Test Bank for Essentials of Nursing Research, Appraising Evidence for Nursing Practice, 10th Edition, 10e by Denise F. Polit, Cheryl Tatano Beck TEST BANK ISBN-13: 9781975141851 FULL CHAPTERS INCLUD... ED 1 Introducing Nursing Research for Evidence-Based Practice Nursing Research in Perspective What Is Nursing Research? The Importance of Research to Evidence-Based Nursing Roles of Nurses in Research Nursing Research: Past and Present Current and Future Directions for Nursing Research Knowledge Sources for Nursing Practice Tradition and “Experts” Clinical Experience and Trial and Error Disciplined Research Paradigms and Methods for Nursing Research The Positivist Paradigm Worldview of the Positivist Paradigm The Scientific Method and Quantitative Research The Constructivist Paradigm Worldview of the Constructivist Paradigm Constructivist Methods and Qualitative Research Multiple Paradigms and Nursing Research The Purposes of Nursing Research Research for Varying Levels of Explanation Research Purposes Linked to Evidence-Based Practice Therapy/Intervention Diagnosis and Assessment Prognosis Etiology (Causation)/Prevention of Harm Description Meaning and Processes Links Between Study Purposes and Evidence-Based Practice Basics of Evidence-Based Nursing Practice Definition of Evidence-Based Practice Best Evidence Patient Preferences and Values Nurses’ Clinical Expertise Sources of “Best” Research Evidence Evidence Hierarchies and Level of Evidence Scales Asking Well-Worded Clinical Questions for Evidence-Based Practice Assistance for Consumers of Nursing Research 2 Understanding Key Concepts and Steps in Quantitative and Qualitative Research The Building Blocks of Research The Faces and Places of Research Concepts, Constructs, and Theories Variables Characteristics of Variables Dependent and Independent Variables Conceptual and Operational Definitions Data Relationships Major Classes of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Quantitative Research: Experimental and Nonexperimental Studies Qualitative Research: Disciplinary Traditions Major Steps in a Quantitative Study Phase 1: The Conceptual Phase Step 1: Formulating and Delimiting the Problem Step 2: Reviewing the Related Literature Step 3: Undertaking Clinical Fieldwork Step 4: Defining the Framework and Developing Conceptual Definitions Step 5: Formulating Hypotheses Phase 2: The Design and Planning Phase Step 6: Selecting a Research Design Step 7: Developing Protocols for the Intervention Step 8: Identifying the Population Step 9: Designing the Sampling Plan Step 10: Specifying Methods to Measure Research Variables Step 11: Developing Methods to Safeguard Human/Animal Rights Step 12: Reviewing and Finalizing the Research Plan Phase 3: The Empirical Phase Step 13: Collecting the Data Step 14: Preparing the Data for Analysis Phase 4: The Analytic Phase Step 15: Analyzing the Data Step 16: Interpreting the Results Phase 5: The Dissemination Phase Step 17: Communicating the Findings Step 18: Putting the Evidence Into Practice Activities in a Qualitative Study Conceptualizing and Planning a Qualitative Study Identifying the Research Problem Doing a Literature Review Selecting and Gaining Entrée Into Research Sites Developing an Overall Approach Addressing Ethical Issues Conducting a Qualitative Study General Questions in Reviewing a Study 3 Reading and Critically Appraising Research Articles Types of Research Reports The Content of Research Journal Articles The Title and Abstract The Introduction The Method Section The Results Section The Discussion Section References The Style of Research Journal Articles Why Are Research Articles so Hard to Read? Tips on Reading Research Articles Critically Appraising Research Reports Research Critiques and Critical Appraisals Critical Appraisal Support in This Textbook Critical Appraisal With Key Research Challenges in Mind Inference Reliability, Validity, and Trustworthiness Bias Research Control Bias Reduction: Randomness and Blinding Reflexivity Generalizability and Transferability 4 Attending to Ethics in Research Ethics and Research Historical Background Codes of Ethics Government Regulations for Protecting Study Participants Ethical Dilemmas in Conducting Research Ethical Principles for Protecting Study Participants Beneficence The Right to Freedom From Harm and Discomfort The Right