and risk- reduction in the home. Which of the following should the nurse give priority consideration to during teaching? Age of children in the home Age and developmental level of the child are the most important considerations in the provision of a framework for anticipatory guidance associated with safety, and should be given priority when teaching safety. Ref # 1312 The client is prescribed dexamethasone by mouth every other day and asks the nurse for more information about the medication. What information would the nurse want to share with the client? (Select all that apply) Take the medication with food Do not get any immunizations or skin tests Mark your calendar to keep track of doses Dexamethasone is a glucocorticosteroid used for its anti-inflammatory properties. It is best to take the medication in the morning, before 9:00 am, with food or milk to avoid stomach upset. A low-sodium diet is usually prescribed because the drug can cause an elevation in blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased potassium loss. Dexamethasone also causes calcium loss; the client should increase calcium in the diet and take a calcium supplement. Because the medication affects the immune system, it could make vaccinations ineffective and/or lead to serious infections. It's always a good idea for clients to keep track of medication administration, particularly when they are not taking the medication every day. Ref # 2419 A nurse is providing care to a primigravida whose membranes spontaneously ruptured (ROM) four hours ago. At the time of rupture, maternal vital signs were within normal limits, she was dilated to 2 centimeters, and the baseline fetal heart rate (FHR) was 150 beats per minute (BPM). The nurse is now reassessing the client. Which of these assessment findings may be an early indication that the client is developing a complication of the labor process? Fetal heart rate is 188 beats/minute Prolonged ruptured membranes may lead to maternal infection (as suggested by the slightly elevated temperature). But the primary concern is the fetal heart rate of 188; fetal heart rate is typically somewhere between 120 and 160 BPM. Fetal tachycardia may be an early sign of hypoxia. The nurse should contact the health care provider, assist the client to change positions, and administer oxygen and intravenous fluids. Ref # 2247 The registered nurse (RN) is planning the care of an 80-year-old client with skin abrasions from a fall in the home. What aspect of this client's care is the primary responsibility of the nurse? Perform a head-to-toe assessment The RN is responsible to conduct a thorough assessment and evaluation of all body systems for this client. The nurse would document information collected during the focused assessment, such as changes in skin color and breaks in the skin's integrity. Applying lotion would not be a primary responsibility. Ref # 1650 A 15 year-old client has been placed in a Milwaukee brace. Which statement made by the client is incorrect and indicates a need for additional teaching? "I will only have to wear this for six months." The brace must be worn long-term, during periods of growth, usually for one to two years. It is used to correct scoliosis, the lateral curvature of the spine. Ref # 1629 The nurse, who is participating in a community health fair, assesses the health status of attendees. When would the nurse conduct a mental status examination? As part of every health assessment A mental status assessment is a critical part of baseline information and should be a part of every examination. Ref # 1520 A nurse is talking by telephone with a parent of a 4 year-old child who has chickenpox. Which approach demonstrates appropriate teaching by the nurse? Papules, vesicles and crusts will be present at one time All three stages of the chickenpox lesions will be present on the child's body at the same time. Children should not be medicated with aspirin due the possibility of developing Reye's syndrome. A person with chickenpox is contagious one to two days before their blisters appear and remain contagious until all the blisters have crusted over. Antiviral medications are not usually prescribed to otherwise healthy children. Over-the-counter hydrocortisone creams can help relieve itchy skin Ref # 5280 During a yearly health screening, a 54 year-old female reports having irregular menstrual cycles, mood swings and hot flashes. She requests a more natural approach to manage these symptoms of perimenopause. What education about non-pharmacological interventions will the nurse include in client teaching? (Select all that apply.) "You should drink at least 8-10 glasses of water a day." "Yoga may help you manage stress and relieve symptoms." "Incorporate more vegetables and legumes in your diet." "Use deep breathing exercises when you start having a hot flash." Measures that have been found to be effective in helping manage symptom of hot flashes include exercise, stress reduction and getting enough sleep at night. Reducing the temperature in the room at night and taking a warm bath or shower before bedtime can help clients get a better night's sleep. Slow abdominal breathing (6-8 breaths a minute) at the onset of hot flashes can help. Other measures that can lessen the number of and severity of hot flashes include yoga, as well as avoiding alcohol, spicy foods and caffeine. Eating a more plant-based diet can also help. Ref # 1776 A nurse uses the New Ballard Scale to assess gestational age of a newborn. The assessment score total is very high. What is a reasonable interpretation of this result? The baby is post-term Birth weight and gestational age are important indicators of the newborn's health and are used to identify any (potential) problems. The New Ballard Scale can help differentiate, for example, between a small for gestational age baby and one that is premature. The New Ballard Scale scoring system adds up the individual scores for 6 external physical assessments and 6 neuromuscular assessments; the total score may range from -10 to 50. Premature babies have lower scores; higher scores correlate with post-maturity. Fetal distress during labor can result in lower scores. Ref # 5307 A new task force has been created at a hospital to address a recent increase in patient falls. The first meeting is scheduled with members from several departments. Which of the following statements by the nurse leader indicate intent to increase meeting effectiveness? (Select all that apply.) "During our meeting today we will share the information we have on falls." "Let's discuss when next we should meet and what information we will bring." "Please introduce yourselves and your departments." "Let's focus on the number of falls first and then we can talk about staffing." A leader increases meeting effectiveness by not permitting one person not to dominate the discussion, encouraging brainstorming, encouraging others to further develop ideas and helping to engage the team in future discussions. An effective team leader will periodically summarize the information and ensure that all ideas are recorded for all to see (for example, on a whiteboard) and then follow up with minutes of the meeting. Beginning and ending on time is also important to keep everyone focused on the task at hand and to demonstrate respect team members' other commitments. Ref # 1728 A nurse is reviewing laboratory results on a client diagnosed with acute renal failure. Which lab result should be reported immediately? Serum potassium 6 mEq/L (6 mmol/L) Although all of these findings are abnormal, the elevated potassium level 3.5 to 5.0 is a life-threatening finding and must be reported immediately. Serious consequences of hyperkalemia include heart block, asystole and life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmias. Anemia (hemoglobin less than 13 g/dL [130 g/L] in men or less than 12 mg/dL [120 g/L] in women) is common with kidney disease. