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HESI NCLEX-RN FUNDAMENTALS QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS EXPLAINED (By TestMango.com) 1. A 20-year-old female client with a noticeable body odor has refused to shower for the last 3 days. She states, "... I have been told that it is harmful to bathe during my period." Which action should the nurse take first? 2. A 65-year-old client who attends an adult daycare program and is wheelchair-mobile has redness in the sacral area. Which instruction is most important for the nurse to provide? 3. After a needle stick occurs while removing the cap from a sterile needle, which action should the nurse implement? 4. After receiving written and verbal instructions from a clinic nurse about a newly prescribed medication, a client asks the nurse what to do if questions arise about the medication after getting home. How should the nurse respond? 5. After the nurse tells an older client that an IV line needs to be inserted, the client becomes very apprehensive, loudly verbalizing a dislike for all health care providers and nurses. How should the nurse respond? 6. Based on the nursing diagnosis of risk for infection, which intervention is best for the nurse to implement when providing care for an older incontinent client? 7. By rolling contaminated gloves inside-out, the nurse is affecting which step in the chain of infection? 8. A client becomes angry while waiting for a supervised break to smoke a cigarette outside and states, "I want to go outside now and smoke. It takes forever to get anything done here!" Which intervention is best for the nurse to implement? 9. A client has a nasogastric tube connected to low intermittent suction. When administering medications through the nasogastric tube, which action should the nurse do first? 10. A client has a nursing diagnosis of Altered sleep patterns related to nocturia. Which client instruction is important for the nurse to provide? 11. A client in a long-term care facility reports to the nurse that he has not had a bowel movement in 2 days. Which intervention should the nurse implement first? 12. A client's blood pressure reading is 156/94 mm Hg. Which action should the nurse take first? 13. A community hospital is opening a mental health services department. Which document should the nurse use to develop the unit's nursing guidelines? 14. During a clinic visit, the mother of a 7-year-old reports to the nurse that her child is often awake until midnight playing and is then very difficult to awaken in the morning for school. Which assessment data should the nurse obtain in response to the mother's report? 15. During a routine assessment, an obese 50-year-old female client expresses concern about her sexual relationship with her husband. Which is the best response by the nurse? 16. During evacuation of a group of clients from a medical unit because of a fire, the nurse observes an ambulatory client walking alone toward the stairway at the end of the hall. Which action should the nurse take? 17. A female client with frequent urinary tract infections (UTIs) asks the nurse to explain her friend's advice about drinking a glass of juice daily to prevent future UTIs. Which response is best for the nurse to provide? 18. The health care provider has changed a client's prescription from the PO to the IV route of administration. The nurse should anticipate which change in the pharmacokinetic properties of the medication? 19. A hospitalized client has had difficulty falling asleep for two nights and is becoming irritable and restless. Which action by the nurse is best? 20. In assisting an older adult client prepare to take a tub bath, which nursing action is most important? 21. In completing a client's preoperative routine, the nurse finds that the operative permit is not signed. The client begins to ask more questions about the surgical procedure. Which action should the nurse take next? 22. In taking a client's history, the nurse asks about the stool characteristics. Which description should the nurse report to the health care provider as soon as possible? 23. A male client is laughing at a television program with his wife when the evening nurse enters the room. He says his foot is hurting and he would like a pain pill. How should the nurse respond? 24. The mental health nurse plans to discuss a client's depression with the health care provider in the emergency department. There are two clients sitting across from the emergency department desk. Which nursing action is best? 25. The nurse assesses a 2-year-old who is admitted for dehydration and finds that the peripheral IV rate by gravity has slowed, even though the venous access site is healthy. What should the nurse do next? 26. The nurse determines that a postoperative client's respiratory rate has increased from 18 to 24 breaths/min. Based on this assessment finding, which intervention is most important for the nurse to implemen The nurse finds a client crying behind a locked bathroom door. The client will not open the door. Which action should the nurse implement first? 27. The nurse identifies a potential for infection in a client with partial-thickness (second- degree) and full-thickness (third-degree) burns. What intervention has the highest priority in decreasing the client's risk of infection? 