to Protection From Exploitation Respect for Human Dignity The Right to Self-Determination The Right to Full Disclosure Justice The Right to Fair Treatment The Right to Privacy Procedures for Protecting Study Participants Risk/Benefit Assessments Informed Consent Confidentiality Procedures Anonymity Confidentiality in the Absence of Anonymity Debriefings and Referrals Treatment of Vulnerable Groups External Reviews and the Protection of Human Rights Ethical Issues in Using Animals in Research Critically Appraising the Ethical Aspects of a Study Part 2 Preliminary Steps in Quantitative and Qualitative Research 5 Identifying Research Problems, Research Questions, and Hypotheses Overview of Research Problems Basic Terminology Research Problems and Paradigms Sources of Research Problems Development and Refinement of Research Problems Communicating Research Problems and Questions Problem Statements Statements of Purpose Research Questions Research Questions in Quantitative Studies Research Questions in Qualitative Studies Research Hypotheses Function of Hypotheses in Quantitative Research Characteristics of Testable Hypotheses Wording of Hypotheses Hypothesis Testing and Proof Critical Appraisal of Research Problems, Research Questions, and Hypotheses 6 Finding and Reviewing Research Evidence in the Literature Basic Issues Relating to Literature Reviews Purposes of Research Literature Reviews Types of Information to Seek for a Research Review Major Steps and Strategies in Doing a Literature Review Locating Relevant Literature for a Research Review Developing a Search Strategy Searching Bibliographic Databases Getting Started With an Electronic Search The CINAHL Database The MEDLINE Database Google Scholar Screening, Documentation, and Abstracting Screening and Gathering References Documentation in Literature Retrieval Extracting and Recording Information Critical Appraisal of the Evidence Appraising Studies for a Review Analyzing and Synthesizing Evidence Preparing a Written Literature Review Organizing a Written Review Writing a Literature Review Content of the Written Literature Review Style of a Research Review Critical Appraisal of Research Literature Reviews 7 Understanding Theoretical and Conceptual Frameworks Theories, Models, and Frameworks Theories Models Frameworks The Nature of Theories and Conceptual Models Conceptual Models and Theories Used in Nursing Research Conceptual Models of Nursing Middle-Range Theories Developed by Nurses Other Models Used by Nurse Researchers Using a Theory or Framework in Research Theories and Qualitative Research Theories in Quantitative Research Critical Appraisal of Frameworks in Research Reports Part 3 Designs and Methods for Quantitative and Qualitative Nursing Research 8 Appraising Quantitative Research Design Overview of Research Design Issues Key Research Design Features Causality Research Questions and Research Design Experimental, Quasi-Experimental, and Nonexperimental Designs Experimental Design: Randomized Controlled Trials Characteristics of True Experiments Experimental Designs Experimental and Control Conditions Advantages and Disadvantages of Experiments Quasi-Experiments Quasi-Experimental Designs Advantages and Disadvantages of Quasi-Experiments Nonexperimental Studies Types of Nonexperimental/Observational Studies Advantages and Disadvantages of Nonexperimental Research The Time Dimension in Research Design Cross-Sectional Designs Longitudinal Designs Techniques of Research Control Controlling the Study Context Controlling Participant Factors Randomization Homogeneity Matching Statistical Control Evaluation of Control Methods Characteristics of Good Design Statistical Conclusion Validity Internal Validity Threats to Internal Validity Internal Validity and Research Design External Validity Construct Validity Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Research Designs 9 Appraising Sampling and Data Collection in Quantitative Studies Sampling in Quantitative Research Basic Sampling Concepts Populations Samples and Sampling Strata Sampling Designs in Quantitative Studies Nonprobability Sampling Probability Sampling Evaluation of Nonprobability and Probability Sampling Sample Size in Quantitative Studies Critical Appraisal of Sampling Plans Data Collection in Quantitative Research Overview of Data Collection and Data Sources