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) will be increased in acute renal failure (7 to 30 mg/dL [2.5 to 10.7 mmol/L] is a considered normal). Ref # 2290 A client taking isoniazid for tuberculosis (TB) asks the nurse about the side effects of this medication. The client should be instructed to report which of these findings? Extremity tingling and numbness Peripheral neuropathy is a common side effect of isoniazid and other antitubercular medications and should be reported to the health care provider. Daily doses of pyridoxine (vitamin B6) may lessen or even reverse peripheral neuropathy due to isoniazid use Ref # 1304 A nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and who becomes dyspneic. The nurse should take which action? Assist the client with pursed-lip breathing Pursed-lip breathing should be encouraged during periods of dyspnea in COPD to control rate and depth of respiration, to prevent alveolar collapse and to improve respiratory muscle coordination. Clients with COPD are usually on lower doses of oxygen, titrated to maintain an oxygen saturation of 88-91%. Semi-Fowler's position is usually most comfortable for someone with COPD, because this position allows the client's diaphragm to expand KEYWORDS COPD, dyspnea, pursed-lip breathing Ref # 2242 A nurse is working with one licensed practical nurse (LPN) and a mental health tech (an unlicensed assistive personnel). Which newly admitted client would be appropriate to assign to the mental health tech? A middle-aged client diagnosed with an obsessive compulsive disorder The mental health tech (a type of unlicensed assistive personnel or UAP) can be assigned to care for a client with a chronic condition after an initial assessment by the nurse. This client has minimal risk of instability of condition and has a situation of expected outcomes. Ref # 4439 The client with cancer is being treated with a biological response modifier. Which of the following side effects does the nurse anticipate with biologic therapy? Chills and fever …uses vaccines Biological response modifier cancer therapy agents (for example, interferons and interleukins) are drugs that stimulate the body's own defense mechanisms to fight cancer cells. Flu-like findings such as chills, fever and nausea, are common side effects of this type of therapy. The other assessment findings are not what you would expect when the body is fighting pathogens. Ref # 1237 A client is admitted with severe injuries resulting from an auto accident. The client's vital signs are BP 120/50, pulse rate 110, and respiratory rate of 28. What should be the initial nursing intervention? Administer oxygen as ordered Early findings of shock are associated with hypoxia and manifested by a rapid heart rate and rapid respirations. Therefore, oxygen is the most critical initial intervention; the other interventions are secondary to oxygen therapy. Ref # 1356 A nurse is teaching a client to select foods rich in potassium to prevent digitalis toxicity. Which choice indicates the client understands this dietary requirement and recognizes which foods are highest in potassium? Baked potato A baked potato contains 610 milligrams of potassium. Apricots, oranges and bananas do have higher potassium content, but because of their size they are not the highest in potassium. A baked potato is the highest in potassium of the given options. Ref # 1446 The nurse is evaluating a developmentally challenged 2 year-old child. During the evaluation, what goal should the nurse stress when talking to the child's mother? Promote the child's optimal development Ref # 1775 A newborn who is delivered at home and without a birth attendant is admitted to the hospital for observation. The initial temperature is 95 F (35 C) axillary. The nurse should recognize that cold stress may lead to what complication? Reduced partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2) Hypothermia and cold stress cause a variety of physiologic stresses including increased oxygen consumption, metabolic acidosis, hypoglycemia, tachypnea and decreased cardiac output. The baby delivered in such circumstances needs careful monitoring. In this situation, the newborn must be warmed immediately to increase its temperature to at least 97 F (36 C). Normal core body temperature for newborns is 97.7 F to 99.3 F (36.5 C to 37.3 C). Ref # 1727 A client has returned from a cardiac catheterization that was two hours ago. Which finding would indicate that the client has a potential complication from the procedure? No pulse in the affected extremity Loss of the pulse in the extremity would indicate a potential severe spasm of the artery or clot formation to the extent of an occlusion below the site of insertion. It is not uncommon that initially the pulse may be intermittently weaker from the baseline. However, a total loss of the pulse is a nursing emergency. The health care provider needs immediate notification. Ref # 1756 The nurse is providing discharge teaching to a client who has had a total hip prosthesis implanted. During teaching, the nurse should include which content in the instructions for home care? Do not cross your legs at the ankles or knees avoid the bringing of the knees together. Clients are to use a pillow between their legs when lying down and can lie on the back or side. Crossing the legs or bringing the knees together results in a strain on the hip joint. This increases the risk of a malfunction of the prosthesis where the ball may pop out. A walker or crutches may be used as assistive devices. These and other precautions are minimally followed for six weeks postoperative and sometimes longer as indicated. Ref # 4511Two members of the interdisciplinary team are arguing about the plan of care for a client. Which action could any one of the members of the team use as a de-escalation strategy? Bring the communication focus back to the client refocuses attention on the client's care, instead of the manner of communication. It is the most effective strategy because it is an example of collaboration. Ref # 2258The charge nurse is making assignments for the shift. Which of these clients would be appropriate to assign to a licensed practical nurse (LPN)? An older adult client diagnosed with cystitis and has an indwelling urethral catheter most stable client is the one diagnosed with cystitis. Care for this client has predictable outcomes and there is only a minimal risk for complications. The other clients require more complex care and independent, specialized nursing knowledge, skill or judgment that only an RN can provide. Ref # 1529A nurse is teaching a class on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention. Which activity should be cautioned against since it is shown to increase the risk of HIV Engaging in unprotected sexual encounters HIV is spread through exposure to bodily fluids, unprotected intercourse and shared drug paraphernalia remain the highest risks Ref # 1557 A young adult seeks treatment in an outpatient mental health center. The client tells the nurse: "I am a government official being followed by spies." On further questioning, the client reveals: "My warnings must be heeded to prevent nuclear war." Which of the following actions should the nurse take? Listen quietly without comment demonstrate grandiose ideas. The most therapeutic response is to listen but to also avoid being pulled into the client's delusional system. At some point validation of the present situation will need to be done. Confrontation at this time would be an inappropriate action and is not therapeutic Ref # 2213 Following an alert of an internal disaster and the need for beds, the charge nurse is asked to list the clients who can potentially be discharged. Which one of these clients should the charge nurse select? An adult client, diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at age 10, admitted 36 hours ago with diabetic ketoacidosis type 1 diabetes is the only one with a chronic condition who has been treated for more than a day and whose condition is the most stable ef # 2025 Nursing students are reviewing the various types of oxygen delivery systems. Which oxygen delivery system is the most accurate? The Venturi mask The most accurate way to deliver oxygen to the client is through a Venturi system such as the Venti Mask. The Venti Mask is a high flow device that entrains room air into a reservoir device on the mask and mixes the room air with 100% oxygen. The size of the opening to the reservoir determines the concentration of oxygen. The client's respiratory rate and respiratory pattern do not affect the concentration of oxygen delivered. The maximum amount of oxygen that can be delivered by this system is 55% Ref # 1864 A client has had a positive reaction to purified protein derivative (PPD). When the client asks, "What does this mean?" the nurse should respond with which statement? "You have been exposed to the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis." the PPD skin test is used to determine the presence of tuberculosis antibodies. In