History > AQA Question Papers > GCSE_HISTORY-8145-2BC-SHEFFIELD MANOR LODGE,ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND 1568-1603 Resources_pack_2023 (All)

GCSE_HISTORY-8145-2BC-SHEFFIELD MANOR LODGE,ELIZABETHAN ENGLAND 1568-1603 Resources_pack_2023

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Keeping Queen Elizabeth safe Sir Francis Walsingham, who had been appointed Elizabeth’s principal secretary in 1573, also played an important part in keeping her safe, as he controlled a network ... of spies which provided intelligence on the Queen’s enemies. Mary, Queen of Scots, a lifelong plotter who became increasingly desperate as her captivity continued, was the most dangerous threat to Elizabeth, and Walsingham was particularly concerned about messages that Mary might smuggle out and information that might be passed to her of plots to set her free. As a result, Walsingham recommended people to help with Mary’s security, placed spies in Shrewsbury’s household, questioned servants at times of national danger or threatening rumours, and received a written report from Shrewsbury every week about Mary’s health, behaviour and security. In these weekly reports Shrewsbury always tried to reassure Walsingham that Mary remained secure, arguing that he had paid for thirty extra armed guards out of his own pocket and that she was guarded twenty-four hours a day by at least eight armed men. However, Walsingham’s spies often criticised Shrewsbury’s relaxed custody of Mary as he allowed her to go riding outside and to see numerous visitors. Shrewsbury answered this criticism by arguing that Mary never went outside the grounds of the Manor Lodge and was always accompanied by a large number of heavily armed soldiers. Nevertheless, these reports fuelled rumours of an affair between Shrewsbury and the Scottish Queen which hurt Shrewsbury and may have contributed to the failure of his marriage to Bess of Hardwick. Walsingham had successfully infiltrated Mary’s network of English supporters and foreign agents which allowed him to foil the 1583 Throckmorton plot that aimed to assassinate Elizabeth and replace her with the Scottish Queen. Walsingham’s spies in the French embassy in London had copied Mary’s smuggled letters while he also had double agents amongst Mary’s Scottish supporters. The Spanish ambassador was expelled from England after it was discovered that he had also been corresponding with Mary Queen of Scots. The end for Mary, Queen of Scots, and Shrewsbury. In August 1584 Shrewsbury was replaced as Mary’s guardian and he would not see her again until 1586, after the discovery of the Babington plot by Walsingham and Mary’s subsequent trial. Anthony Babington had first met Mary when he was a young attendant in Shrewsbury’s household, and Thomas Morgan, who in 1585 was Mary’s agent in Paris, had also served in Sheffield as a secretary to the Earl. It was while touring France in 1586 that Anthony Babington was contacted by Thomas Morgan and introduced to other supporters of Mary but unfortunately for them all of this was reported back to Walsingham by his spies. One of Shrewsbury’s roles was Earl Marshal of England. This role meant he was responsible for the administration of justice and therefore was expected to attend Mary’s trial at Fotheringhay in October 1586, but he wrote to Burghley saying that he was too ill to attend. Burghley replied that the Queen required him to be there and that it would be in his best interests to do so in order to end any rumours about his closeness to Mary, Queen of Scots. Despite this, all Shrewsbury would do was to write confirming that he thought Mary was guilty. After Queen Elizabeth signed Mary’s death warrant, the Privy Council instructed Robert Beale, clerk to the Privy Council, to take the death warrant to Fotheringhay. There on 7 February 1587, he was joined by the Earls of Kent, and Shrewsbury. They told Mary that she would be executed the following morning at 8.00 am. On the day of the execution, it was Shrewsbury who signalled to the executioner to strike. Three years later Shrewsbury died a broken man. Guarding Mary, Queen of Scots, had cost him his career, his fortune, his wife, his health and happiness. 8 IB/M/Jun23/E1 Resources Resource A page 10 A map showing the properties owned by the Earl of Shrewsbury, in the Midlands and South Yorkshire. Resource B page 11 A labelled drawing of Sheffield Manor Lodge showing how it may have appeared in 1580. Resource C page 12 A computerised reconstruction of the main building at Sheffield Manor Lodge as it may have appeared in 1580. Resource D page 12 A computerised reconstruction of the inner courtyard and main building at Sheffield Manor Lodge as it may have appeared from the rear of the property in 1580. Resource E page 13 A photograph of the Turret house which was built in 1574 as it is today. Resource F page 14 Modern photographs of the inside of the Turret House. Resource G page 15 An artist’s reconstruction of Sheffield Castle (now demolished) where Mary, Queen of Scots, was also kept captive and guarded by the Earl of Shrewsbury. Resource H page 16 An extract from ‘Mary, Queen of Scots, the captive Queen in England, 1568- 1587’ by David Templeman, 2016. Resource I page 17 An extract from ‘The English Captivity of Mary, Queen of Scots’ by Patrick Collinson, 1987. [Show More]

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