Self-Reports/Patient-Reported Outcomes Question Form and Wording Interviews Versus Questionnaires Summated Rating Scales Evaluation of Self-Report Methods Observational Methods Methods of Structured Observation Observational Sampling Evaluation of Observational Methods Biomarkers Data Quality in Quantitative Research Reliability Validity Critical Appraisal of Data Collection Methods 10 Appraising Qualitative Designs and Approaches The Design of Qualitative Studies Characteristics of Qualitative Research Design Qualitative Design Features Intervention, Control, and Blinding Comparisons Research Settings Time Frames Causality and Qualitative Research Qualitative Research Traditions Ethnography Phenomenology Descriptive Phenomenology Interpretive Phenomenology Grounded Theory Grounded Theory Methods Alternate Views of Grounded Theory Other Types of Qualitative Research Case Studies Narrative Analyses Descriptive Qualitative Studies Research With Ideological Perspectives Critical Theory Feminist Research Participatory Action Research Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Designs 11 Appraising Sampling and Data Collection in Qualitative Studies Sampling in Qualitative Research The Logic of Qualitative Sampling Types of Qualitative Sampling Convenience and Snowball Sampling Purposive Sampling Theoretical Sampling Sample Size in Qualitative Research Sampling in the Three Main Qualitative Traditions Sampling in Ethnography Sampling in Phenomenological Studies Sampling in Grounded Theory Studies Critically Appraising Qualitative Sampling Plans Data Collection in Qualitative Studies Qualitative Self-Report Techniques Types of Qualitative Self-Reports Gathering Qualitative Self-Report Data Evaluation of Qualitative Self-Report Methods Qualitative Observational Methods The Observer-Participant Role in Participant Observation Gathering Participant Observation Data Recording Observations Evaluation of Unstructured Observational Methods Critical Appraisal of Unstructured Data Collection 12 Understanding Mixed Methods Research, Quality Improvement, and Other Special Types of Research Mixed Methods Research Rationale for Mixed Method Research Purposes and Applications of Mixed Methods Research Mixed Method Designs and Strategies Design Decisions and Notation Specific Mixed Methods Designs Sampling and Data Collection in Mixed Methods Research Quality Improvement Features of Quality Improvement and Improvement Science Quality Improvement Planning Tools Quality Improvement Approaches Other Special Types of Research Intervention Research Clinical Trials Evaluation Research Nursing Intervention Research Comparative Effectiveness Research Health Services and Outcomes Research Survey Research A Few Other Types of Research Critical Appraisal of Studies Described in this Chapter Part 4 Analysis, Interpretation, and Application of Nursing Research 13 Understanding Statistical Analysis of Quantitative Data Levels of Measurement Descriptive Statistics Frequency Distributions Central Tendency Variability Bivariate Descriptive Statistics Crosstabulations Correlation Describing Risk Absolute Risk Absolute Risk Reduction Odds Ratio Number Needed to Treat Introduction to Inferential Statistics Sampling Distributions Parameter Estimation Hypothesis Testing Type I and Type II Errors Level of Significance Tests of Statistical Significance Overview of Hypothesis Testing Procedures Bivariate Statistical Tests t-Tests Analysis of Variance Chi-Squared Test Correlation Coefficients Effect Size Indexes Guide to Bivariate Statistical Tests Multivariate Statistical Analysis Multiple Regression Analysis of Covariance Logistic Regression Measurement Statistics Reliability Assessment Validity Assessment Content Validity Criterion Validity Construct Validity Reading and Understanding Statistical Information Tips on Reading Text With Statistical Information Tips on Reading Statistical Tables Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Analyses 14 Interpreting Quantitative Findings and Evaluating Clinical Significance Interpretation of Quantitative Results Aspects of Interpretation Inference and Interpretation The Interpretive Mindset Credibility of Quantitative Results Proxies and Interpretation Credibility and Validity Credibility and Bias Credibility and Corroboration Other Aspects of Interpretation Precision of