an otherwise healthy person, an induration greater than or equal to 15 mm is considered a positive skin test. This indicates that the client has been exposed to the organism Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Additional tests such as a chest x-ray and sputum culture will be needed to determine if active tuberculosis is present. The sputum cytology test is the only definitive test to confirm a diagnosis of active TB. Ref # 2016 A pregnant client, at 34-weeks gestation, is diagnosed with a pulmonary embolism (PE). Which of these medications does the nurse anticipate the health care provider will initially order? Heparin infusion to maintain the aPTT at 1.5 to 2 times the control value intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH). The client's activated partial thromboplastic time (aPTT) should be monitored and kept in the therapeutic range of between 1.5 to 2 times the baseline value. Alternatively, low molecular weight heparins, such as enoxaparin (Lovenox), can be used to treat PE in women who are pregnant. Warfarin should never be given during pregnancy due to its teratogenic effects Ref # 2445 At the beginning of the shift, the nurse is reviewing the status of each of the assigned clients in the labor and delivery unit. Which of these clients should the nurse check first? An adolescent who is 18-weeks pregnant with a report of no fetal heart tones and is coughing up frothy sputum The 18 year-old client has an actual complication of left-sided heart failure and a possible stillborn birth. The other clients present with findings of potential, but not actual, complications. Ref # 1676 the nurse is preparing to administer albuterol inhaled to a 11 year-old with asthma. Which assessment by the nurse indicates there is a need for the health care provider to adjust the medication? Apical pulse of 112 common adverse effects of beta adrenergic medications such as albuterol (AccuNeb, ProAir HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA), is an increase in heart rate. Normal resting heart rate for children 10 years and older is the same as adults: 60-100 beats per minute Ref # 1920 A 3 year-old has just returned from surgery for application of a hip spica cast. What nursing action will be the priority? Apply waterproof plastic tape to the cast around the genital area keep it clean and dry. Shortly after returning from surgery, waterproof plastic tape will be applied around the genital area to prevent soiling. The child should be turned every two hours to help facilitate drying, from side to side and front to back, with the head elevated at all times. If a crossbar is used to stabilize the legs, it should not be used to turn the child (it may break off). After the cast has completely dried and it becomes damp, it can be either exposed to air or a hair dryer (set to cool) may be used to help dry the cast. Ref # 1530 A nurse is teaching adolescents about sexually transmitted diseases. What should the nurse emphasize is the most common infection? Ref # 1847 The respiratory technician arrives to draw blood for arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. What should the nurse understand about the procedure? pressure is applied over the puncture site for at least five minutes after the sample is drawn The radial artery is preferred; the second choice is the brachial artery and then the femoral artery. If a client is receiving oxygen, it should not be turned off unless ordered. After drawing the sample, it's very important to press a gauze pad firmly over the puncture site until bleeding stops or at least five minutes. Do not ask the client to hold the pad because if insufficient pressure is used, a large painful hematoma may form. The sample of arterial blood must be kept cold, preferably on ice to minimize chemical reactions in the blood. ef # 1250 A client has just received an extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) procedure. What is the priority information the nurse should teach ? "Drink 3,000 to 4,000 mL of fluid each day for one month." Drinking three to four quarts (3,000 to 4,000 mL) of fluid each day will aid passage of fragments of the broken up renal calculi and help prevent formation of new calculi. Ref # 1553 A client has received two units of whole blood today after an episode of gastrointestinal bleeding. Which laboratory report should the nurse be sure to monitor closely? Hemoglobin and hematocrit The post-transfusion hematocrit provides immediate information about red cell replacement and if there is any continued blood loss; the follow- up hematocrit should be checked around 4 to 6 hours after the infusion is completed. ef # 1992 A group of nurses on a unit are discussing stoma care for clients who have had a stoma made for fecal diversion. Which stomal diversion poses the highest risk for skin breakdown? Ileostomy which is from the small intestine, is of continuous, liquid nature. This high pH, alkaline output contains gastric and enzymatic agents that when present on skin can denude skin in a few hours. Ref # 1653 The nurse is caring for a 4 year-old child with a greenstick fracture. In explaining this type of fracture to the parents, the best comment by the nurse should include which point? "Bones of children are more porous than adults' and often have incomplete breaks." his allows the pliable bones of growing children to bend, buckle, and break in a "greenstick" manner. A greenstick fracture occurs when a bone is angulated beyond the limits of bending. The compressed side bends and the tension side develops an incomplete fracture. Ref # 1890 The nurse manager informs the nursing staff that the clinical nurse specialist will be conducting a research study on staff attitudes toward client care, and all staff are invited to participate in the study if they wish. This affirms which ethical principle? Autonomy free to make participation in research without coercion from others. Anonymity means the person's identity is not revealed. Beneficence is the state or quality of being kind, charitable, beneficial or a charitable act. Ref # 4475 An 88 year-old client is admitted to the telemetry unit following a minor surgical procedure. The client's history includes insulin dependent diabetes and a previous myocardial infarction. The nurse responds to the client's ECG alarm and finds the client's rhythm shows asystole and the client obtunded but responsive. Prioritize the actions of the nurse (with 1 being the top priority). 1. ASSESS RESPIRATIONS AND PULSE, 2. INITIATE EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM IF INDICATED, 3. LOOK AT A DIFFERENT ECG LEAD TO CONFIRM RHYTHM, 4. CHECK BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL After checking responsiveness, establishing a patent airway and then assessing breathing and circulation are the next priorities (ABCs). This assessment would provide information to decide whether the emergency response team is needed. Because the client is responsive, the monitor rhythm is not correct, as a client with asystole would be unresponsive. Asystole on a rhythm strip may simply be a loose lead; a quick way to check this is to select another lead. The client's obtunded state indicates that ion is needed, so assessment of a central pulse and blood pressure is indicated to determine whether cardiovascular compromise is responsible for this condition. If no evidence of an immediate cardiac event is present, the blood glucose should be checked. Stress and changes in food or fluid consumption secondary to surgery increase the risk of glucose imbalance in the person with diabetes. Ref # 1862 The nurse is instructing a 65 year-old female client diagnosed with osteoporosis. What is the most important instruction about exercise? Do weight- bearing or resistance activities Weight-bearing or resistance exercises are beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis. Although loss of bone cannot be substantially reversed, further loss can be greatly reduced if the client includes these exercises. In addition, other approaches are estrogen replacement and calcium supplements in a treatment protocol. Ref # 1687 A nurse is teaching home care to the parents of a child diagnosed with acute spasmodic croup. What type of care would be most important to emphasize? Humidified air with an increase in oral fluids home care for a child diagnosed with acute spasmodic croup are humidified air and increased oral fluids. Humidified air helps reduce vocal cord swelling. Taking