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Gastrointestinal System  Esophageal disorders (Assessment, S/S, Interventions)  Tumors-interventions: semisoft and thickened liquids, supplements, surgery  GERD  Contributing Factors ... Caffeine, chocolate, citrus fruits, tomatoes, peppermint, alcohol, smoking, pregnancy, obesity, bending forward, lying down after eating, NG tube placement, calcium channel blockers, nitrates, anticholinergic drugs  Risks  Assessment- dyspepsia, regurgitation, burping, farting, bloating, crackles, hoarseness, wheezing at night, chronic cough  Interventions- nutrition therapy, lifestyle changes, chronic disorder, ongoing management  Hiatal Hernia  Sliding vs Rolling- rolling clearly visible, sliding observed with position changes Sliding- development esophageal reflux, heartburn and chest pain, regurgitation, dysphagia and belching Rolling- No reflux, feelings after eating: breathlessness, chest pain, worse when recumbent, fullness  Assessment  Interventions-avoid late night eating, restricted diet, exercise, elevated head of bed, remain upright after eating, no tight clothes  Surgical care- soft diet, antireflux meds, report signs of infection o Oral Cavity Disorders (Assessment, S/S, Interventions)  Stomatitis-inflammation in oral cavity Assess for lesions/cracking lesions on pharynx may indicate extension down into esophagus, may need swallow studies Rinse with sodium bicarb solution every 2-3 hours, cool liquids, high protein & vitamin C  Oral Tumors (Leukoplakia vs Erythroplakia) Leukoplakia- (smoker’s patch) thickened white patches, slightly raised and rounded, can’t be removed by scraping  Erythroplakia- red lesions, precancerous  Oral Cancer- Mucosal  erythroplasia earliest sign  Red, raised, eroded areas  Lesion not healed within 2 weeks o Basal cell carcinoma  Asymptomatic  Resembles a scab  Primarily on lips  Karposi’s sarcoma  Malignant lesion in blood vessels  Raised, purple nodule/plaque  Usually painless NUR2392, MDCII – Examination Blue Print – Exam 3  On hard palate  Salivary Gland Disorders Sialadenitis- inflammation of gland, bacterial or viral, decrease saliva production Interventions: hydration, warm compress, massage gland, saliva substitute Tumors- facial weakness or paralysis, assess facial nerve (CN VII) by wrinkling nose and brows, pucker lips, puff out cheeks, smile o Stomach Disorders  Gastritis (Risks, Assessment, S/S, Intervention)  Treatment: Medications & Education  Peptic Ulcer Disease (Etiology & Complications)  Medication Management  Interventions  Upper GI Bleed (Risks, Assessment, S/S, Intervention)  Gastric Cancer (Assessment, S/S, Intervention)  Dumping Syndrome (Assessment, S/S, Intervention, Education) Non-Inflammatory Disorders o Etiology, Assessment S/S, Interventions, & Management  Obstruction & Fecal Impaction  S/S- Nausea & Vomiting, Cramping, Abdomen distention, Pain, Obstipation, Long history of constipation, Fever, Tachycardia  Complications: High obstruction- Metabolic alkalosis, Low obstructionMetabolic acidosis, Peritonitis, Strangulated obstruction  Interventions: Monitor Vital Signs  Assess abdomen (BS, distention, flatus)  Monitor fluid and electrolyte status  Pain management  Manage nasogastric tube  Drainage  Patency  Placement  Irrigate  Mouth and nares care  Semi-Fowlers position  Preventing:  Eat high-fiber foods; raw fruits & veggies, whole-grain  Drink adequate amounts of fluids, esp water  No routine laxatives  Encourage regular exercise – walking daily  Natural foods to stimulate peristalsis – warm beverages, prune juice  Bulk-forming foods: Metamucil  Check stool for amount & frequency  Sit on toilet or commode rather than bed pan for elimination  Polyps- Small mucosal growths attached to surface of intestines [Show More]

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