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CPCE Exam 160 Questions with Verified Answers 2023,100% CORRECT

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CPCE Exam 160 Questions with Verified Answers 2023 The counseling technique in which the counselor intensifies the client's emotional state in order to help the client understand the irrationalit... y of the emotional reaction is known as - CORRECT ANSWER Paradoxical intention The concepts of "career maturity" has been described and researched most extensively by - CORRECT ANSWER Crites Longitudinal research is rarely conducted in the counseling and development professions primarily due to the - CORRECT ANSWER High costs of implementation The credibility of studies published in refereed journals is usually higher than studies published in non-refereed journals because - CORRECT ANSWER The "blind review" of articles accepted for refereed journals lessens bias A distinguishing characteristic of behavioral approaches to counseling is a strong emphasis on establishment of counseling goals that - CORRECT ANSWER Are measurable and observable *Client:* "Most the time things are fine, but I hate it when my parents fight. It makes me want to run away from home." *Counselor:* "Is it possible that you both love and hate your parents?" The counselor's response is an example of the counseling skill known as - CORRECT ANSWER Interpretation The strongest (type of) argument that can be made for the validity of the results of a research study is when - CORRECT ANSWER Replications of the study support the results Which of the following provides the primary standards and guidelines for development of assessment instruments and procedures? - CORRECT ANSWER Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing Qualitative research is said to be "context sensitive" based on the belief that human behavior is - CORRECT ANSWER Influenced by the settings in which it occurs Clients who adhere to a notion of universal truth about members of minority groups that disregards cultural variations are exhibiting a psychological state known as - CORRECT ANSWER Cultural encapsulation Stratified sampling is sometimes better than random sampling, especially for - CORRECT ANSWER Comparing the performance of well-differentiated subgroups What is not a goal of Gestalt counseling groups? - CORRECT ANSWER Helping individuals achieve integration, helping group members "grow up," and helping individuals accept anxiety as part of life In the Synergistic Stage of racial identity development models, the person who is a member of a minority group - CORRECT ANSWER Adopts a pluralistic worldview Often a group progresses effectively towards its goals primarily due to the personal and professional respect the members have for the group leader. Leaders enjoying this situation would be most effective using which of the following group leadership styles? - CORRECT ANSWER Charismatic Single-subject research designs all begin with establishment of the _______________ condition. - CORRECT ANSWER Baseline You are conducting career counseling with a 19-year-old female who had a B average in high school, reports having studied "only moderately," and currently works in a machine shop. Both she and her supervisor report that she is very adept at the work. She also is a student at the local college and is making mostly C and D grades, and reports that she becomes morose and sullen if she studies for long periods of time. She also reports that her parents want her to enter a "profession," but are vague to which one. Which stage of career development would be applicable to this person at this time? - CORRECT ANSWER Exploration The NBCC and ACA Code of Ethics do not include a statement reflecting the principle that - CORRECT ANSWER Counselors should receive appropriate fees for services rendered regardless of the situations in which the services were rendered The "transition" or "control" stage of group process is focused primarily upon group members - CORRECT ANSWER Working through conflicts, attempts at group domination, confrontations, and resistance Suppose that a personnel officer of The Big Corporation calls you, a counselor, and asks you to relate the achievement and other test scores of one of your clients who is 16-years-old and who has applied for a job in that corporation. Which of the following is the appropriate, ethical response? - CORRECT ANSWER "I can only make this information available to you if I receive a written request to do so from the client's parents." According to Holland, if a career counseling client had a personal style self and other evaluated to be extroverted and aggressive or assertive, persuasive, and adventurous, the client would probably have a consistent career pattern in the ______________ environment. - CORRECT ANSWER Enterprising The American minority group increasing in population membership at the fastest rate is - CORRECT ANSWER Hispanic Americans Some counselors follow a theory of moral development specifically applicable to females, which was developed by - CORRECT ANSWER Gilligan The Melting Pot Theory holds that amalgamation of groups produces a stronger, more diverse society, whereas the _____________ Theory holds that cultural groups can retain their uniqueness and yet coexist effectively in the larger society. - CORRECT ANSWER Salad Bowl A one-way analysis of variance differs from a t-test in that it is used to test the difference(s) among - CORRECT ANSWER Three or more means If a supervisee engages in sexual relations with a clinical supervisor, the basis for ethical misconduct is focused on - CORRECT ANSWER Power differential If it is necessary to use volunteers in a research study, the research should - CORRECT ANSWER Explain how volunteers may differ from non-volunteers on critical variables Within the context of Maslow's needs hierarchy, _______________ needs supersede all others. - CORRECT ANSWER Physiological Defining a client's psychopathology as a failure to make meaningful choices in life and failure to accentuate the positive aspects of life is consistent with the _____________ orientation to counseling. - CORRECT ANSWER Existential According to Freud, the "ego" is guided by - CORRECT ANSWER The reality principle Although group effectiveness is difficult to define and is related to the purposes and leadership of the group, some general principles have been agreed upon. For example, group processes generally are most effective when the group - CORRECT ANSWER Develops new ways of functioning in response to emerging needs and patterns of interactions among group members A group leader who is concerned about the group staying focused, accomplishing goals, and achieving effective closure is thinking about group - CORRECT ANSWER Task functions Experimental research is always characterized by (at least) - CORRECT ANSWER Manipulation of the independent variables The use of personality inventories to help assign persons to predetermined categories or classifications of psychological functioning usually occurs within a process known as - CORRECT ANSWER Diagnosis The process through which counselors use a system of integrated and interrelated resources to help individuals solve career-related problems and/or to make career decisions effectively is known as - CORRECT ANSWER Career development programming A verbal test is one in which the respondents must - CORRECT ANSWER Have command of language in order to perform effectively A raw score expressed in standard deviation units is a - CORRECT ANSWER Z score A primary benefit of the use of so-called "completion technique" projective personality assessments is that they - CORRECT ANSWER Usually reveal what's at the forefront of the respondent's consciousness When communicating with other professionals, counselors use various words or phrases to describe the behaviors being exhibited by their clients. For example, when a client is attributing personally held feelings to another person, a counselor might say that the client is engaging in a process known as - CORRECT ANSWER Projection A married couple comes to you as a counselor in a private practice and tells you that they are having marital difficulties and have sought counseling for resolution of them. In the course of an initial session with them, one of the spouses reports being a new and active member of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). You should - CORRECT ANSWER Investigate the nature of the AA's activities and continue counseling if those activities do not include accepted definitions of counseling So-called "aspirational ethics" call for counselors to - CORRECT ANSWER Hold to the highest standards of professional conduct A group leader who informs potential participants of the goals and methods to be used in the group, group leader qualifications, group schedule, member expectations, and limits of confidentiality is engaging in a process known as - CORRECT ANSWER Informed consent In comparison to African American males in the United States, African American females have - CORRECT ANSWER Relatively higher rates of employment A counselor who had been providing counseling service for several severely depressed clients decides to take a vacation. The counselor was confident that counseling efforts had stabilized clients and that they were operating at acceptable levels of functioning. The counselor concluded there was no need to provide client access to another helping professional while the counselor was away. This case illustrates unethical counselor behavior known as - CORRECT ANSWER Abandonment In providing counseling with sensitivity to multiculturalism, one of the first determinations that should be made is the extent to which the client - CORRECT ANSWER Is culturally-bound The counseling technique used by the counselor to explain to a client the logical inconsistencies in the client's statements is known as - CORRECT ANSWER Confrontation Career counseling clients exhibiting high decision-making readiness, in comparison to those exhibiting low decision-making readiness, - CORRECT ANSWER Need less assistance with use of career information resources The process of examining the individual, reviewing possible occupations, and matching the individual and occupation is called the _________________ career counseling approach - CORRECT ANSWER Trait-and-factor Counseling is a profession based in large part on the assumption that healthy human growth will occur naturally. Within this perspective, the role of the counselor is to help the client to - CORRECT ANSWER Remove barriers to naturally occurring developmental processes A counselor who works with adolescents is familiar with the knowledge that they tend to over select professional positions and occupations when asked about "what they are planning to do for a living when they grow up." In terms of Gelatt's decision-making paradigm, adolescents tend to have