the child out into the cool night air for 10 to 15 minutes can also reduce night time symptoms. Adequate systemic hydration aids mucociliary clearance by keeping secretions thin and easy to remove with minimal coughing effort. ef # 1538 The nurse is preparing to administer a feeding through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. What nursing action is needed before starting the infusion? (Select all that apply.) Verify the length and placement of the tube Elevate the head of the bed 30-45 degrees Flush the tube with 30 mL of warm water verify the length and placement of the tube, flush the tube with 30 mL of warm (not hot and not cold) water, and elevate the head of the client's bed at least 30 degrees. The nurse should also verify the presence of bowel sounds before starting the infusion. There's no need to milk the tube unless it's obstructed. Feeding products should be brought to room temperature before the infusion to prevent gastrointestinal discomfort. Ref # 1559 A client who lives in an assisted living facility tells the nurse, "I am so depressed. Life isn't worth living anymore." What is the best response by the nurse to this statement? "Have you thought about hurting yourself?" It's important to determine if someone, who has voiced thoughts about death, is considering a suicidal act. This response is most therapeutic under the circumstances. To respond by saying things are not so bad, denies the validity of the client's statement. To ask if the family or anyone knows of these feelings lacks focus on the client and would also be in violation of the rights of the client. Many times, when there doesn't seem to be an urgent physiologic need, look for a response that focuses on the safety of the client. Ref # 1769 The nurse is admitting a client who is newly diagnosed with a frontal lobe brain tumor. Which statement made by a spouse may provide important information about this diagnosis and should be communicated to the health care provider? "I find the mood swings and the change from being a calm person to being angry all the time hard to deal with." The frontal lobe of the brain controls affect, judgment and emotions. Dysfunction in this area results in findings such as emotional lability, changes in personality, inattentiveness, flat affect and inappropriate behavior. Ref # 2210 The nurse is caring for a client in a violent relationship. The nurse should understand that immediately after an acute battering incident, the batterer may respond to the partner's injuries by taking which action? Minimize the episode with an underestimation of the victim's injuries Many batterers lack an understanding of the effects of their behavior on the person who was battered. Batterers use excessive minimization and denial of the situation and their behaviors or intent. Ref # 2234 A newly admitted 78 year-old client is diagnosed with severe dehydration. When planning care for this client, the nurse should assign which task to an unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? Report hourly outputs of less than 30 mL/hr within 15 minutes of the check the nurse must communicate clearly about each delegated task with specific instructions on what must be reported and when. Because the RN is responsible for all care-related decisions, only routine tasks should be assigned to UAPs because such tasks do not require judgments and decisions. Ref # 1991At a senior citizen's group meeting the nurse talks with a client who has type 1 diabetes. Which statement by the client during the conversation is most predictive of a potential for impaired skin integrity? "I had a penny in my shoe all day last week, and I didn't even realize it until I took my shoes off!" Peripheral neuropathy can lead to lack of sensation in the lower extremities. Clients who do not feel pressure and/or pain are at high risk for skin impairmen Ref # 2454 The clients listed below are all using patient-controlled analgesic (PCA) pump for pain control. Which of these clients is least appropriate to use a PCA pump A preschooler with intermittent episodes of alertness A preschooler is the one client most likely to have difficulty with the use or understanding of a PCA pump. The preschooler also has a decreased level of consciousness and would not be able to fully benefit from the use of a PCA pump. School-age children, ages 6 and up, are better candidates for PCA electronic pumps. Ref # 1969 The mother of a 4 month-old infant asks the nurse about the dangers of sunburn while they are on vacation at the beach. Which of these statements is the best advice about sun protection for this child? "Dress the infant in lightweight long pants, long-sleeved shirts and brimmed hats." Infants under 6 months of age should be kept out of the sun or shielded from it. Even on a cloudy day, the infant can be sunburned while near water. A hat and light protective clothing should be worn. Sunscreen is not generally recommended for infants under the age of 6 months; however, the American Academy of Pediatrics states that it can be applied to small areas of the baby's skin that are exposed to the sun (such as the baby's face or the back of the hands). Ref # 1817 A nurse entering the room of a postpartum mother observes the baby lying at the edge of the bed while the mother sits in a nearby chair. The mother states, "This is not my baby, and I do not want it." After repositioning the child safely, the nurse should respond with which comment? "You seem upset. Tell me what the pregnancy and birth were like for you." A nonjudgmental, open ended response facilitates dialogue between the client and the nurse. The other three options ignore the situation and the needs of the mother. Note that the correct answer is the only client-centered option that is directly associated with the given situation. Ref # 4509 The nurse, who is located in a large urban area, uses telecommunications to provide health care and education to clients in remote locations. What is the best reason for using telehealth? Removes time and distance barriers from the delivery of care Telehealth is the use of technology to deliver health care, health information, or health education at a distance. People in rural areas or homebound clients can communicate with providers via telephone, email or video consultation, thereby removing the barriers of time and distance for access to care. Although increased access to information and collaboration between the client and provider can be empowering, this is not the primary reason for using telecommunications/telehealth. Ref # 2233 The health care team consists of one licensed practical nurse (LPN), one unlicensed assistive person (UAP) and one LPN student. The charge nurse (an RN) has made the following assignments. Which assignment should be questioned by the nurse manager? The admission at the change of shifts of a client diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and acute heart failure - LPN LPNs can provide care for clients whose conditions are stable and there's a low likelihood of an emergency. Since it's a new admission, the client diagnosed with atrial fibrillation and heart failure should not be assigned to a student; the charge nurse (RN) should care for this client. A nurse can assign tasks or activities to UAP, as long as the care of the client is not too complex or variable and the client's condition is stable. Ref # 1255 During a situation of pain management, which statement is a priority to consider for the ethical guidance of a nurse The client's self-report is the most important consideration Pain is a complex phenomenon that is perceived differently by each individual. Pain is whatever the client says it Is Ref # 1879 Which statement describes the advantage of using a decision grid to make decisions? It is both a visual and a quantitative method of decision making A decision grid allows the group to visually examine alternatives and evaluate them quantitatively with weighting. Ref # 1976 An 18 month-old child is on peritoneal dialysis in preparation for a renal transplant in the near future. When a nurse obtains the child's health history, the mother indicates that the child has not had the first measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) immunization. What should the nurse understand about the child's situation and administration of the immunization? The measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine should be given now, before the transplant MMR is a live virus