*NURSING > EXAM > NR 324 ADULT HEALTH ROK 3 EXAM. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. A RATED (All)

NR 324 ADULT HEALTH ROK 3 EXAM. QUESTIONS & ANSWERS. A RATED

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1. Explain the process of wound healing by primary, secondary, and tertiary intention. Primary Intention. Primary intention healing takes place when wound margins are neatly approximated, as in a su... rgical incision or a paper cut. A continuum of processes is associated with primary healing. These processes include three phases. A. Initial Phase. In the initial (inflammatory) phase, the edges of the incision are first aligned and sutured (or stapled) in place. The incision area fills with blood from the cut blood vessels, blood clots form, and platelets release growth factors to begin the healing process. This forms a matrix for WBC migration. An acute inflammatory reaction occurs. B. Granulation Phase. The granulation phase is the second step. The components of granulation tissue include proliferating fibroblasts; proliferating capillary sprouts (angioblasts); various types of WBCs; exudate; and loose, semifluid, ground substance. C. Maturation Phase and Scar Contraction. The maturation phase, during which scar contraction occurs, overlaps with the granulation phase. It may begin 7 days after the injury and continue for several months or years. This is the reason abdominal surgery discharge instructions limit lifting for up to 6 weeks. Collagen fibers are further organized, and the remodeling process occurs. Fibroblasts disappear as the wound becomes stronger. Secondary Intention. Wounds that occur from trauma, ulceration, and infection have large amounts of exudate and wide, irregular wound margins with extensive tissue loss. These wounds may have edges that cannot be approximated (brought together). The inflammatory reaction may be greater than in primary healing. This results in more debris, cells, and exudate. The debris may have to be cleaned away (debrided) before healing can take place. The process of healing by secondary intention is essentially the same as healing by primary intention. The major differences are the greater defect and the gaping wound edges. Healing and granulation take place from the edges inward and from the bottom of the wound upward until the defect is filled. There is more granulation tissue, and the result is a much larger scar. Tertiary Intention. Tertiary intention (delayed primary intention) healing occurs with delayed suturing of a wound in which two layers of granulation tissue are sutured together. This occurs when a contaminated wound is left open and sutured closed after the infection is controlled. It also occurs when a primary wound becomes infected, is opened, is allowed to granulate, and is then sutured. Tertiary intention usually results in a larger and deeper scar than primary or secondary intention. 2. Explain the red-yellow-black wound concept (description, characteristics, give examples) Red Wound Yellow Wound Black Wound Can be a superficial or deep wound if it is clean and pink in appearance, possible presence of serosanguineous drainage, pink to bright or dark red healing, or chronic wound with granulating tissue. Presence of slough or soft necrotic tissue. Liquid to semiliquid slough with exudate ranging from creamy ivory to yellow-green. Black, gray, or brown adherent necrotic tissue called eschar. Possible presence of purulent drainage. Risk of wound infection increases in proportion to amount of necrotic tissue present. Protection and gentle atraumatic cleansing. Wound cleansing to remove nonviable tissue and absorb excess drainage. Debridement of eschar and nonviable tissue. Skin tears, pressure ulcers (stage II), partial-thickness or second-degree burns, and wounds created by trauma or surgery that are allowed to heal by secondary intention. Wounds with nonviable necrotic tissue, which creates an ideal situation for bacterial growth and therefore must be removed. Full-thickness or third-degree burns, pressure ulcers (stages III and IV), and gangrenous ulcers. [Show More]

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