errors in their ____________________ systems. - CORRECT ANSWER Prediction Many members of the counseling profession have engaged in social reform efforts intended to reduce spouse abuse. These efforts have limited effect because - CORRECT ANSWER Many people, both males and females, believe that spouse abuse is a "family matter" and, therefore, not subject to intervention from persons outside the family Research on the development in a person of a so-called "humanistic life outlook" has shown that it is facilitated by - CORRECT ANSWER Formal educational experiences, observational learning experiences, and diverse interpersonal interactions A group leader attends to how issues are addressed or avoided, levels of member participation, and modes of interaction among group members primarily in order to understand the group's - CORRECT ANSWER Norms When a group leader attempts to help members of a group realize the potential benefits of group with each group member, the group leader is trying to facilitate ______________ among group members. - CORRECT ANSWER Installation of hope The appropriate first, immediate action a counselor should take if a court-ordered disclosure is not approved by a client or the client's representative is to - CORRECT ANSWER Request to be excused on the basis of protecting the client's welfare and dignity In a multi-authored published journal article, the primary responsibility for the ethical conduct of the research falls upon - CORRECT ANSWER The senior author In the Tarasoff v. Board of Regents of the University of California, the counselor was cited for failure to - CORRECT ANSWER Warn and protect a victim from harm A group of people living together with prescribed patterns of interdependent behavior could be best described as a - CORRECT ANSWER Society A counselor completing a report for an insurance company was required to indicate whether a client had a phobia or an anxiety reaction. The counselor knew that the primary distinction between the two conditions is the - CORRECT ANSWER Specificity of the fear causing source A state-licensed counselor holding a master's degree in counseling and doctorate in experimental psychology opened a private counseling practice. In announcements of the opening of the practice, the counselor's name was followed by "Ph.D., LPC." This counselor - CORRECT ANSWER Violated the ethical standards of the American Counseling Association The Dictionary of Occupational Titles, within the context of career counseling with an adult, - CORRECT ANSWER Could be more useful in helping a client expand occupational options A professional counselor determines fees for monthly consultation services on a job-by-job basis. This is an example of which of the following types of reinforcement schedules? - CORRECT ANSWER Variable ratio The reliability of a test appropriate for a group of respondents is never "perfect" (i.e., r = 1.00) because - CORRECT ANSWER Error components of test results fluctuate The best descriptor of the emotion that results when a feeling or fear is not understood by the person experiencing it is - CORRECT ANSWER Anxiety The usefulness and value of the norms provided by a test developer are primarily contingent upon the - CORRECT ANSWER Types of people included in the norm group When persons who are characteristically shy and withdrawn participate in "assertiveness training," initially they experience uncertainty and self-doubt. Counselors refer to this social-psychological concept as - CORRECT ANSWER Cognitive dissonance In regard to career planning and placement services and counseling for young adults, career counselors have given the least attention to helping students be able to evaluate - CORRECT ANSWER Organizations A "standardized" test is one for which - CORRECT ANSWER There is uniformity in administration and scoring procedures The primary advantage of using personality inventories with clients to assess clients' traits and characteristics is in regard to - CORRECT ANSWER Efficiency A counselor uses the .05 alpha level for statistical significance in a research study to test null hypotheses. This means that - CORRECT ANSWER 5 times out of 100 the null hypothesis will be rejected incorrectly When a group leader attempts to demonstrate appropriate behaviors relative to the purposes of the group, the group leader is hoping that group members will change through - CORRECT ANSWER Imitative behavior A counseling group member stated, "I feel so much better knowing that many of you have had similar problems. I guess we're all in the same boat!" This member's statement is an example of a group process known as - CORRECT ANSWER Universality The "compensatory" theory of leisure suggests that a certified public accountant happy at his/her work also would enjoy _____________, whereas the "spillover" theory of leisure suggests that the accountant also would enjoy ______________. - CORRECT ANSWER Racquet ball; chess An intelligence test having a mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15 is given to all 1,500 students in a school to estimate who would qualify for a "gifted-student" program. Assuming a normal distribution of the intelligence scores, if the cutoff for the entrance into the program was set at 130, approximately how many students would be eligible for the program based on their intelligence test scores? - CORRECT ANSWER 30 In some counseling groups, the members feel dependent upon the group leader for direction and