*NURSING > STUDY GUIDE > Long Island University, Brooklyn - NUR 190: Fundamentals of Nursing- Exam 3 Study Materials/Guide (All)

Long Island University, Brooklyn - NUR 190: Fundamentals of Nursing- Exam 3 Study Materials/Guide

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Urinary System: • THE MAIN CONTENT/TOPICS IN THIS STUDY MATERIAL IS LISTED HERE Kidneys- filter blood/excrete the end products of metabolism (urea, creatinine, & uric acid); selectively ... reabsorbs water & electrolytes/retains what is needed Normal Urine Characteristics: • Color = pale yellow (dilute) to amber (concentrated) Urinalysis: -RBCs/proteins/glucose/blood/ketones/high levels of bacteria → should ALWAYS come back NEGATIVE in a urine test (they should be nonexistent in the urine) Factors impacting Urinary Elimination: • Body position (men stand/women sit) → so give men a urinal and women a bedpan • Loss of body fluids - Diuresis caused by fever/excessive exercise/vomiting/diarrhea/excessive wound-drainage/blood loss • Physiologic factors- stress/anxiety may cause involuntary muscle contraction (stimulates sympathetic NS: fight or flight), which increases urge to defecate/urinate Nursing Interventions for Incontinence: • Voiding schedule • Assist with bedpan/urinal/commode (use fracture bedpan for injuries) Catheters: • **REQUIRE STERILE TECHNIQUE** • Always do perennial card FIRST (i.e. disinfect with beta-dine if there isn’t an allergy to it) Female catheterization: • Use non-dominant hand to hold open labia (the NON-STERILE hand) Male catheterization: • Must be 7-10 inches (dependent on penis length: average is 5-6in; can be up to 8 inches) To prevent infections with catheters: • Hand washing Types of Urinary Alterations: • Urgency - feeling of need to void immediately (caused by full bladder, bladder irritation, inflammation of bladder from infection) 5. Urodynamic testing- to determine bladder muscle function and evaluate causes of urinary incontinence (how the urine is stored/eliminated) Bowel Elimination: Large intestine (with cecum) + cecum + anus → AKA the COLON (5 feet long) Bowel movement types: • Fecal Impaction = large/hard/dry mass of stool in rectal folds (from unrelieved constipation due to dehydration/inactivity/improper diet/use of constipating drugs → collection of hardened feces wedged in rectum that person cannot expel) Constipation can be caused by: -A low fiber diet/improper diet Digital Removal of Impacted Stool (ONLY if Doctor ORDERS it) -Use index and middle finger to cut up and remove stool Nutrition: Dysphagia = difficulty swallowing (give thick food: oatmeal, mashed potatoes) that will slowly go down (and keep head tilted FORWARD toward chest) Blood transfusions: Types of blood components: PRBC (packed Red Blood Cells) *Need at least 2 RN’s to give any blood component (transfuser and witness Factors affecting non-verbal communication: 1. Personal appearance Elements of professional communication: courtesy, use of names, trustworthiness, assertiveness, autonomy and responsibility Non-therapeutic Questions (don’t do as a nurse): ask personal questions/giving personal opinion/change the subject/false reassurance/arguing/passive or aggressive response [Show More]

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