vaccine, and should be given at this time. Post-transplant, immunosuppressive drugs will be given and the administration of the live vaccine at that time would be contraindicated because of the compromised immune system. Ref # 1241 A client is started on long-term corticosteroid therapy. Which comment by the client indicates a need for more teaching? "For one week every month I will stop taking the medication." To suddenly stop taking a steroid may result in a sudden drop in the blood pressure from a loss in fluid volume associated with adrenal crisis. Clients should be warned not to abruptly stop taking the medication. Corticosteroids can lower the amount of potassium in the body so the client should eat more potassium-rich foods. Weight gain is an expected effect of corticosteroid therapy; clients should regularly keep track of their weight. Normally corticosteroid medications are taken with breakfast. Ref # 2254 The nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with anemia and confusion. Which task could the nurse assign to the unlicensed assistive person (UAP)? Test stool for occult blood and urine for pH and report the results UAP can perform routine tasks that have known or expected outcomes because these tasks typically do not require nursing judgment or decision- making. Any nursing intervention that requires independent, specialize nursing knowledge, skill or judgment cannot be assigned to UAP. Ref # 1374 The parents of a 5 month-old report that the infant has "vomited nine times in the past six hours." Based on this information, the nurse should observe for which fluid and electrolyte imbalance? Metabolic alkalosis Vomiting results in a loss of acid from the stomach. Prolonged vomiting results in excess loss of acid and leads to metabolic alkalosis. Findings include irritability, increased activity, hyperactive reflexes, muscle twitching and elevated pulse. Hemoconcentration due to fluid loss may occur, but is not the best answer because it does not answer the question about an imbalance. Ref # 1626 A client who is two days postop, has these vital signs: blood pressure of 120/70, heart rate of 110 BPM, respiratory rate of 26, and a temperature of 100.4 F (38 C). The client suddenly becomes profoundly short of breath (SOB) and the skin color becomes grayish in color. Which assessment should the a nurse do first based on the client's change in condition? Auscultate for diminished breath sounds The findings suggest pulmonary embolus as a result of a piece of a clot in the legs that has broken off. Thus, the breath sound will most likely be diminished or absent in the lung where the embolus lodged. Ref # 1494 The nurse is caring for a child diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome or infantile polyarteritis). The nursing care plan should be based on the knowledge that this child is at risk for developing what complication? Coronary artery aneurysm Kawasaki disease affects the mucus membranes, lymph nodes, walls of the blood vessels and the heart. It can cause inflammation of the arteries, especially the coronary arteries of the heart, which can lead to aneurysms and possible heart attack in the child. Ref # 1592 The nurse is caring for a client who is experiencing a hypertensive crisis. The priority assessment in the first hour of care after admission to the critical care unit should focus on which factor? Cognitive function The organ most susceptible to damage in hypertensive crisis is the brain, due to rupture of the cerebral blood vessels. Neurologic findings must be closely monitored. KEYWORDS hypertension, brain, cognitive assessment ef # 2447 A community health nurse has been caring for a 16 year-old who is 22- weeks pregnant with a history of morbid obesity, asthma and hypertension. Which of these lab reports need to be communicated to the health care provider as soon as possible? Magnesium 0.8 mEq/L (0.33 mmol/L) and creatinine 3 mg/dL (265.26 μmol/L) the magnesium is low (1.5-2.5) and the creatinine is high, indicating acute renal failure - this is the highest priority Ref # 1914 A newborn is diagnosed with hypothyroidism. In discussing the condition and treatment with the family, the nurse should emphasize which point? Administration of thyroid hormone will prevent complications Early identification (ideally before 13 days-old) and continued treatment with levothyroxine (thyroid hormone replacement) corrects hypothyroidism in newborns, preventing problems. If undetected and untreated, hypothyroidism can result in poor growth and weight gain, slow heart rate, low blood pressure, and babies who are unusually quiet; the child will be at risk for permanent brain damage and intellectual disabilities. Approximately one in every 4000 babies is born with hypothyroidism. Ref # 1781 The nurse assesses a full-term, 30 hour-old newborn and reviews its lab results. The nurse knows that the first-time mother is Rh negative and is breastfeeding exclusively. Which of these findings is a priority to report to the health care provider? Serum bilirubin of 11 mg/dL (188 mmol/L) But for a full-term infant who is 30 hours-old, a total serum bilirubin level of 11 mg/dL (188 µmol/L) is high, which is why this is the priority finding to report to the health care provider. Ref # 1286 A nurse is caring for a postoperative client who develops evisceration of the abdominal incision. Which intervention should the nurse implement first to prevent additional complications? Cover the wound with a sterile saline-soaked dressing When evisceration occurs, the wound should first be quickly covered by sterile saline soaked dressings. This prevents tissue damage and drying of the area until a surgical repair can be done. The other interventions are also appropriate, though the call to the provider should occur immediately, as this is a medical emergency. Ref # 3720 The client needs to be moved up in bed. The client is able to partially assist and weighs 135 pounds. Which action by the nursing staff best supports an awareness of ergonomics and safe client handling? (Select all that apply.) Adjust the height of the bed for caregivers Move the bed into the flat position Use a friction-reducing device The algorithm for safe client handling and repositioning a client from side-to-side or up in bed states: use 2 to 3 caregivers for a client who can partially assist and who weighs less than 200 pounds, use a friction- reducing device, move the bed so that it's flat and at a comfortable height for the caregivers. The client should not be pulled from the head of the bed. There really is no safe method to manually lift another adult. Ref # 1404 The nurse is caring for a client in a home setting. Which action is most likely to ensure the safety of the nurse during a home visit? Remain alert and leave if cues suggest the home is not safe Nurses need to assess and manage safety risks and have ongoing clinical supervision and support when making home visits. Proper safety should begin with a thorough assessment of the client's home to identify potential risks, such as pets (the most commonly assessed hazard), drug use and weapons. The nurse should also and develop a plan to mitigate (or eliminate) the risks and understand that there's always the option to end a visit early if the environment does not seem safe. Carrying a phone, using a buddy system, learning about the client prior to the visit can help mitigate risks. Ref # 1979 A nurse is speaking at a community meeting about personal responsibility for health when a participant asks about chiropractic treatment for illnesses. What should be the focus of the nurse's response? Spinal column manipulation he theory underlying chiropractic treatment is that interference with transmission of mental impulses between the brain and body organs produces diseases. Such interference is caused by misalignment of the vertebrae. Manipulation reduces the misalignment (subluxation). Ref # 4467 A nurse who cares for clients undergoing treatment for cancer might expect clients diagnosed with cancer to make the following statements. Based on an understanding of the stages of the grieving process, place the statements in the correct order. DANDA The phases of loss or the grief process according to Dr. Kubler-Ross are: denial, anger, negotiation, depression and acceptance. I think the tests got mixed up -denial I am so mad at everyone -anger If I eat more balance diet, I can live longer- negotiation I don’t know where to go-depre I will just go on with my life - accept Ref # 1517 An 8 year-old child is brought to the clinic by a parent who states: "This child was so sick last year with cold and the flu. I want her to have the influenza vaccine this year." The nurse assesses the child and reviews the child's history. What information would the nurse recognize as a contraindication for giving the child this vaccine? Allergy to eggs An allergy to egg proteins is listed by the CDC as a contraindication for administering the influenza vaccine. Influenza vaccines are grown on egg embryos and may contain a small amount of egg protein. Ref # 2089 Parents of a 4 year-old boy have just been informed that their son has a congenital neurologic demyelinating disorder that is terminal. The nurse anticipates their reaction to be in which phase of the crisis process? Impact phase impact of crisis is indicative of high levels of stress, sense of helplessness, confusion, disorganization, and the inability to apply problem-solving behavior. Ref # 1966A nurse is providing a parenting class to individuals living in a community of older homes that were built prior to 1978. During a discussion about formula preparation, which statement is the most important by the nurse to tell the parents how to prevent lead poisoning? Let tap water run for two minutes before adding to formula concentrate Ref # 4320The order is for ibuprofen oral drops 10 mg/kg of body weight. The client weighs 62 lbs. Motrin oral drops are supplied in bottles containing 40 mg/mL. How many milliliters will the nurse administer? (Report to the nearest whole number. Dimensional analysis: X mL = 1 mL/40 mg X 10 mg/kg X 1 kg/2.2 lbs X 62 lbs = 620/88 = 7.05 or 7 mL Ratio : 62 lbs/x = 1 kg/2.2 lbs = 28.19 kg 10 mg/x = 1 mL/40 mg = 10/40 = 0.25 0.25 X 28.19 = 7.05 or 7 Ml Ref # 1567 The nurse observes a client with a diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder on an inpatient unit. Which behavior is consistent with this medical diagnosis Repeatedly checking that a door is locked Obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by repetitive, unwanted, intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and irrational, excessive urges to perform certain actions (compulsions.) People know their thoughts and behaviors don't make sense, but they are often unable to stop them. Verbalized suspicions reflect a paranoid thought process. Repetitive, involuntary movements are characteristic of some antipsychotic medication side effects. Ref # 1297 As a client is being discharged following resolution of a spontaneous pneumothorax, the client tells a nurse, "I'm going to Hawaii for a vacation next week." The nurse should warn the client to avoid which activity? Scuba diving avoid high altitudes, flying in unpressurized aircraft and scuba diving. The negative pressure associated with diving could cause the lung to collapse again. Ref # 1523 The nurse is teaching effective stress management techniques to a client one hour before surgery. Which of these actions should the nurse recommend? Deep breathing Deep breathing is a reliable and valid method for stress reduction and can be taught and reinforced in a short period of time preoperatively. The other approaches require more time and repetition over time Ref # 1296 The nurse is assigned to a client newly diagnosed with active tuberculosis (TB) and a productive cough. Which of these interventions would be a priority for the nurse to implement? Place the client in a negative pressure private room and have disposable particulate respirators available for hospital employee The client would be placed on airborne precautions because this bacteria can be suspended in the air for long periods of time and may be carried for long distances on air currents. Any hospital employee entering the room would need to wear a disposable micron mask or disposable particulate respirator (N-95, for example). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that visitors can wear surgical masks Ref # 2338 The nursing team listens to a change-of-shift report and then the RN determines that the unlicensed assistive person (UAP) can measure vital signs for all clients except the 80-year-old female diagnosed with middle-stage Alzheimer's disease. What information mentioned in the report suggests the registered nurse should personally follow up and assess the client with Alzheimer's disease? Increased confusion, agitation and withdrawal Ref # 1418 The nurse and family members, who will be providing care at home, are discussing the client's continuing care needs after discharge to home. Which of these aspects of the discharge planning evaluation should receive priority consideration? Family's understanding of the client's health care needs Family members must be willing and able to provide the required care at the times needed and understand the client's health care needs before the client is discharged home. Ref # 2135 A client diagnosed with testicular cancer has undergone a unilateral orchiectomy. The client expresses fears about his prognosis prior to discharge. What information would the nurse want to include when helping the client better understand this type of cancer? Testicular cancer has a five-year survival rate of 95% with early diagnosis and treatment With aggressive treatment and early detection/diagnosis the cure rate is 90%. The other options are incorrect information. After unilateral orchiectomy, the remaining testicle can produce adequate sperm for fertility and impotence is unlikely. In bilateral orchiectomy, fertility is lost, so sperm banking prior to surgery is recommended. Dissection of lymph nodes for surgical cancer treatment may cause nerve injury, which would increase the risk of impotence. Ref # 1737 During the change-of-shift report, the assigned nurse notes a client of the Catholic religion is scheduled to be admitted for the delivery of a ninth child. Which comment made by a nurse indicates an attitude of prejudice? "All those people indulge in large families!" Prejudice is a hostile attitude toward individuals simply because they belong to a particular group presumed to have objectionable qualities. Prejudice refers to preconceived ideas, beliefs, or opinions about an individual, group or culture that limit a full and accurate understanding of the individual, culture, gender, race, event or situation. Ref # 4348 The client is a new admission diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The nurse reviews all drugs (including complementary & integrated health therapies) routinely taken at home with a family member. Which of the following treatments would be a concern for the nurse? Coconut oil no scientific evidence that coconut oil is safe and effective or prevents cognitive decline. Ref # 1495 The nurse is providing discharge teaching to the parents of a 15 month- old child diagnosed with Kawasaki disease (mucocutaneous lymph node syndrome or infantile polyarteritis). The child has received immunoglobulin therapy. Which instruction point would be appropriate to include during the discussion? The measles, mumps and rubella vaccine should be delayed he MMR vaccine contains three live attenuated viruses and should be delayed until the child's immune system recovers from this treatment. Ref # 1266 A client has just returned to the medical-surgical unit postop for a segmental lung resection. After assessing the client, which is the first action the nurse should take? Suction excessive tracheobronchial secretions This type of surgery involves removing a bronchovascular segment of a lobe. It is typically used to remove small, peripheral lung tumors. Surgical manipulation during this procedure, along with anesthesia, can increase mucus production and lead to airway obstruction, which is why the nurse may need to suction the client if there are excessive secretions Ref # 1802 A nurse is teaching an older adult client to use a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and is concerned that the client is unable to coordinate the release of the medication with the inhalation phase. What should the nurse recommend to improve the delivery of the medication? Add a spacer device to the MDI canister Use of a spacer is especially useful with older adults because it allows more time to inhale and requires less eye- hand coordination. If the client is not using the MDI properly, the medication can get trapped in the upper airway with an outcome of a dry mouth and throat irritation. Using a spacer will allow more drug to be deposited