Biology > LECTURE NOTES > Lecture Materials > University of Louisville BIO 240 Ch 11 Cell Signaling Notes (All)

Lecture Materials > University of Louisville BIO 240 Ch 11 Cell Signaling Notes

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University of Louisville BIO 240 Ch 11 Cell Signaling Notes Lecture Notes  Local and Long Distance Signaling o Communication between cells using gap junctions (animal cells) or plasmodesmata ... (plant cells), as well as cell to cell recognition  The Three Stages of Cell Signaling 1. Reception 1. Transduction 2. Response  Reception - A signaling molecule binds to a receptor protein, causing it to change shape o The binding between a signal molecule (ligand) and receptor is highly specific o A shape change in a receptor is often the initial transduction of the signal o Most signal receptors are plasma membrane proteins  Receptors in Plasma Membrane  (kinase - enzymes that phosphorylate)  Transduction: Cascades of molecular interactions relay signals from receptors to target molecules in the cell o Signal Transduction usually involves multiple steps  Protein Phosphorylation and dephosphorylation o In many pathways, the signal is transmitted by a cascade of protein phosphorylation  Apoptosis integrates multiple cell-signaling pathways o Apoptosis is programmed or controlled cell suicide AP Bio Notes Cell Signaling  Synthesis, release, transport of signaling molecules o Neurotransmitters, hormones, etc. o Ligand binds to a specific receptor  Reception of Information by target cells  Signal Transduction o Receptor converts extracellular signal into intracellular signal o Causes change in cell  Response by the cell Signaling Molecules  Local Regulators - work locally  Neurotransmitters - within the nervous system (synaptic cleft)  Hormones - move greater distances (secreted in glands) Local Regulators o Paracrine Regulation - Diffuse through interstitial fluid, act on nearby cells  Examples - histamine, growth factors, prostaglandins, nitric oxide Hormones o Chemical Messengers; in plants and animals o Secreted by endocrine glands; in animals o Transported by blood; to target cells Receptors  Specific Shape [Show More]

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