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NR 507 > Patho Midterm week 4 exam - Latest 2019; Verified Answers with Instructor's Explanations.

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NR 507 Patho Midterm week 4 1. Question : Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can occur if the mother: Is Rh-positive and the fetus is Rh-negative Is Rh-negative and the fetus is... Rh-positive Has type A blood and the fetus has type O Has type AB blood and the fetus has type B Question 2. Question : Examination of the throat in a child demonstrating signs and symptoms of acute epiglottitis may contribute to which life-threatening complication? Retropharyngeal abscess Laryngospasms Rupturing of the tonsils Gagging induced aspiration Question 3. Question : If the sinoatrial (SA) node fails, then at what rate (depolarizations per minute) can the atrioventricular (AV) node depolarize? 60 to 70 40 to 60 30 to 40 10 to 20 Question 4. Question : What is the ratio of coronary capillaries to cardiac muscle cells? 1:1 (one capillary per one muscle cell) 1:2 (one capillary per two muscle cells) 1:4 (one capillary per four muscle cells) 1:10 (one capillary per ten muscle cells) Question 5. Question : Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)? IL–1 and IL-6 IL-2 and TNF- IFN and IL-12 TNF-ß and IL-4 Question 6. Question : What process allows the kidney to respond to an increase in workload? Glomerular filtration Secretion of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 Increased heart rate Compensatory hypertrophy Question 7. Question : Which type of antibody is involved in type I hypersensitivity reaction? IgA IgE IgG IgM Question 8. Question : Causes of hyperkalemia include: Hyperparathyroidism and malnutrition Vomiting and diarrhea Renal failure and Addison disease Hyperaldosteronism and Cushing disease Question 9. Question : What is the first stage in the infectious process? Invasion Colonization Spread Multiplication Question 10. Question : Which statement is true concerning the IgM? IgM is the first antibody produced during the initial response to an antigen. IgM mediates many common allergic responses. IgM is the most abundant class of immunoglobulins. IgM is capable of crossing the human placenta. Question 11. Question : An infant has a loud, harsh, holosystolic murmur and systolic thrill that can be detected at the left lower sternal border that radiates to the neck. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? Atrial septal defect (ASD) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect Question 12. Question : What is the chief predisposing factor for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn? Low birth weight Alcohol consumption during pregnancy Premature birth Smoking during pregnancy Question 13. Question : Which cardiac chamber has the thinnest wall and why? The right and left atria; they are low-pressure chambers that serve as storage units and conduits for blood. The right and left atria; they are not directly involved in the preload, contractility, or afterload of the heart. The left ventricle; the mean pressure of blood coming into this ventricle is from the lung, which has a low pressure. The right ventricle; it pumps blood into the pulmonary capillaries, which have a lower pressure compared with the systemic circulation. Question 14. Question : What is the direct action of atrial natriuretic hormone? Sodium retention Sodium excretion Water retention Water excretion Question 15. Question : What is the primary site for uncomplicated local gonococci infections in men? Epididymis Lymph nodes Urethra Prostate Instructor Explanation: Uncomplicated local infections are observed primarily as urethral infections in men. Question 16. Question : Which statement concerning benign tumors is true? The resulting pain is severe. Benign tumors are not encapsulated. Benign tumors are fast growing. The cells are well-differentiated. Question 17. Question : Which of the following is classified as a megaloblastic anemia? Iron deficiency Pernicious Sideroblastic Hemolytic Question 18. Question : Apoptosis is a(an): Normal mechanism for cells to self-destruct when growth is excessive Antigrowth signal activated by the tumor-suppressor gene Rb Mutation of cell growth stimulated by the TP53 gene Transformation of cells from dysplasia to anaplasia Question 19. Question : What is the functional unit of the kidney called? Glomerulus Nephron Collecting duct Pyramid Question 20. Question : Which hepatitis virus is known to be sexually transmitted? A B C D 0 of 2 Question 21. Question : The glomerular filtration rate is directly related to which factor? Perfusion pressure in the glomerular capillaries Diffusion rate in the renal cortex Diffusion rate in the renal medulla Glomerular active transport Question 22. Question : Decreased lung compliance means that the lungs are demonstrating which characteristic? Difficult deflation Easy inflation Stiffness Inability to diffuse oxygen 0 of 2 Question 23. Question : What is the most common cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA)? Decreased dietary intake Chronic blood loss Vitamin deficiency Autoimmune disease Question 24. Question : Which drug may be prescribed orally for outbreak management of herpes simplex viral (HSV) infections? Acyclovir (Zovirax) 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) Zidovudine (AZT) (Retrovir) Bichloroacetic acid (BCA) Question 25. Question : In a normal, nonmutant state, an oncogene is referred to as a: Basal cell Target cell Caretaker gene Proto-oncogene Question 26. Question : What is the primary cause of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the newborn? Immature immune system Small alveoli Surfactant deficiency Anemia Question 27. Question : Fetal hematopoiesis occurs in which structure? Gut Spleen Bone marrow Thymus 0 of 2 Question 28. Question : Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B- and T-cell function? Iron Zinc Iodine Magnesium Question 29. Question : Phagocytosis involves neutrophils actively attacking, engulfing, and destroying which microorganisms? Bacteria Fungi Viruses Yeasts Question 30. Question : Which hormone is synthesized and secreted by the kidneys? Antidiuretic hormone Aldosterone Erythropoietin Angiotensinogen Question 31. Question : Which congenital heart defects occur in trisomy 13, trisomy 18, and Down syndrome? Coarctation of the aorta (COA) and pulmonary stenosis (PS) Tetralogy of Fallot and persistent truncus arteriosus Atrial septal defect (ASD) and dextrocardia Ventricular septal defect (VSD) and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Question 32. Question : Which laboratory test is considered adequate for an accurate and reliable diagnosis of gonococcal urethritis in a symptomatic man? Ligase chain reaction (LCR) Gram-stain technique Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) DNA testing Question 33. Question : During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, which leukocyte is activated? Neutrophils Monocytes Eosinophils T lymphocytes Question 34. Question : What is the life span of platelets (in days)? 