in the lungs and less in the mouth. There is an order for a 25-year-old client, who is unresponsive after suffering a traumatic brain injury, to be transferred from the hospital to a long-term care facility (LTC) today. To which staff member should the charge nurse assign this client? Registered nurse (RN) The RN is responsible for facilitating continuity of care for clients and their families during the transfer from one health care setting to another. The transfer to a LTC facility often requires referrals and coordinating information from many different providers about treatments, therapies and medications. Which is the appropriate injection site to give an influenza vaccine to an adult? Ref # 2225 A nurse, who is assigned for five days to a client who has exhibited manipulative behaviors, becomes aware of feeling reluctance to interact with the client. The nurse should take what action next? Discuss the feelings of reluctance with an objective peer or supervisor within the next 24 hours The nurse who experiences stress in a therapeutic relationship can gain objectivity through discussion with other professionals. The nurse may wish to have a peer observe the nurse-client interactions with this client for a shift and then have a debriefing of positive and negative actions. The nurse must attempt to discover attitudes and feelings in the self that influence the nurse-client relationship in positive and negative ways. Ref # 1944 A nurse, during an assessment of a day-old newborn, notices that the breasts are enlarged bilaterally with a white, thin discharge. What action should the nurse perform next Record the findings while thinking that they are "normal" Newborn infants of both sexes may have engorged breasts and may secrete milk during the first few days to weeks after birth. Ref # 1840 A client is admitted for first- and second-degree burns on the face, neck, anterior chest and hands. What should be the nurse's priority action? Assess for dyspnea or stridor Due to the location of the burns, the client is at risk for the development of upper airway edema and subsequent respiratory distress. The other options are correct, but the priority is to assess breathing and manage the airway. The client with any signs of airway injury will be intubated and given 100% oxygen. Ref # 1460 The nurse is caring for a child who is diagnosed with coarctation of the aorta. Which finding would the nurse expect when assessing the child? Bounding pulses in the arms Coarctation of the aorta, which is a narrowing or constriction of the descending aorta, causes increased blood flow to the upper extremities, resulting in a bounding pulse in the arms. Cardinal signs include resting systolic hypertension, absent or diminished femoral and pedal pulses, and a widened pulse pressure. Ref # 2223 A client asks the nurse to call the police and states: "I need to report that I am being abused by a nurse." The nurse should take which action? Obtain more details of the client's claim of abuse by a nurse he advocacy role of the professional nurse, as well as the legal duty of the reasonable prudent nurse, requires the investigation of claims of abuse or violation of rights. The nurse is legally accountable for actions delegated to others. The application of the nursing process requires that the nurse gather more information, assessment before interventions and before documenting or reporting the complaint. Ref # 1240 While caring for a client, the nurse notes a pulsating mass in the client's periumbilical area. Which of these assessments is appropriate for the nurse to perform on the mass? Auscultate Auscultation of the abdomen and the finding of a bruit would confirm the presence of an abdominal aneurysm. This would form the basis of information to be given to the health care provider. Ref # 1292 A nurse is caring for a client who is diagnosed with Hodgkin's disease and is scheduled for radiation therapy. The nurse recognizes that, as a result of the radiation therapy, the client is most likely to experience which difficulty? Nausea As a result of radiation therapy, which is at the lymph nodes throughout the body, nausea often results. Night sweats are a finding in this disease process. These clients are not likely to have a high fever because the lymphatic or immune system is not fully functional. Ref # 1465A hospitalized 8 month-old infant is receiving digoxin to treat tetralogy of Fallot. Prior to administering the next dose of medication, the parent reports that the baby vomited one time, just after breakfast. The heart rate is 72 BPM. What should be the initial response of the nurse? Hold the medication Toxic side effects of digoxin include bradycardia, dysrhythmia, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, dizziness, headache, weakness and fatigue. It isn't necessary to hold the medication for infants and children if there is only one episode of vomiting. However, it is appropriate to hold the medication and notify the health care provider for bradycardia. Normal resting heart rate for infants 1-11 months-old is 100-160 BPM. Ref # 1548 A nurse has been teaching adult clients about cardiac risks when they visit the hypertension clinic. Which evaluation data would be the best measure of learning? Reported behavioral changes If the clients alter behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol and stress management, these changed behaviors suggest that learning has occurred. Additionally, physical assessments, observed behaviors and lab data may confirm risk reduction. Ref # 1235 The client, diagnosed with an acute anterior MI, has a triple lumen infusing with nitroglycerin, alteplase and heparin. The client reports experiencing angina. Which intervention is the priority? Administer intravenous morphine sulfate as ordered Nitrates are useful for pain control due to their coronary vasodilating effects. The nurse will titrate the intravenous nitroglycerin infusion for chest pain according to standing orders but if chest pain is unrelieved by the nitroglycerin infusion, the nurse can administer morphine intravenously (IM injections are avoided because they can alter the CPK.) Morphine not only relieves pain and reduces anxiety, but also dilates blood vessels. After giving the pain reliever, the nurse can do a more in-depth assessment of the client (auscultate heart and lung sounds, review ECGs, vital signs and labs.) There is no need to administer an antidysrhythmic drug if the client is asymptomatic. Ref # 2252 An RN from a woman's wellness health clinic is temporarily reassigned to an adult medical unit. Which of these client assignments would be appropriate for this nurse? A client from a motor vehicle accident with an external fixation device on the leg The nurse from the wellness clinic should be assigned to the client with the leg fracture. This client is the most stable and providing care for this client has predictable outcomes. The clues in the other options are: "newly diagnosed," "after a TIA," and "newly admitted... severe dehydration" - all of these clients have an health condition that's less stable than the client who is basically healthy (except for a fracture from an accident). Ref # 1848 A client is about to have an intravenous pyelogram (IVP). After the contrast material is injected, which client reaction should be acted upon immediately by a nurse? Hives with severe itching over the body Hives over the body with severe itching is a sign of anaphylaxis and should be acted upon with the administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) immediately. The other reactions are considered normal after the dye injection. Prior to any dye injection procedure clients should be informed that these symptoms may occur. Excessive salty taste in the mouth, Face turning a deep ruddy red color, Feeling of excessive warmth Ref # 1321 The nurse receives a report on a client being admitted with the diagnosis of cirrhosis of the liver and ascites. What should the nurse emphasize to the nursing assistant about providing care for this client? The client should ambulate as tolerated, resting in bed with legs elevated between walks Encourage alternating periods of ambulation and bed rest with legs elevated to mobilize edema and ascites. Encourage and assist the client to gradually increase the duration and frequency of walks. Ref # 2461 A 35 year-old female client talks to the nurse in her health care provider's office about her new diagnosis of uterine fibroids. What statement by