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Chamberlain NR 507 Final Exam / Chamberlain NR507 Final Exam (2024): Advanced Pathophysiology(This is the latest version, download to score A)

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NR507 Week 8 Final Exam / NR 507 Week 8 Final Exam (Latest): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing Chamberlain NR 507 Final Exam / Chamberlain NR507 Final Exam (Latest): Advanced Pa... thophysiology Question : 1 What term is used to describe a hernial protrusion of a saclike cyst that contains meninges, spinal fluid, and a portion of the spinal cord through a defect in a posterior arch of a vertebra? Student Answer: Encephalocele Meningocele Spina bifida occulta Myelomeningocele Instructor Explanation: Question 2. Question : What provides the best estimate of the functioning of renal tissue? Student Answer: Glomerular filtration rate Hourly urine output Serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine The specific gravity of the solute concentration of the urine Question 3. Question : Where are Langerhans cells found? Student Answer: Skin Intestinal lining Kidney Thyroid Question 4. Question : Where in the lung does gas exchange occur? Student Answer: Trachea Segmental bronchi Alveolocapillary membrane Main bronchus Question 5. Question : The tonic neck reflex observed in a newborn should no longer be obtainable by: Student Answer: 2 years 1 year 10 months 5 months Question 6. Question : When renin is released, it is capable of which action? Student Answer: Inactivation of autoregulation Direct activation of angiotensin II Direct release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Formation of angiotensin I Question 7. Question : The portion of the antigen that is configured for recognition and binding is referred to as what type of determinant? Student Answer: Immunotope Paratope Epitope Antigenitope Question 8. Question : Which sexually transmitted infection frequently coexists with gonorrhea? Student Answer: Syphilis Herpes simplex virus Chlamydia Chancroid Question 9. Question : How is the effectiveness of vitamin B12 therapy measured? Student Answer: Reticulocyte count Serum transferring Hemoglobin Serum vitamin B12 Question 10. Question : Carcinoma refers to abnormal cell proliferation originating from which tissue origin? Student Answer: Blood vessels Epithelial cells Connective tissue Glandular tissue Question 11. Question : Which type of microorganism reproduces on the skin? Student Answer: Viruses Bacteria and fungi Protozoa and Rickettsiae Mycoplasma Question 12. Question : An infant has a crescendo-decrescendo systolic ejection murmur located between the second and third intercostal spaces along the left sternal border. A wide fixed splitting of the second heart sound is also found. These clinical findings are consistent with which congenital heart defect? Student Answer: Atrial septal defect (ASD) Ventricular septal defect (VSD) Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) Atrioventricular canal (AVC) defect Question 13. Question : An infant diagnosed with a small patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) would likely exhibit which symptom? Student Answer: Intermittent murmur Lack of symptoms Need for surgical repair Triad of congenital defects Question 14. Question : What is the function of erythrocytes? Student Answer: Tissue oxygenation Hemostasis Infection control Allergy response Question 15. Question : Which terms represent the correct nomenclature for benign and malignant tumors of adipose tissue, respectively? Student Answer: Liposarcoma, lipoma Lipoma, liposarcoma Adisarcoma, adipoma Adipoma, adisarcoma Question 16. Question : What is the chance with each pregnancy that a child born to two parents with the sickle trait will have sickle cell disease (SCD)? Student Answer: 20% 25% 33% 50% Question 17. Question : What pulmonary defense mechanism propels a mucous blanket that entraps particles moving toward the oropharynx? Student Answer: Nasal turbinates Alveolar macrophages Cilia Irritant receptors on the nares Question 18. Question : The concentration of the final urine is determined by antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is secreted by which gland? Student Answer: Posterior pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Anterior pituitary Question 19. Question : Why is the herpes virus inaccessible to antibodies after the initial infection? Student Answer: The virus does not circulate in the blood. It does not have antibody receptors. It resists agglutination. The virus is a soluble antigen. Question 20. Question : Which renal change is found in older adults? Student Answer: Sharp decline in glomerular filtration rate Sharp decline in renal blood flow Decrease in the number of nephrons Decrease in urine output Question 21. Question : Which immunoglobulin is present in blood, saliva, breast milk, and respiratory secretions? Student Answer: IgA IgE IgG IgM Question 22. Question : Which hormone prompts increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal during a stress response? Student Answer: Norepinephrine Epinephrine Cortisol Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Question 23. Question : Which statement is true regarding maternal antibodies provided to the neonate? Student Answer: The antibodies enter into the fetal circulation by means of active transport. The antibodies are transferred