10 30 90 120 Question 35. Question : What is the role of caretaker genes? Maintenance of genomic integrity Proliferation of cancer cells Secretion of growth factors Restoration of normal tissue structure Question 36. Question : Which blood cell type is elevated at birth but decreases to adult levels during the first year of life? Monocytes Platelets Neutrophils Lymphocytes 0 of 2 Question 37. Question : Which term is used to identify the movement of gas and air into and out of the lungs? Perfusion Ventilation Respiration Diffusion 0 of 2 Question 38. Question : In which primary immune deficiency is there a partial-to-complete absence of T-cell immunity? Bruton disease DiGeorge syndrome Reticular dysgenesis Adenosine deaminase deficiency Question 39. Question : Which substance has been shown to increase the risk of cancer when used in combination with tobacco smoking? Alcohol Steroids Antihistamines Antidepressants Question 40. Question : Which statement concerning exotoxins is true? Exotoxins are contained in cell walls of gram-negative bacteria. Exotoxins are released during the lysis of bacteria. Exotoxins are able to initiate the complement and coagulation cascades. Exotoxins are released during bacterial growth. Question 41. Question : Which type of immunity is produced by an individual after either natural exposure to the antigen or after immunization against the antigen? Passive-acquired immunity Active-acquired immunity Passive-innate immunity Active-innate immunity Question 42. Question : Research supports the premise that exercise has a probable impact on reducing the risk of which cancer? Liver Endometrial Stomach Colon Question 43. Question : What part of the kidney controls renal blood flow, glomerular filtration, and renin secretion? Macula densa Visceral epithelium Juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) Filtration slits Question 44. Question : What is the fundamental physiologic manifestation of anemia? Hypotension Hyperesthesia Hypoxia Ischemia Question 45. Question : Between which months of age does sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) most often occur? 0 and 1 2 and 4 5 and 6 6 and 7 Question 46. Question : What is the purpose of the spirometry measurement? To evaluate the cause of hypoxia To measure the volume and flow rate during forced expiration To measures the gas diffusion rate at the alveolocapillary membrane To determine pH and oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations Question 47. Question : Carcinoma in situ is characterized by which changes? Cells have broken through the local basement membrane. Cells have invaded immediate surrounding tissue. Cells remain localized in the glandular or squamous cells. Cellular and tissue alterations indicate dysplasia. Question 48. Question : The drug heparin acts in hemostasis by which processes? Inhibiting thrombin and antithrombin III (AT-III) Preventing the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin Shortening the fibrin strands to retract the blood clot Degrading the fibrin within blood clots Question 49. Question : The coronary ostia are located in the: Left ventricle Aortic valve Coronary sinus Aorta 0 of 2 Question 50. Question : Blood vessels of the kidneys are innervated by the: Vagus nerve Sympathetic nervous system Somatic nervous system Parasympathetic nervous system Question 51. Question : Which term is used to describe a muscle cell showing a reduced ability to form new muscle while appearing highly disorganized? Dysplasia Hyperplasia Myoplasia Anaplasia Question 52. Question : Which statement best describes a Schilling test? Administration of radioactive cobalamin and the measurement of its excretion in the urine to test for vitamin B12 deficiency Measurement of antigen-antibody immune complexes in the blood to test for hemolytic anemia Measurement of serum ferritin and total iron-binding capacity in the blood to test for iron deficiency anemia Administration of folate and measurement in 2 hours of its level in a blood sample to test for folic acid deficiency anemia. Question 53. Question : What is the major concern regarding the treatment of gonococci infections? Development of antibiotic resistance Changes in virulence Changes in pathogenicity Mutations into different strains Question 54. Question : What is the action of urodilatin? Urodilatin causes vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles. It causes vasodilation of the efferent arterioles. Urodilatin inhibits antidiuretic hormone secretion. It inhibits salt and water reabsorption. Question 55. Question : How is most carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood transported? Attached to oxygen In the form of bicarbonate Combined with albumin Dissolved in the plasma Question 56. Question : The most common site of metastasis for a patient diagnosed with prostate cancer is which location? Bones Brain Bladder Kidney Instructor Explanation: The bone, especially the lumbar spine area, is the most common metastasis site for prostate cancer. Question 57. Question : Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is associated with which type of hypersensitivity reaction? I II III IV Question 58. Question : Which immunoglobulin (Ig) is present in childhood asthma? IgM IgG IgE IgA Question 59. Question : The Papanicolaou (Pap) test is used to screen for which cancer? Ovarian Uterine Cervical Vaginal Question 60. Question : The risk for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) decreases for premature infants when they are born between how many weeks of gestation? 16 and 20 20 and 24 24 and 30 30 and 36 [Show More]

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