*NURSING > Summary > NR 566 / NR566 Advanced Pharmacology for Care of the Family Week 1 Chapter 41 Notes| Hyperthyroidism (All)

NR 566 / NR566 Advanced Pharmacology for Care of the Family Week 1 Chapter 41 Notes| Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism | Latest 2020 / 2021 | Chamberlain College

Document Content and Description Below

NR 566 / NR566 Advanced Pharmacology for Care of the Family Week 1 Chapter 41 Notes| Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism | Latest 2020 / 2021 | Chamberlain College Introduction ❖ Thyroid disorders ... are among the most common disease processes seen in primary care ❖ Untreated thyroid disease can result in long-term complications in every body system, especially the cardiovascular system. ❖ Most thyroid disorders involve thyroid gland malfunction, but secondary hypothyroid or hyperthyroid issues can stem from pituitary axis interruptions. ❖ most common from age 20 to 40. ❖ In children and older adults, hyperthyroidism can produce cardiomegaly and heart failure. Elders are also at risk for osteoporosis. ❖ In adolescents, hyperthyroidism can interfere with normal growth because of alterations in basic metabolism. ❖ Untreated hyperthyroidism in pregnancy increases the risk for first-trimester spontaneous abortion, stillbirths, and neonatal mortality. ❖ both hypo and hyper more common in women ❖ hypothyroidism increases with age ❖ In children, hypothyroidism can result in decreased mental and physical growth. ❖ In adults, it increases the risk for heart disease related to altered lipoprotein metabolism. ❖ Treatment for these two disorders includes lifestyle management and drug therapy. ❖ Pharmacological management includes thyroid hormones to treat hypothyroid conditions and antithyroid agents such as propylthiouracil, methimazole (Tapazole), and radioactive iodine (I131) or strong iodine solutions for hyperthyroid states. ❖ Symptom management may also include other drugs ❖ The secretion of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) by the hypothalamus in response to cold, stress, and decreased levels of thyroxine (T4) stimulates the synthesis of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the anterior pituitary. ❖ TSH, in turn, stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones. ❖ Thyroid hormones (T4 and triiodothyronine [T3]) are synthesized from iodine and tyrosine molecules by follicular cells in the thyroid gland. ❖ Dietary iodine of about 100 to 150 mcg/d is required for normal thyroid hormone production. ❖ The thyroid gland mainly produces T4. o About 20% of T3 is synthesized and released from the thyroid gland. o The remainder is converted from T4 to T3 peripherally when additional thyroid hormone is needed. o Conversion of T4 to T3 is stimulated by cold temperatures and stress. o Conversion is inhibited by acute and chronic illness, starvation, and some drugs ❖ The amount of active thyroid hormone in the plasma produces a feedback loop that inhibits or further stimulates TRH and TSH secretion to decrease or increase thyroid hormone production. Thyroid function tests ❖ most commonly used tests in primary care are TSH and free T4 values. ❖ Serum TSH measurement is the single most reliable test to diagnose the common forms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism ❖ Subclinical conditions exist when TSH is normal but free thyroxine (FT4) and free triiodothyronine (FT3) are abnormal. ❖ Altered serum TSH confirms the diagnosis in all patients with primary hypo- or hyperthyroidism, but it will not reliably identify all hypothyroid patients with secondary (central) disturbances wherein TSH values may be atypically low, normal, or elevated. ❖ When pituitary or hypothalamic disease is suspected as the cause of hypothyroidism, FT4 concentrations should be measured in addition to TSH. ❖ When less sensitive TSH tests are the only ones available, FT4 and FT3 measurement can give additional information to validate the TSH ❖ Recommended pediatric target values for TSH range from 0.5 to 2.0 mUL and for T4 they range from 9 to 13 μg/dL ❖ Abnormal results from other laboratory tests may also suggest hypo- or hyperthyroidism. o Hypercholesterolemia, hyponatremia, anemia, elevated creatinine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and hyperprolactinemia all suggest possible hypothyroidism. o Elevated calcium, alkaline phosphatase, and/or hepatocellular enzymes suggest hyperthyroidism. o These laboratory findings justify thyroid function tests, especially if they are sustained for 2 weeks or more, occur in combination, or occur in patients with increased risk for thyroid disease ❖ Thyroid abnormalities can present with the development of enlarging thyroid tissues called goiters. [Show More]

Last updated: 2 months ago

Preview 1 out of 18 pages

Reviews( 0 )


Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search



Document information

Connected school, study & course

About the document

Uploaded On

Jan 07, 2021

Number of pages


Written in



Member since 3 years

163 Documents Sold

Additional information

This document has been written for:


Jan 07, 2021





Document Keyword Tags

Recommended For You

What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·