to the fetus via the lymphatic system. The antibodies are directly related to the mother’s nutritional intake. The antibodies reach protective levels after approximately 6 months of age. Question 24. Question : The function of the tumor cell marker is to: Student Answer: Provide a definitive diagnosis of cancer. Treat certain types of cancer. Predict where cancers will develop. Screen individuals at high risk for cancer. Question 25. Question : Which statement is true concerning a fungal infection? Student Answer: Fungal infections occur only on skin, hair, and nails. Phagocytes and T lymphocytes control fungal infections. Fungal infections release endotoxins. Vaccines prevent fungal infections. Question 26. Question : Which change is a result of puberty and defends the vagina from infection? Student Answer: The pH stabilizes between 7 and 8. A thin squamous epithelial lining develops. Vaginal pH becomes more acidic. Estrogen levels are low. Question 27. Question : The number of persons living with a specific disease at a specific point in time is referred to by which term? Student Answer: Relativity Survivability Prevalence Incidence Question 28. Question : Which risk factor for hypertension is influenced by genetic factors and lifestyle? Student Answer: Sodium intake Physical inactivity Psychosocial stress Obesity Question 29. Question : Having ejected a mature ovum, the ovarian follicle develops into a(n): Student Answer: Atretic follicle Thecal follicle Corpus luteum Functional scar Question 30. Question : The failure of bones to ossify, resulting in soft bones and skeletal deformity, characterizes which disorder? Student Answer: Osteogenesis imperfecta Rickets Osteochondrosis Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease Question 31. Question : What is the term that denotes the duration of time or the intensity of pain that a person will endure before outwardly responding? Student Answer: Tolerance Perception Threshold Dominance Question 32. Question : Aldosterone directly increases the reabsorption of: Student Answer: Magnesium Calcium Sodium Water Question 33. Question : Atrial fibrillation, rheumatic heart disease, and valvular prosthetics are risk factors for which type of stroke? Student Answer: Hemorrhagic Thrombotic Embolic Lacunar Question 34. Question : Which clinical manifestations are associated with fibromyalgia? Student Answer: Hot, tender, and edematous muscle groups bilaterally Fasciculations of the upper and lower extremity muscles Exercise intolerance and painful muscle cramps Sensitivity at tender points and profound fatigue Question 35. Question : Prolonged high environmental temperatures that produce dehydration, decreased plasma volumes, hypotension, decreased cardiac output, and tachycardia cause which disorder of temperature regulation? Student Answer: Heat cramps Heat stroke Malignant hyperthermia Heat exhaustion Question 36. Question : What is the leading cause of infertility in women? Student Answer: Pelvic inflammatory disease Endometriosis Salpingitis Polycystic ovary syndrome Question 37. Question : Which substance is a water-soluble protein hormone? Student Answer: Thyroxine Aldosterone Follicle-stimulating hormone Insulin Question 38. Question : What is the target tissue for prolactin-releasing factor? Student Answer: Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Mammary glands Posterior pituitary Question 39. Question : What is the cause of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH)? Student Answer: Diet high in saturated fats Increased production of cholesterol by the liver Reduction in the number of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors on cell surfaces Abnormal function of lipoprotein receptors circulating in the blood Question 40. Question : Regarding type 2 diabetes, obesity is considered to be what type of risk? Student Answer: Genetic Empirical Relative Modifiable Question 41. Question : Which four-step process correctly describes muscle contraction? Student Answer: Coupling, contraction, relaxation, excitation Contraction, relaxation, excitation, coupling Relaxation, excitation, coupling, contraction Excitation, coupling, contraction, relaxation Question 42. Question : Adoption studies have shown that the offspring of an alcoholic parent when raised by nonalcoholic parents have what amount of an increased risk of developing alcoholism? Student Answer: Twofold Threefold Fourfold Tenfold Question 43. Question : Which hormone stimulates gonads to produce both male and female hormones? Student Answer: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) Luteinizing hormone (LH) Estrogen Question 44. Question : A person with 47, XXY karyotype has the genetic disorder resulting in which syndrome? Student Answer: Turner Klinefelter Down Fragile X Question 45. Question : Which would be considered a positive symptom of schizophrenia? Student Answer: Blunted affect Auditory hallucinations Poverty of speech Lack of social interaction Question 46. Question : What term describes the loss of the comprehension or production of language? Student Answer: Agnosia Aphasia Akinesia Dysphasia Question 47. Question : Consanguinity refers to the mating of persons: Student Answer: Who are unrelated When one has an autosomal dominant disorder Having common family relations When one has a chromosomal abnormality Question 48. Question : The major sleep center is located in which section of