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PHILL100 Introduction_to_Ethics_sophia_milestone2,1000% CORRECT

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Which of the following represents a difficulty with egoism? • Cooperating with others is a social skill that egoists do not have an opportunity to learn. • Because good is determined by se... lf-interest, the egoist cannot judge the actions of others. • Socially determined actions are usually more successful than self-determined actions. • Individuals pursuing personal excellence often help a society to progress. 2 Why is egoism unique among ethical theories? • It is the only theory to equate what is good to what is performed in the name of self-interest. • It is the only theory to maintain that there are no universal truths regarding what is good. • It is the only theory to acknowledge conflicting interests as harmful to a system of ethics. • It is the only theory to explain the way things ought to be in regards to what is right and wrong. 3 Erika, like most people in her culture, grows flowers in her yard. What would a conventionalist call Erika's action? • Neutral • Impermissible • Obligatory • Supererogatory 4 Which of the following examples contains a disagreement between popular thought and divine command theory? • God says to keep the Sabbath holy, so many people don't have to work on the weekend. • God forbids divorce, so my wife and I didn't make a prenuptial agreement. • God forbids the worship of idols, so I only worship him. • God says, "Woe to those who are rich," but many people strive for wealth. 5 Which of the following people would most likely be satisfied with conventionalism? • Mara is looking for an ethical framework that can account for changing cultural attitudes. • Martin is looking for an ethical framework that says, "You do you." • Meriwether is looking for an ethical framework that values the world culture over local groups. • Malie is looking for an ethical framework that says, "Greed is good." 6 Which of the following statements would you expect to hear from a conventionalist? • "There are no moral truths that apply universally." • "Some cultures are closer to the objective truth than others." • "Some things are always wrong no matter the culture." • "Cultures don't differ much in what they call good." 7 Stefan is from Spain and is visiting Denmark. He finds himself very popular among native Danes because they like his casual and relaxed nature. When Stefan is invited to a local family’s home for dinner, he arrives late and is surprised that his hosts have seemingly taken offense. “This is how we do it in Spain,” he explained with a smile. “Dinner times are approximate and we arrive when we can.” “That is not how we do it in Denmark,” replied his host, rather stiffly. According to conventionalism, who has the stronger ethical stance— Stefan or his host? • Stefan, because his casual nature is why the Danes like him. • The host, because in Denmark, everyone is expected to arrive on time. • The host, because society functions best when individuals are punctual. • Stefan, because by Spanish standards, he had arrived early. 8 Which of the following represents a challenge to the intellectualist option of divine command theory? • The intellectualist option is subjective, whereas divine command theory is supposed to be objective. • The intellectualist option states that ethics are not outside or above God, but ethics must be interpreted by God. • The intellectualist option places a false dichotomy between ethics and religion, thereby saying God has no ethical authority. • “God makes commands because they are good” implies that something beyond God’s free command makes things good. 9 Which of the following statements supports egoism? • A flourishing society requires flourishing individuals. • Ethical standards are easily upheld when they benefit others. • The rule of law motivates actions for individuals. • A society is more just if it enforces laws for the benefit of everyone. 10 According to an egoist, working hard to succeed in order to take care of oneself and one’s needs is good because __________. • societal standards demand it • hard work is valued by all • individual flourishing is the sole basis for ethics • it sets a positive example for others 11 Which of the following observations poses a challenge to the cultural differences argument? • A lot of cultures agree that murder, stealing, and lying are wrong. • Some cultures are utilitarian, while others are egoist. • Many cultures disagree on the ultimate purpose of morality. • Each culture thinks its own moral framework is universal. 12 Which of the following scenarios would be impermissible for an egoist? • Katie picks up litter on the street because she wants to live in a clean neighborhood. • Kevin works late, even though he doesn't get paid and has nothing to gain from it. • Krysta has some time to kill, so she sits in the mall and watches people go by. • Keith gives up the comfort of home to realize his dream of playing in the NBA. 13 Which of the following statements about divine command theory is true? • Divine command theory is a basic principle of all religions. • Divine command theory states that the ends justify the means. • Divine command theory states that right is right only because God says so. • Divine command theory states that what is religious is inherently good and what isn't is bad. 14 Which of the following is an advantage of divine command theory? • Divine command theory prioritizes intent over outcome. • Divine command theory aims to satisfy personal needs. • Divine command theory is about personal development. • Divine command theory is often associated with motivations for being moral. 15 Sadie goes into work on the Sabbath, despite God's commandment against doing so. According to divine command theory, Sadie's action is __________. • obligatory • supererogatory • neutral • impermissible [Show More]

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