movement and are passive in other ways as well, and the group counselor is easily fatigued and irritated because of the responsibility to "make everything work" in the group. According to Yalom, among others, this situation is most likely to arise in groups - CORRECT ANSWER That have no assumed responsibility for their own functioning A counselor who is familiar with the use of computers in career counseling would not be surprised to learn that - CORRECT ANSWER Client motivation is supported and increased by immediate feedback Measurement involves - CORRECT ANSWER Assignment of numbers to attributes of persons, objects, or events The multiple correlation of five predictor variables with grade point average (GPA) is .50. This signifies that the - CORRECT ANSWER Combined predictors have 25% shared variance with GPA Within the context of Loevinger's Impulse Stage of ego development, the child distinguishes separate existence from parents by exercise of will. A primary characteristic of this stage of development is that the child - CORRECT ANSWER Lack impulse control One of the primary differences in clients' uses of career counseling resources in print media format (e.g., Dictionary of Occupational Titles or Occupational Outlook Handbook) and those in computerized format (e.g., Choices, Discover II, SIGI, or ECES) is the - CORRECT ANSWER Speed with which information can be retrieved for use At a minimum, there should be sufficient detail reported in a research article published in a journal to allow - CORRECT ANSWER Replication of the procedures used If spelling ability correlated to +.60 with grades, how could you best interpret this finding? - CORRECT ANSWER Of the variance related to spelling ability, 36% is also related to course grades Due to the nature of the counseling process, some concepts from the field of speech and communications are readily applied to counseling. For example, counselors often find it appropriate to give (i.e., send) persuasive messages to clients. Such messages are more likely to be received (i.e., heard and accepted) if the counselor, as the message sender, exhibits certain characteristics. Which of the following is not a primary characteristic of effective persuasive communicators? - CORRECT ANSWER Emotionality "Product" evaluation, sometimes known as "summative" evaluation, is focused upon counseling program - CORRECT ANSWER Outcomes Competitiveness between children in the same family is known as - CORRECT ANSWER Sibling rivalry The members of a group seemed to be rebelling against the group counselor's leadership, "fighting" with one another to establish dominance in the group, confronting the group counselor as well as one another, and generally being in a state of conflict. Based on these characteristics and behaviors, the group counselor determined that the group was in which of the following stage of group development? - CORRECT ANSWER Transition The type of research done solely to test theory, with little or no regard to applications of results to practical problems, is known as _________ research. - CORRECT ANSWER Basic According to the NBCC and ACA Code of Ethics, when should a counselor try to persuade the client to report knowledge of a crime to the appropriate law enforcement authorities? - CORRECT ANSWER When there is imminent danger to others The process through which, usually over generations, members of subordinate groups come to take on the characteristics of the dominant culture is known as - CORRECT ANSWER Assimilation In the context of the counselor's use of active listening skills, the following is an example of which type of reflection error? *Client:* "I just can't see myself sitting at a desk job all day." *Counselor:* "You want to do outdoor work." - CORRECT ANSWER Implication A counselor conducts a study in which respondents indicate their attitudes toward counseling through responding to statements by selecting from among Strongly Agree, Undecided, Disagree, or Strongly Disagree. This response scale is known as a ___________________ scale. - CORRECT ANSWER Likert Unfortunately, "traditional" approaches to counseling often used by members of the majority culture in the United States are often ineffective with members of American minority groups, in large part because most traditional counseling approaches are based on a(n) ______________ model of counseling. - CORRECT ANSWER Intrapsychic A counselor and client begin the therapeutic process with discussion of informed consent, number of sessions authorized, required fees, confidentiality, and duty to warn issues. Among the following, what other important aspect of the counseling relationship should have been discussed at that time? - CORRECT ANSWER The nature of the therapeutic process Institutional Review Boards were created in the attempt to ensure that - CORRECT ANSWER The legal rights of subject participants in research are protected In the context of counseling based on social learning theory, the client's imitative behaviors of a "model" person are more likely to occur when the client - CORRECT ANSWER Has a close identification with the model Used a prelude to group counseling, ______________________ involves consideration of the cultural, demographic, economic, social, health, and psychological needs of group members and how they are likely to relate to the group's purposes and goals. - CORRECT ANSWER Ecological assessment A basic principle in human growth and development is that a