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Biology 012 Final Exam with complete solution (Latest exam)

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Phylogenetic analysis of HIV and nonhuman SIV demonstrates that HIV is _______ and SIV is _______ - ANSWER HIV is polyphyletic and SIV is paraphyletic Humans and Chimps diverged about 6 mya. If 20 ... nucleotides substitutions have occurred between humans and chimps of mitochondrial DNA and 30 have occurred between humans and gorillas, then, according to the molecular clock hypothesis, humans and gorillas separated ______ mya - ANSWER 9 Four different phylogenetic trees of a group of salamanders have been proposed. Tree A and B each require 12 homoplasies, but tree A requires 14 synapomorphies and tree B requires 13 synapomorphies. Tree C requires 15 homoplasies and 13 synapomorphies. Finally, tree D requires 10 homoplasies and 15 synapomorphies. According to parsimony, which tree is the most accurate? - ANSWER Tree D Refer to the phylogenetic tree below showing the phylogenetic relationships among eight species. Red dots show the appearance of derived traits. /brainhoney/Resource/8291624,8,0,1/Assets/resources/ch21_summative_quiz/Life11eSQ-Ch21-Q8.jpg According to the phylogenetic tree, salamanders and mice share _______ of the listed synapomorphies. - ANSWER two Refer to the figure. /brainhoney/Resource/8291624,8,0,1/Assets/resources/ch21_summative_quiz/Life11eSQ-Ch21-Q12.jpg This phylogenetic tree is based on - ANSWER DNA sequences of just the viruses at the tips of the tree. Which statement about biological classification is false? - ANSWER The same binomial name may be given to two different organisms as long as they are in different phyla. The trait that would be least useful in a phylogenetic analysis would be one that: - ANSWER is easily altered by small changes in diet. Species A and B have long wings, whereas species C has short wings. Which piece of evidence would best support the hypothesis that long wings are a synapomorphy? - ANSWER fossil evidence showing that the common ancestor of Species A, B and C had short wings. Which statement about the phylogenetic tree (Q4) is true? - ANSWER the clade containing the mouse is sister to the clade containing the chimpanzee. Some species in a hypothetical family of plants are hermaphrodites, and others have flowers with separate sexes. What would be most useful in determining which one was derived first? - ANSWER an outgroup Scientists have been able to reconstruct DNA sequences in an ancestral archasaur to produce an ospin protein. Knowledge of the ospin sequence in the ancestral archasaur provides clues about the animals visual capabilities and probable behavior. Which conclusion based on their results is false? - ANSWER the ancestral state for this protein could not be recreated. Traits in two or more organisms that are similar but not derived from a common ancestor are called: - ANSWER homoplastic traits. Which statement about molecular clocks is true? - ANSWER They can give an average rate of change in an amino acid sequence. From a survey of martian life, 3 hypothetical species are found; krons, furs, and pars. If krons and furs are sister species, the tree will have 45 homoplasies. If krons and pars are sister species, tree will have 52 homoplasies. Krons and pars have red body patches, krons and furs have striped bodies. According to parsimony, Krons and _____ are sister species, ______ a synapomorphy. - ANSWER furs and striped bodies. The ______ of a phylogenetic tree represents the common ancestor, the _____ represent places where lineage diverges, and the _____ axis represents time. - ANSWER root, nodes and horizontal Consider four species of conifers. Species A and B are sister species. Species C and D are also sister species. The clade containing A and B is a sister to the clade containing C and D. Not counting the ancestor how many nodes make up the tree? - ANSWER two nodes Unrelated lineages of rodents that moves to islands have increased in size relative to close relatives that are on the mainland. This increase is an example of _________ which is a type of ________ - ANSWER convergent evolution and homoplasies. Which of the following does not contribute to evidence that animals share a common ancestor? - ANSWER all animals are eukaryotes The bilaterian group of animals are - ANSWER monophyletic and bilaterally symmetrical Which of the following statements about coelomate animals is false? - ANSWER the body of coelomates is filled with mesenchyme (this occurs in psuedocoelomates) The benefit of segmentation in the arthropods can be attributed to: - ANSWER independent movement of different parts of the body Segmentation of animals is important evolutionary because it has allowed organisms to: - ANSWER alter their body forms in complex ways A bird that lives in a hole in a tree and eats fruit or seeds as an adult while feeding insects to its young is - ANSWER an omnivore An animal that produces toxins is most likely a - ANSWER predator or prey animal Herbivores have more complex and longer digestive tracts than carnivores. This implies that - ANSWER digestion of plant material requires more processing than digestion of meat does. Earthworms consume dead organic matter and build up rich soil. The greatest benefit of this feeding strategy to other organisms in the surrounding ecosystem is that: - ANSWER plants benefit from nutrient recycling ---> supplying herbivores with food. Which characteristics provides shared derived character states that distinguish protostomes from dueterostomes and sponges. - ANSWER 20 only Which of the following statements about sponges is false? - ANSWER they have cell layers and true organs How do nematocysts help protect some cnidarians? - ANSWER They inject toxins into prey Damage to the axon hillock of a neuron would most immediately impair: - ANSWER the integration of information and generation of action potential After examining a patient with a neurological disorder that interferes with walking, a neurologist determines that a Mycoplasma bacterium is causing the destruction of the mylein sheath around the axons in the patient's PNS. What specific cell is effected? - ANSWER Schwann cells (produce mylein in neurons of PNS) In a resting neuron, there is a difference in electrical charge across the cell membrane because: - ANSWER leaky K channels. The electrochemical gradient of a given ion determines the movement of that ion across a cell membrane. Based on knowledge of the normal intra- and extracellular concentration of Na and K ions across [Show More]

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