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➢ Cell: basic organizational unit of all living things. One thing in common is they all have membranes (phospholipids). ➢ Cell structure organization: All cells contain DNA, and RNA & can synthe... size proteins. Consists of nucleic acids, cytoplasm, and cell membrane. o Tissues: Cells that are grouped together o Organs: Tissues that are grouped together o Systems: Organs that are grouped together o Organism: A complete individual ➢ Nuclear parts of a cell o Nucleus: contains chromosomes, & regulates DNA of the cell. Defining structure of eukaryotic cells (they all have nucleus). Passes genetic traits between generations. Contains nuclear envelop, nucleoplasm, nucleolus, nuclear pores, chromatin, & ribosomes. o Chromosomes: thread like rods of DNA. Short deoxyribonucleic acid, DNA is the genetic material that stores information about the plant/animal. o Chromatin: DNA & Protein makeup chromosomes o Nucleolus: Proteins, small/round doesn’t have membrane. Protein synthesis, synthesizes & stores RNA. o Nuclear envelope: Encloses structures within nucleus. Made of lipids. o Nuclear pores: Exchange materials between the nucleus * cytoplasm o Nucleoplasm: Liquid like cytoplasm, within nucleus. Cell Membranes ➢ Cell Membrane (Plasma membrane): Semipermeable membrane of lipids and proteins. Made of phospholipid bilayer, hydrophilic ends of the outer layer facing the external environment, the inner layer facing inside the cell, hydrophobic ends facing each other. o Hydrophilic: Water loving, can dissolve water o Hydrophobic: Hates water, can’t dissolve water ➢ Selective Permeability o Selective Permeability with regards to size, charge, and solubility. ➢ Cell structure o Ribosomes: synthesize proteins from amino acids. o Golgi apparatus: synthesize materials like proteins that are transported out of the cell. Near nucleus & consists of layers of membranes. o Vacuoles: Sacs used for storage, digestion, and waste removal. One large in plant cells/ Animal cells are small or have numerous. o Vesicle: Has membrane, & can move materials within the cell. o Cytoskeleton: Microtubules that shape and support the cell. o Microtubules: Part of cytoskeleton & help support cell. Made of protein. o Cytosol: Liquid material within the cell. Mostly water & had floating materials. o Cytoplasm: Cytosol & organelles found within the plasma membrane, not within nucleus! [Show More]

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