person's individual functioning includes - CORRECT ANSWER Reciprocal interactions among human organism subsystems A counselor was working with a client who had recently experienced a divorce, become unemployed, and had to move to a considerably smaller residence. In talking with the counselor about these matters, the client often joked about his situation and seemed very relaxed, yet he could not specify intended future directions in life. In the context of psychoanalytic theory, this client was exhibiting a behavior known as - CORRECT ANSWER Reaction formation Ellis' rational emotive therapy and Meichenbaum's cognitive behavior modification approaches to counseling are similar in that both hold that - CORRECT ANSWER A client's cognitions are "hypotheses to be test," not absolute facts or truths, clients should perform "personal experiments" to determine if cognitions and beliefs are consistent with objective reality, and "restructuring of cognitions" is an important aspect of therapeutic change If two or more independent variables simultaneously affect the dependent variable, at least some degree of a(n) _____________ effect has occurred. - CORRECT ANSWER Interaction Famed psychologist Piaget was primarily concerned with __________________ development. - CORRECT ANSWER Cognitive In the context of group counseling, members who are high in conformity also tend to be high in - CORRECT ANSWER Authoritarianism Human development authorities such as Lewin suggest that healthy psychological development moves toward all of the following except - CORRECT ANSWER Simpler cognitive complexity "If test performance is to be interpreted as a sample of performance or as a definition of performance in some universe of situations, the test manual should give a clear definition of the universe represented." This statement is made in reference to - CORRECT ANSWER Content validity Groups whose primary purpose is to allow group members to gain new information and develop new skills are ________________ groups. - CORRECT ANSWER Psychoeducation In the context of the reality therapy approach to counseling, the counselor strives to achieve a counseling relationship in which the counselor assumes a(n) _______________ role in decision-making relative to the client. - CORRECT ANSWER Equal What is a basic assumption underlying effective use of Caplan's Mental Health Consultation model? - CORRECT ANSWER Mental health consultation is a supplement to other problem-solving mechanisms within an organization Career counseling resources can be classified as linear or non-linear. A primary difference in the two types is that in the case of non-linear resources, the - CORRECT ANSWER Client has at least partial control of the information exploration sequence "Men (used here to mean all people) are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them." This quote, attributable to Epictetus, most closely describes the counseling theory developed by - CORRECT ANSWER Ellis A counselor who gives a test without explaining the purpose of the test to the respondent(s) is guilty of violation of the - CORRECT ANSWER Code of Fair Testing Practices What is the least important consideration that a group leader should employ in the selection of potentially appropriate strategies to be used in the group? - CORRECT ANSWER The members' previous experience in groups Counselors who follow a behavioral counseling orientation know that primary emphasis in it is the development of - CORRECT ANSWER An awareness of client behavioral stimuli and reinforcement A counselor is working with an adolescent who is addicted to opiates. The counselor does not have specific preparation or experience in addictions counseling. According to the ACA and NBCC Code of Ethics, the counselor should - CORRECT ANSWER Refer the student to a qualified substance abuse counselor The statement, "There is a negative relationship between number of older siblings and social maturity among six year old children" is an example of a(n) - CORRECT ANSWER Directional hypothesis The best resource counselors have available to help clients understand and manage career choices is - CORRECT ANSWER A career development theory Humanists in the existential tradition assert that personal decisions are (personally) effective only if they are consistent with personal beliefs and principles, regardless of whether they are in agreement with those of most people or the known consequences of the decisions. This is an assertion of which of the following of Kohlberg's stages of moral development? - CORRECT ANSWER Conscience orientation A student in a counselor preparation program completed a manuscript based on a research project and submitted it to a favored journal for consideration for publication. Knowing that the favored journal had a reputation for a low acceptance rate, the student also submitted the manuscript to two other journals. This behavior was inappropriate. Instead, the student should have - CORRECT ANSWER Only submitted the manuscript to one journal at a time Counselors refer to the study of "person-to-person relationships" within a group situation as - CORRECT ANSWER Sociometry The stage of life in which clients often question existing their lifestyle and attempt to make changes to achieve greater happiness is known as the _______________ transition. - CORRECT ANSWER Midlife A counselor administered a 100-item, multiple-choice "occupational information" test to a group of 236 persons. Respondents