the brain? Student Answer: Thalamus Brainstem Frontal lobe Hypothalamus Question 49. Question : Which type of ion directly controls the contraction of muscles? Student Answer: Sodium Potassium Calcium Magnesium Question 50. Question : Bacteria gain access to the female urinary tract by which means? Student Answer: Systemic blood that is filtered through the kidney Bacteria traveling from the lymph adjacent to the bladder and kidneys Bacteria ascending the urethra into the bladder Colonization of the bladder when urine is static Question 51. Question : A criterion for a diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a period of excessive worrying that lasts for at least how many months? Student Answer: 3 6 9 12 Question 52. Question : What is the first indication of nephrotic syndrome in children? Student Answer: Periorbital edema Scrotal or labial edema Frothy urine Ascites Question 53. Question : An amniocentesis indicates a neural tube defect when an increase in which protein is evident? Student Answer: Chorionic Alpha fetoprotein Amniotic Embryonic Question 54. Question : What is the risk for the recurrence of autosomal dominant diseases? Student Answer: 10% 30% 50% 70% Question 55. Question : Which term is used to identify the temporary displacement of two bones causing the bone surfaces to partially lose contact? Student Answer: Dislocation Subluxation Malunion Nonunion Question 56. Question : The tear in a ligament is referred to as a: Student Answer: Fracture Strain Disunion Sprain Question 57. Question : Why is prolonged diarrhea more severe in children than it is in adults? Student Answer: Less water is absorbed from the colon in children. Fluid reserves are smaller in children. Children have a higher fluid volume intake. Children have diarrhea more often than adults. Question 58. Question : The BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations increase the risk of which cancer in women? Student Answer: Ovarian Lung Uterine Pancreatic Question 59. Question : Insulin transports which electrolyte in the cell? Student Answer: Potassium Calcium Sodium Phosphorus Question 60. Question : What term is used to identify an interlacing bundle of dense, white fibrous tissue that is richly supplied with nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels? Student Answer: Procallus Joint capsule Hematoma Elastin fibers Question 61. Question : Which of the following is a lipid-soluble hormone? Student Answer: Cortisol Oxytocin Epinephrine Growth hormone Question 62. Question : The mucosal secretions of the cervix secrete which immunoglobulin? Student Answer: IgA IgE IgG IgM Question 63. Question : The sudden apparent arousal in which a child expresses intense fear or another strong emotion while still in a sleep state characterizes which sleep disorder? Student Answer: Night terrors Insomnia Somnambulism Enuresis Question 64. Question : What is the basic structural unit in compact bone? Student Answer: Small channels called canaliculi Osteocytes within the lacunae Tiny spaces within the lacunae Haversian system Question 65. Question : Parkinson disease is a degenerative disorder of the brain’s: Student Answer: Hypothalamus Anterior pituitary Frontal lobe Basal ganglia Question 66. Question : Which pain theory proposes that a balance of impulses conducted from the spinal cord to the higher centers in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates the transmission of pain? Student Answer: GCT Pattern theory Specificity theory Neuromatrix theory Question 67. Question : Saliva contains which immunoglobulin (Ig)? Student Answer: IgA IgE IgG IgM Question 68. Question : What type of fracture occurs at a site of a preexisting bone abnormality and is a result of a force that would not normally cause a fracture? Student Answer: Idiopathic Incomplete Pathologic Greenstick Question 69. Question : An infant suddenly develops abdominal pain, becomes irritable (colicky), and draws up the knees. Vomiting occurs soon afterward. The mother reports that the infant passed a normal stool, followed by one that looked like currant jelly. Based on these data, which disorder does the nurse suspect? Student Answer: Congenital aganglionic megacolon Intussusception Malrotation Volvulus Question 70. Question : In 95% of children of delayed puberty, the problem is caused by: Student Answer: Disruption in the hypothalamus Disruption of the pituitary Deficit in estrogen or testosterone Physiologic hormonal delays Question 71. Question : Which characteristic is true of type II (white fast-motor) muscle fibers? Student Answer: Slow contraction speed Fast conduction velocities Profuse capillary supply Oxidative metabolism Question 72. Question : Neurofibrillary tangles characterize which neurologic disorder? Student Answer: Dementia syndrome Delirium Alzheimer disease Parkinson disease Question 73. Question : Which hormone triggers uterine contractions? Student Answer: Thyroxine Oxytocin Growth hormone Insulin Question 74. Question : How does the release (increase) of epinephrine raise body temperature? Student Answer: The release of epinephrine causes shivering. It affects muscle tone. It raises the metabolic rate. It increases and strengthens the heart rate. Question 75. Question : Which hormone is linked to an increase in appetite during puberty? Student Answer: Inhibin Leptin Activin Follistatin [Show More]

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