the woman is incorrect and indicates that more teaching is needed? "Even if the fibroids cause no problems, they will still need to be taken out." Fibroids that cause no findings may require only "watchful waiting." The client may just need pelvic exams or ultrasounds every once in a while to monitor the fibroid's growth. Treatment for the symptoms of fibroids (such as painful menses and heavy periods) may include oral contraceptives, IUDs, iron supplements to prevent or treat anemia (due to heavy periods), NSAIDs for cramps or pain or even short-term hormonal therapy to help shrink the fibroids. Surgical removal using myomectomy or hysterectomy is usually reserved as a final alternative after other treatment options have failed to provide adequate relief. In addition, concerns about loss of fertility with this diagnosis and its treatment may be important to this client who is still in her childbearing years. Ref # 5270 The nurse is providing care for a school-age child with cerebral palsy who has recently been admitted for repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia and weight loss. During a discussion with the child's caregivers, which statement by the nurse best demonstrates client advocacy? "It is possible that we may need to discuss inserting a feeding tube." Ref # 2037A woman in labor calls a nurse to assist her in the bathroom. The nurse notices a large amount of clear fluid on the bed linens. The nurse should act based on knowledge that fetal monitoring must now assess for what complication? Variable decelerations When the membranes rupture, there is increased risk initially of cord prolapse if the head is at a minus level. Fetal heart rate patterns may show variable decelerations, which require immediate nursing action to reposition the client, apply oxygen and notify the health care provider. Ref # 1973 The nurse is caring for a toddler who is diagnosed with an infection and whose temperature is 103 F (39.4 C). Which intervention would be most effective in lowering the client's temperature and promoting comfort? Administer the prescribed antipyretic medication Ref # 4420 The 72 year-old client has an estimated blood loss of 600 mL during a gastric resection. The surgeon orders two units of packed cells (PC) to be administered in the post anesthesia care unit. During the administration of the second unit of PC, the nurse notes the following findings: hypertension, a bounding pulse, and increasing dyspnea. What is the probable cause of these findings? Circulatory overload Older clients are at risk for circulatory overload, especially when solutions are administered rapidly. Hypertension with a bounding pulse and dyspnea are key signs of fluid overload. The nurse should stop the infusion and contact the health care provider Ref # 4416 Following a surgical procedure, a pneumatic compression device is applied to the adult client. The client reports that the device is hot and the client is sweating and itching. Which of the following steps should the nurse take? (Select all that apply.) Check for appropriate fit Confirm pressure setting of 45 mm Hg Collaborate with health care provider for anti-embolism stockings to be worn under the sleeves of the device Ref # 1825 The parents of a 6 year-old child who normally enjoys school tells a nurse that the child has not been doing well since a grandmother died two months ago. Which statement most accurately describes thoughts on death and dying at this age? Death is personified as the bogeyman or devil Personification of death is typical of this developmental level. Recall that this age is at the end of the preschool period where magical thinking for the animation of inanimate objects is present. Ref # 2450 An internal disaster has occurred at the hospital. The charge nurse is asked to review client acuity and determine which clients can and cannot be discharged. Which of these clients should not be discharged? young adult in the second day of treatment for an overdose of acetaminophen An overdose of acetaminophen requires close observation for several days. Also, the duration of the course of treatment for the oral antidote N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is approximately 72 hours. NAC will protect the liver if given within 8 hours after an acute ingestion, least stable Ref # 1761A nurse is preparing a client for discharge following inpatient treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Which of these instructions should be given to the client? Continue taking medications as prescribed Early cessation of treatment may lead to development of drug resistant TB. Active TB is usually treated with a combination of four different antibiotics (isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide) and can take anywhere from 6 to 12 months to completely kill the bacteria Ref # 1812 The parents of a 7 year-old tell the nurse that their child has started to "tattle" on siblings. In interpreting this new behavior, how should the nurse explain the child's actions to the parents? Ref # 1812The parents of a 7 year-old tell the nurse that their child has started to "tattle" on siblings. In interpreting this new behavior, how should the nurse explain the child's actions to the parents? The ethical sense and feelings of justice are developing developing a sense of justice and a desire to do what is right. At 7, children are increasingly aware of family roles and responsibilities. They also do what is right because of parental direction or to avoid punishment. This age group, 6 to 12 years of age, is called the school-aged group. Ref # 1910 The nurse witnesses a client who is exhibiting seizure activity. Which observation is the priority and will be used to help determine treatment Observe the sequence and types of movement during the seizure event, the nurse needs to observe the client's facial expression, muscle tone, movements (jerking or twitching, for example), the part(s) of the body involved, and any automatic or repeated movement (lipsmacking, chewing, swallowing, for example. Ref # 2096 Two hours after receiving the first does of lithium, the client reports fine hand tremors. What is the nurse's best explanation for these findings? "These are common and expected side effects and should subside in a few days." Ref # 2368 At the client's request, the nurse performs a fingerstick to test the client's blood glucose and the results are 322 mg/dL (17.89 mmol/L). Following standing orders, the nurse administers 3 units of insulin lispro at 11 am. When does the nurse anticipate the insulin lispro will begin to act? 11:15 am The onset of action and peak for insulin lispro (Humalog), which is a rapid-acting insulin, is 10 to 15 minutes after administration. This type of insulin will peak in about 1.5 to 2.5 hours. It is designed to cover meals and lower high blood sugar readings. ///////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////// Ref # 2430 A primigravida in the third trimester is hospitalized with a diagnosis of preeclampsia. The nurse determines that the client’s blood pressure has a trend of increased readings. Which action should the nurse take first? Have the client turn to the lef t side The priority action in this situation is to turn the client to the left side to decrease pressure on the vena cava and promote adequate circulation to the placenta and kidneys. Urine protein level and output should be checked with each voiding. Temperature should be monitored every four hours or more often if indicated, but no data in the stem supports a check of temperature. The deep tendon reflexes are checked as needed especially when magnesium drips are being infused. Ref # 4347 The nurse is assessing a client who had a stroke and underwent a carotid endarterectomy. The client is now experiencing motor deficits and communication problems. Which of the following findings requires immediate follow-up? Increased pulse and decreased blood pressure Increased pulse and decreased blood pressure may indicate hemorrhage, which is a complication of the surgery. Ref # 4371The client is admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of exacerbation of right ventricular heart failure. Which of the following findings would the nurse expect with right-sided heart failure? (Select all that apply.) Abdominal discomfort Peripheral edema Anorexia and nausea The nurse would expect to find orthopnea and cough with left-sided heart failure. [Show More]
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