received one point for each correct answer. The counselor calculated a mean of 87 and a standard deviation of 11 for the group. Even before reviewing individual scores, the counselor correctly concluded that - CORRECT ANSWER Many people did very well on the test Suppose the state in which you reside does not yet have counselor licensure. A local civic club has asked you to address their members to present an overview of counselor licensure and its benefits to the public. In your presentation to the group, you note that - CORRECT ANSWER Some professional groups have opposed counselor licensure although the need for mental health services for the public has increased steadily Counselors who work with older persons know that among the inappropriate stereotypes held about older persons in America is that - CORRECT ANSWER Most reside in nursing homes or full-care facilities Your employer has a policy that necessitates that you report all instances of child abuse to state authorities. A client alludes (in your judgment) to the possibility of (the client) being a child abuser. As a counselor, you should - CORRECT ANSWER Inform the client of the policy and let the client decide how to proceed When a group counseling leader helps group members understand the relationship between emotions and cognitions, the group leader is fulfilling the group leader's ____________ function. - CORRECT ANSWER Attachment of meaning The beliefs that the individual takes precedence over the group, society stresses differences rather than similarities, and internal characteristics are more influential than external characteristics are central tenets of the - CORRECT ANSWER Theory of Meritocracy What is the strongest experimental design in regard to external validity? - CORRECT ANSWER Posttest-only control-group design Counselors know that groups are formed for different purposes. For example, in some groups, the primary goal is to yield some specified outcome or "product," while in others the primary goal is to focus on the "process" of interaction within the group. Which is more product- than process-oriented? - CORRECT ANSWER Behavioral A client has concluded a series of counseling sessions with another counselor and has now come to you for counseling. According to the NBCC Ethical Standards, you should - CORRECT ANSWER Proceed as you would with any other new client A series of jobs within an organization that exhibit increasing complexity and need for new skills is known as a career - CORRECT ANSWER Ladder Which of the following is considered ethical practice according to the ACA Code of Ethics and Standard of Practice? - CORRECT ANSWER Conducting activities to reduce test anxiety prior to administration of a test A specific group counseling technique for reinforcing desirable behaviors by pairing them with incompatible behaviors and incorporating principles of relaxation is - CORRECT ANSWER Systematic desensitization In recent years the language used in federal and many state legislative acts relative to counseling services for persons with disabilities has tended to shift from the use of general categorical definitions to noncategorical definitions of functional limitations of disabilities. This change appears to reflect a realization that - CORRECT ANSWER All categorically persons with disabilities do not have the same functional limitations in all work or education situations In some settings, counselors must use diagnostic classification systems as part of the overall program management plan of the service facility. The term "paranoia" is used in such systems to include a group of psychotic disorders characterized by a(n) - CORRECT ANSWER Onset of increasingly complex delusions A group member who consistently brings the group to the present and focuses on relating environmental influences in group members' lives to current group activities and direction is known as the - CORRECT ANSWER Reality checker What is not one of the four major elements in Super's approach to career development? - CORRECT ANSWER Values clarification Privileged communication is best defined as a legal concept that allows - CORRECT ANSWER A client protection from having to disclose information in court proceedings Clients and counselors sit closer together, presumably reflecting being psychologically closer, when they are similar in terms of factors such as age, social status, and general appearance (e.g., style of clothing worn). However, research in proxemics also has shown that forward (upper body) trunk lean by a counselor is likely to cause a negative, distancing reaction initially in a client who is - CORRECT ANSWER A different race from the counselor A counseling researcher has designed a study wherein observers will be in classrooms to observe and "chart" students' behavior. The researcher is aware that this study necessarily will have to take into account a phenomenon known as the - CORRECT ANSWER Hawthorne effect Within the context of group counseling, the intentional application of theories of group interaction is known as group - CORRECT ANSWER Work At the conclusion of a year-long career counseling activity designed specifically for 34 "underemployed" persons, you are able to report to your supervisor that 22 of the participants changed to "training/education appropriate" jobs, 4 became unemployed, 5 remained in their same jobs, and 3 dropped out of the counseling program. This information is which of the following types of