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BIOD 171 Final Exam with all answers 100% correct

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True/False. A virus is classified as a microbe. - ANSWER True True or False: The smallest biological unit of life is the molecule. - ANSWER False -smallest unit of life is the cell. At a general... ized level, all cells are comprised of what? - ANSWER Proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and Polysaccharides How many different types of amino acids are available from which to make proteins? - ANSWER 20 How many amino acids are classified as being essential amino acids? - ANSWER 9 What are the two major types of nucleic acids and their roles? - ANSWER DNA (deoxyribonucleic acids): contains genetic material and hereditary info in living organisms, RNA (ribonucleic acid): decodes sequence of hereditary info that is found in DNA Complete the following DNA strand, and indicate how many bonds are formed for each complementary pair: 3' GGTCATCG 5' 5' CC AGC 3' - ANSWER 3' GGTCATCG 5', 5' CCAGTAGC 3', 2 bonds between A & T, 3 bonds between C & G The plasma membrane (select all that are true): - ANSWER Restricts movement of materials in and out of the cell, Prevents essential nutrients from escaping How many carbon atoms are present in the monosaccharide glucose? - ANSWER 6 The molecular formula of Glucose is - ANSWER C6H12O6 True of False: The genetic material within a prokaryotic cell is contained within a membrane-enclosed region. - ANSWER False , Only eukaryotic cells contain genetics in nucleus. True or False: Prokaryotic cells can be subdivided into Bacteria and Archaea. - ANSWER True True or False: Archaea is noted for its ability to survive under harsh conditions. - ANSWER True Which of the following microorganisms are considered to be Eukarya? Select all that apply. - ANSWER Animalia , Plantae , Fungi, Protista Microorganisms classified as _________ obtain most of their energy by converting light energy into chemical energy. - ANSWER Plantae Which of the following are considered Protista? Select all that apply. - ANSWER Algae , Amoeba True or False: Protista retain a unicellular classification, as they are unable to form tissue layers. - ANSWER True The function of the lysosome is (select all that apply): - ANSWER Waste disposal via hydrolytic enzymes Identify the following cellular components by matching the number with the description. - ANSWER 1 C Nucleus, 2 G Lysosome, 3 E Plasma membrane, 4 B Golgi apparatus, 5 A Rough endoplasmic reticulum, The combination of the cell membrane and the outer membrane is referred to as the (select all that apply): - ANSWER Cell envelope The function of the Golgi is (select all that apply): - ANSWER Protein modification and distribution True or False. All multicellular microorganisms classified as Animalia are autotropic. - ANSWER False True or False: As movement requires energy, metabolism can be defined as a controlled set of biochemical reactions that occur in only motile organisms in order to maintain life. - ANSWER False Metabolism occurs in all living organisms, not just those that move. True or False: Enzymes are polysaccharides that catalyze chemical reactions - ANSWER False Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions. What is a cofactor? And give a general example. - ANSWER A cofactor is a small chemical compound and helps an enzyme to catabolize a general example is metal ions. Define catabolism - ANSWER Catobloism is breakdown of large molecules into energy sources. Upon cellular injury, which metabolic process is involved during the growth and repair phases of the cell? - ANSWER Anabolism is the metabolic process to build up (biosynthesis) small molecules into larger ones during growth and repairing phases of the cell. Describe the energy transfer process relative to both ATP and ADP. - ANSWER ATP has the energy (phosphate group) to donate while ADP can accept energy in the form of a phosphate group. Thus, ATP can be reduced (ATP ⟶ADP + Pi) while ADP can be built into ATP (ADP + Pi ⟶ATP). From what source do chemotrophs acquire energy? - ANSWER Chemotrophs aquire energy from chemicals found in environment. An organism that derives its energy by removing electrons from elemental sulfur would be classified as a __________? - ANSWER Lithotroph This phosphorylation process occurs in the mitochondria of chemotropic eukaryotes. - ANSWER Oxidative phosphorylation The catabolism of a single molecule of glucose goes through what 3 distinct transitions? - ANSWER The breakdown of glucose goes through (1) Glycolysis then (2) Fermentation or Respiration and finally through (3) the electron transport chain (ETC). What is the most energetic transition in the catabolism of glucose? - ANSWER The electron transport chain yields 34 ATP while both glycolysis and fermentation (or respiration) each yield only 2 ATP. Identify the products of the following chemical equation: Glucose + 2NAD+ → 2 NADH + 2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP - ANSWER The products are to the right of the arrow: 2NADH, 2 Pyruvates and 2 ATP The presence of what molecule 'signals' to the cell that glycolysis is about to start? - ANSWER G6P which is Glucose - 6 - Phospate [Show More]

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