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Chapter 1: Family centered nursing care 1. Parenting styles -Dictatorial or authoritarian: -Parents try to control the child’s behaviors and attitudes through unquestioned rules and expectations... -Ex: The child is never allowed to watch television on school nights -Permissive: -Parents exert little or no control over the child’s behaviors, and consult the child when making decisions -Ex: The child assists with deciding whether he will watch television -Democratic or authoritative: -Parents direct the child’s behavior by setting rules and explaining the reason for each rule setting -Ex: The child can watch television for 1 hr on school nights after completing all of his homework and chores -Parents negatively reinforce deviations form the rules -Ex: The privilege is taken away but later reinstated based on new guidelines Chapter 2: Physical assessment findings 1. Vital signs -Usually vital signs are all high except for BP -Temperature: -3 – 6 months 99.5 -1 year 99.9 -3 year 99.0 -5 years 98.6 -7 years 98.2 -9 – 11 years 98.1 -13 years 97.9 -Pulse: -Newborn 80 – 180/min -1 weeks – 3 months 80 – 220/min -3 months – 2 years 70 – 150/min -2 – 10 years 60 – 110/min -10 years and older 50 – 90/min -Respirations: -Newborn – 1year 30 – 35/min -1 – 2 years 25 – 30/min -2 – 6 years 21 – 25/min -6 – 12 years 19 – 21/min -12 years and older 16 – 19/min ATI PEDIATRICS PROCTORED EXAM -Blood pressure: -Low as a baby but increases the older they get -Infants: -Systolic: 65-78 -Diastolic: 41-52 2. Head -Fontanels should be flat -Posterior fontanel: -Closes by 6-8 weeks -Anterior fontanel: -Closes by 12-18 months 3. Teeth -Infants should have 6-8 teeth by 1 year old -Children and adolescents should have teeth that are white and smooth, and begin replacing the 20 deciduous teeth with 32 permanent teeth 4. Infant Reflexes Stepping Birth to 4 weeks Palmar Grasp Birth to 3 months Tonic Neck Reflex (Fencer Position) Birth to 3 – 4 months Sucking and Rooting Reflex Birth to 4 months Moro Reflex (Fall backward) Birth to 4 months Startle Reflex (Loud Noise) Birth to 4 months Plantar Reflex Birth to 8 months Babinski Reflex Birth to 1 year Chapter 3: Health promotion of infants (2 days to 1 year) 1. Physical Development -Weight: -Doubled by 5 months -Tripled by 12 months -Quartered by 30 months -Height: -2.5 cm (1 in) per month for the first 6 months -Length: -Increases by 50% by 12 months -Dentition: -First teeth erupt between 6-10 months 2. Motor skill development  1 Month o Head lag o Strong grasp reflex  2 Months o Lifts head when prone o Holds hand in open position | Grasp reflex fades  3 Months o Raises head and shoulders when prone | Slight head lag o No grasp reflex | Keeps hands loosely open  4 Months o Rolls from back to side o Grasp objects with both hands  5 Months o Rolls from front to back o Palmar grasp dominantly  6 Months o Rolls from back to front o Holds bottle  7 Months o Bears full weight on feet | Sits, leaning forward on both hands o Moves objects from hand to hand  8 Months o Sits unsupported o Pincer grasp  9 Months o Pulls to a standing position | Creeps on hands and knees instead of crawling o Crude pincer grasp | Dominant hand is evident  10 Months o Prone to sitting position o Grasps rattle by its handle  11 Months o Walks while holding onto something | Walks with one hand held o Places objects into a container | Neat pincer grasp  12 Months o Stands without support briefly | Sits from standing position without assistance o Tries to build a two-block tower w/o success | Can turn pages in a book 3. Cognitive development -Piaget: sensorimotor (birth to 24 months) -Object Permanence: objects still exists when it is out of view -Occurs at 9-10 months 4. Language development -3-5 words by the age of 1 year 5. Psychosocial development -Erikson: Trust vs. Mistrust: - Learn delayed gratification -Trust is d [Show More]

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