the Results Magnitude of Effects and Importance The Meaning of Quantitative Results Interpreting Hypothesized Results Interpreting Nonsignificant Results Interpreting Unhypothesized Significant Results Generalizability and Applicability of the Results Implications of the Results Clinical Significance Clinical Significance at the Group Level Clinical Significance at the Individual Level Conceptual Definitions of Clinical Significance Operationalizing Clinical Significance: Establishing the Minimal Important Change Benchmark Critical Appraisal of Interpretations 15 Understanding the Analysis of Qualitative Data Introduction to Qualitative Analysis Qualitative Data Management and Organization Developing a Coding Scheme Coding Qualitative Data Methods of Organizing Qualitative Data Analytic Procedures A General Analytic Overview Qualitative Content Analysis and Thematic Analysis Ethnographic Analysis Phenomenological Analysis Grounded Theory Analysis Glaser’s Grounded Theory Method Strauss and Corbin’s Approach Constructivist Grounded Theory Approach Critical Appraisal of Qualitative Analysis 16 Appraising Trustworthiness and Integrity in Qualitative Research Perspectives on Quality in Qualitative Research Debates About Rigor and Validity Generic Versus Specific Standards Terminology Proliferation and Confusion Lincoln and Guba’s Quality Criteria Credibility Dependability Confirmability Transferability Authenticity Strategies to Enhance Quality in Qualitative Inquiry Quality-Enhancement Strategies During Data Collection Prolonged Engagement and Persistent Observation Reflexivity Strategies Data and Method Triangulation Comprehensive and Vivid Recording of Information Member Checking Strategies Relating to Coding and Analysis Investigator Triangulation Searching for Disconfirming Evidence and Competing Explanations Peer Review and Debriefing Inquiry Audits Strategies Relating to Presentation Thick and Contextualized Description Researcher Credibility Interpretation of Qualitative Findings The Credibility of Qualitative Results The Meaning of Qualitative Results The Importance of Qualitative Results The Transferability of Qualitative Results The Implications of Qualitative Results Critical Appraisal of Quality and Integrity in Qualitative Studies 17 Learning From Systematic Reviews Research Integration and Synthesis Systematic Reviews of Quantitative Evidence Basics of Meta-Analysis Advantages of Meta-Analysis Criteria for Undertaking a Meta-Analysis Steps in a Quantitative Systematic Review Formulation of the Review Question The Design of a Quantitative Systematic Review The Search for Evidence in the Literature Evaluations of Study Quality Extraction and Encoding of Data for Analysis Calculation of Effects in Meta-Analyses Analysis of Data in a Meta-Analysis Assessment of Degree of Confidence: GRADE Systematic Reviews of Qualitative Evidence Aggregative and Interpretive Qualitative Reviews Aggregative Qualitative Reviews Interpretive Qualitative Reviews Metasynthesis Preliminary Steps in a Metasynthesis Data Analysis and Interpretation in Metasynthesis Meta-Aggregation Preliminary Steps in a Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Evidence Synthesis Analysis Through Meta-Aggregation Assessment of Confidence Critical Appraisal of Systematic Reviews 18 Putting Research Evidence Into Practice: Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence Evidence-Based Practice and Related Concepts Resources for Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing Preprocessed and Pre-Appraised Evidence Models of the Evidence-Based Practice Process Individual and Organizational Evidence-Based Practice Major Steps in Evidence-Based Practice Step 2: Acquire Research Evidence Step 3: Appraise the Evidence Evidence Quality Magnitude of Effects Quantity and Consistency of Evidence Applicability Actions Based on Evidence Appraisals Step 4: Apply the Evidence Step 5: Assess the Outcomes of the Practice Change Evidence-Based Practice and Practice-Based Evidence Evidence-Based Practice and Population Models of Evidence Evidence-Based Practice and External Validity Generalizability, Applicability, and Relevance New Directions in Health Care Research Comparative Effectiveness Research Pragmatic Clinical Trials Subgroup Analyses [Show More]
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