evaluation data? - CORRECT ANSWER Product What is not an advantage of group counseling as compared to individual counseling? - CORRECT ANSWER Acceptance of group work As opposed to Freud's emphasis on sexual urges, Adler focused on - CORRECT ANSWER Social urges According to Frankl, true meaning in life can be discovered through all of the following except - CORRECT ANSWER Learning to think in ways accepted by others In Schein's "Doctor-Patient" model of consultation, what must be met for the consultation process to be effective? - CORRECT ANSWER The consultee correctly interprets the symptoms identified, the consultee trusts that the consultant has provided accurate diagnostic information, and the consultee is willing to implement the suggestions made by the consultant When a research study is strong with respect to internal validity, it can be concluded that - CORRECT ANSWER Most extraneous variables had been controlled A client was referred to a counselor by a physician. On the physician's advice, the client had been taking valium to alleviate "minor instances of stress." Initially, small doses of valium were sufficient to alleviate the client's stress. However, over a period of approximately one year, the client had found it necessary to take increasingly larger doses to bring about similar stress reduction. The counselor surmised that the client had developed a(n) ___________ to the valium. - CORRECT ANSWER Tolerance Counselors who follow a Gestalt orientation closely know that it has a primary emphasis on - CORRECT ANSWER What happens in the here-and-now A counselor was hired to develop educational activities that would promote development of gender-fair (i.e., non sex-role stereotypic) attitudes among older elementary school-age children. The counselor decided to develop the activities within the context of social learning theory. What activities would be most appropriate for use by the counselor? - CORRECT ANSWER Having the children view movies that depict males in so-called traditionally feminine occupations (e.g., nursing) or activities (e.g., ironing) and vice versa Counselors use a variety of terms to describe patterns of interpersonal interactions because those terms reflect sets of behavioral characteristics. For example, a primary characteristic of a "closed" interpersonal system is - CORRECT ANSWER Group membership inflexibility A counselor who structures a career counseling group to help group members understand a "fields and levels" approach to careers is following the theory of - CORRECT ANSWER Roe Counselors adhering to the personality theory espoused by C.G. Jung often have to help people with problems related to what Jung called "individualization." Jung defined this term as the process - CORRECT ANSWER Occurring throughout life in which a person is becoming a unique individual Third party reimbursement is a term pertinent to - CORRECT ANSWER Insurance practices In counseling older adults to achieve greater life satisfaction, counseling goals are more easily defined with the recognition that life satisfaction among older persons is primarily - CORRECT ANSWER Economic well-being, sexuality, and self-concept A counselor working with a college student client who was determined to be in the Multiplicity Stage of Perry's Theory of Cognitive Development would know that the client views - CORRECT ANSWER Diversity and uncertainty as possible but temporary A counselor was working with a client who had been referred by a supervisor because the client had been having problems with coworkers, problems primarily attributable to the client's prejudicial attitudes toward ethnic minorities. The counselor asked how the client had come to hold the (prejudicial) attitudes the client was presenting. The client responded, "I don't really know or care. It just makes those folks easier to understand." The client's statements reflect which of the following models have been used to explain the formation of prejudicial attitudes? - CORRECT ANSWER Information processing A counselor who is following Super's theory of career development would not be surprised to learn that a person whom the counselor believed to be in the "Establishment" stage had - CORRECT ANSWER Been promoted to a management position Erickson presented an eight-stage theory of human development, the last stage of which he entitled "integrity versus despair." A person's challenge in this stage is to achieve acceptance of the finality of life. Erickson postulated that such acceptance could be achieved only if the person had - CORRECT ANSWER Successfully met the challenges of the previous stage What would increase the standard error of measurement of a test? - CORRECT ANSWER Having each respondent score his/her test A counselor is providing career counseling to a fifty-four-year-old male client who, after working twenty-seven-years as an accountant, reports feelings of job dissatisfaction and desire to change occupations. Among the client's misperceptions with which the counselor will have to contend is the client's likely belief that - CORRECT ANSWER A person should have a "single career for life" In the context of family counseling, the term ________________ is used to describe the level of emotional bonding among the members of a family. - CORRECT ANSWER Cohesion The primary purpose for applying statistical analyses to test data is to explain - CORRECT ANSWER Variance [Show More]

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