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Bio 319 Midterm Exam review sheet

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Bio-319 Midterm Study guide Chapters 1-6 *If you go through each item on this study guide and read about it on in your text, you should have an excellent study guide for the Midterm Exam. * Chapte... r 1  Define Phytochemicals, zoonutrients, micronutrients and macronutrients o Phytochemicals – health promoting compound in plant based food o Zoonutrients – Health promoting compound in animal based food o Micronutrients – Vitamins and minerals o Macronutrients – Proteins, lipids, fats, and water. Anything consumed in large quantity  Explain importance of dietary fiber o Helps with movement in digestive system  Explain the steps in the scientific method o Make an observation o Proposing a hypothesis  Predict the relationship between variables  Causual relationship  correlation o Experiment  Epidemiologic studies- no intervention  Correlation- determine if one variable is correlated to another  Intervention studies  Control group, Placebo, blinded studies, and random assignment  Review questions to ask to determine scientific basis of nutritional claim o Where was it published? o Who conducted the study? o Who paid for the research? o Did the researcher use the right study design? o Do public health organizations concur?  Define essential, nonessential and conditionally essential nutrients o Essential – Must be obtained through diet o Nonessential – body can produce o Conditional essential – circumstances such as because of an illness  Be able to complete calculations similar to the “practice with calculations worksheet” assignment. (You may bring a calculator to class for the exam as long as it is JUST a calculator. Tablets and smart phones are NOT allowed.)  APPLY your understanding of research studies including terminology Epidemiologic, Control, Blinded, Intervention, Random, and Placebo. o Epidemiologic Control – o Blinded – blinding the participants so they don’t know if they get the placebo or the actual treatment o Random- random assignment to an experimental group  ( Control vs. treatment) o Placebo – not the actual treatment … usually a fake treatment  Know current trends in Infant Mortality Rates and Life Expectancy in the United States. o Infant mortality rates have decreased and life expectancy has increased  DEFINE and APPLY characteristics of Chronic Degenerative Diseases. o Chronic Degenerative Diseases: a non infectious disease that develops slowly, persists over a long period of time, and tends to result in progressive breakdown of tissues and loss of function  Leading cause of death  Risk factors  Tobacco use, physical activity, dietary habits  Causes  DNA, what is put in your body, what a person is exposed to , and physical activity Chapter 2  Describe the tools for assessment of nutritional status o ABCD methods of nutritional assessment  Anthropometric measurement  Physical dimensions and composition  Biochemical measurement  Lab analysis of biological samle  Clinical assessment  Medical history  Dietary assessment  Diet record or food record  Define Malnutrition, Overnutrition, and Undernutrition. o Undernutrition  Inadequte intake of nutrient or energy o Overnutrition  Nutritional toxicity o Malnutrition  Nutritional status  Inadequate diet  Define Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). o a set of four dietary assessment stan-dards used to assess and plan dietary intake. The four reference values that comprise the DRIs are:  Define Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA). o RDA: Recommended Dietary Allowances  Meets 97% healthy individuals needs  Not available for all nutrients  DEFINE and APPLY Primary and Secondary Malnutrition. [Show More]

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