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Bio 171 Exam 1

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Bio 171 Exam 1 archaea Answer- like bacteria. Are able to live in extreme environment bacteria Answer- microorganisms that are the basis of fermentation & infectious diseases. Typically one-... celled, have no chlorophyll, multiply by simple division, & can be seen only with a microscope. They occur in 3 main forms: spherical, rod-shaped, & spiral eukaryote Answer- an organism that uses aerobic cellular respiration to break down compounds including oxygen into cellular energy. A human or animal cell most recent common ancestor Answer- of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all organisms in a group are directly descended. prokaryote Answer- an organism lacking a true nucleus: in some systems of biological classification, any of a superkingdom of organisms, including the viruses & monerans phylogenetic tree Answer- a graph illustrating evolutionary relationships among various entities that are known to share a common ancestor nucleic acid Answer- any group of complex compounds found in all living cells & viruses, composed of purines, pyrimidines, carbohydrates, & phosphoric acid. Nucleic acids in the form of DNA & RNA control cellular function & heredity DNA Answer- a nucleic acid that contains the genetic code RNA Answer- a long, single-stranded chain of cells that processes protein transcription Answer- the synthesis of messenger RNA from a DNA template through the formation of base pairs, resulting in a transfer of genetic information that codes for amino acid sequences composing proteins translation Answer- the process by which messenger RNA directs the amino acid sequence of the growing polypeptide during protein synthesis tRNA Answer- transfer RNA mRNA Answer- messenger RNA rRNA Answer- ribosomal RNA gene Answer- the definition of a gene is a unit on a chromosome that determines a specific trait in an organism amino acid Answer- any of a large group of organic acids containing a carboxyl group, COOH, & an amino acid group, NH protein Answer- the definition of a protein is a substance that has amino acids, compounds & carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, & sometimes sulfur is found in many foods cell membrane Answer- a layer of tissue that surrounds a cell ribosome Answer- a tiny particle made up a nucleic acids & proteins that exist in large numbers in the gel-like substance in between every cell in the body genetic code Answer- the set of DNA & RNA sequences used in the synthesis of an organism's proteins. It is the biochemical basis of heredity & nearly universal in all organisms phospholipid Answer- a group of lipids that contain a phosphate ester as part of the structure & yield on hydrolysis phosphoric acid, an alcohol, fatty acid & a nitrogenous base: found in all living cells carbohydrate Answer- the definition of a carbohydrate is an organic compound that occurs in living tissues or food & that can be broken down into energy by people or animals characteristics of living organisms Answer- -complexity, with precise spatial organization on several scales -the ability to change in response to the environment -the ability to reproduce -the capacity to evolve 1st law of thermodynamics Answer- energy can not be created or destroyed 2nd law of thermodynamics Answer- states that the degree of disorder in the universe tends to increase entropy Answer- amount of disorder in a system variable Answer- is changed by the experimenter from one treatment to the next cell Answer- the simplest entity central dogma Answer- the pathway from DNA to RNA (specifically to form an RNA called messenger RNA to protein) natural selection Answer- calls on complex mathematical formulations, but at heart its main principles are simple, indeed unavoidable environmental varition Answer- variation among individuals due to differences in the environment genetic variation Answer- differences in the genes that are transmitted from parents to their offspring artificial selection Answer- selection over many centuries has resulted in remarkable variations among dogs. Charles Darwin called this "selection under domestication" & noted that it resembles selection that occurs in nature double helix Answer- structure composed of 2 strands coiled around each other to form a sort of spiral structure experimentation Answer- a disciplined & controlled way of asking & answering questions about the world in an unbiased manner null hypothesis Answer- predicts no effect negative control Answer- the variable is not changed & no effect is expected positive control Answer- a variable is introduced that has a known effect to be sure that the experiment is working properly independent variable Answer- the manipulation performed on the test group by the researchers dependent variable Answer- the effect that is being measured standard errors Answer- the "average" of a study, may not be an accurate representative of the "average" of the actual population cell division Answer- the process by which cells make more cells asexual reproduction Answer- parent cell divides & forms 2 daughter cells. Identical copies of the genetic material. Because DNA replication is not completely error free, the daughter cells may carry small genetic differences or mutations compared to the parent cell sexual reproduction Answer- results in offspring that receive genetic material is supplied by the female parent & is present in the egg; the other half is contributed by the male sperm gametes Answer- eggs & sperms are specialized cells known as gametes. Merge together during fertilization to form a [Show More]

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