28. The nurse is administering the 0900 medications to a client who was admitted during the night. Which client statement indicates that the nurse should further assess the medication order? 29. The nurse is assessing several clients prior to surgery. Which factor in a client's history poses the greatest threat for complications to occur during surgery? 30. A nurse is assigned to care for a close friend in the hospital setting. Which action should the nurse take first when given the assignment? 31. The nurse is assisting a client to the bathroom. When the client is 5 feet from the bathroom door, he states, "I feel faint." Before the nurse can get the client to a chair, the client starts to fall. Which is the priority action for the nurse to take? 32. The nurse is aware that malnutrition is a common problem among clients served by a community health clinic for the homeless. Which laboratory value is the most reliable indicator of chronic protein malnutrition? 33. The nurse is counting a client's respiratory rate. During a 30-second interval, the nurse counts six respirations and the client coughs three times. In repeating the count for a second 30-second interval, the nurse counts eight respirations. Which respiratory rate should the nurse document? 34. The nurse is instructing a client in the proper use of a metered-dose inhaler. Which instruction should the nurse provide the client to ensure the optimal benefits from the drug? 35. The nurse is instructing a client with cholecystitis regarding diet choices. Which meal best meets the dietary needs of this client? 36. The nurse is obtaining a lie-sit-stand blood pressure reading on a client. Which action is most important for the nurse to implement? 37. The nurse is preparing an older client for discharge. Which method is best for the nurse to use when evaluating the client's ability to perform a dressing change at home? 38. The nurse is preparing to administer 10 mL of liquid potassium chloride through a feeding tube, followed by 10 mL of liquid acetaminophen. Which action should the nurse include in this procedure? 39. The nurse is teaching a client how to perform progressive muscle relaxation techniques to relieve insomnia. A week later the client reports that he is still unable to sleep, despite following the same routine every night. Which action should the nurse take first? 40. The nurse is teaching an obese client, newly diagnosed with arteriosclerosis, about reducing the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Which health promotion brochure is most important for the nurse to provide to this client? 41. The nurse is using the Glasgow Coma Scale to perform a neurologic assessment. A comatose client winces and pulls away from a painful stimulus. Which action should the nurse take next? 42. A nurse is working in an occupational health clinic when an employee walks in and states that he was struck by lightning while working in a truck bed. The client is alert but reports feeling faint. Which assessment will the nurse perform first? 43. The nurse-manager of a skilled nursing (chronic care) unit is instructing UAPs on ways to prevent complications of immobility. Which intervention should be included in this instruction? 44. The nurse observes a UAP taking a client's blood pressure in the lower extremity. Which observation of this procedure requires the nurse's intervention? 45. The nurse plans to administer diazepam, 4 mg IV push, to a client with severe anxiety. How many milliliters should the nurse administer? (Round to the nearest tenth.) 46. The nurse prepares to insert a nasogastric tube in a client with hyperemesis who is awake and alert. Which intervention(s) is(are) correct? (Select all that apply.) 47. The nurse selects the best site for insertion of an IV catheter in the client's right arm. Which documentation should the nurse use to identify placement of the IV access? 48. A nurse stops at a motor vehicle collision site to render aid until the emergency personnel arrive and applies pressure to a groin wound that is bleeding profusely. Later the client has to have the leg amputated and sues the nurse for malpractice. Which is the most likely outcome of this lawsuit? 49. The nurse teaches the use of a gait belt to a male caregiver whose wife has right-sided weakness and needs assistance with ambulation. The caregiver performs a return demonstration of the skill. Which observation indicates that the caregiver has learned how to perform this procedure correctly? 50. The nurse transcribes the postoperative prescriptions for a client who returns to the unit following surgery and notes that an antihypertensive medication that was prescribed preoperatively is not listed. Which action should the nurse take? 51. The nurse who is preparing to give an adolescent client a prescribed antipsychotic medication notes that parental consent has not been obtained. Which action should the nurse take? 52. An older adult who recently began self-administration of insulin calls the nurse daily to review the steps that should be taken when giving an injection. The nurse has assessed the client's skills during two previous office visits and knows that the client is capable of giving the daily injection. Which response by the nurse is likely to be most helpful in encouraging the client to assume total responsibility for the daily injections? 53. An older client who had abdominal surgery 3 days earlier was given a barbiturate for sleep and is now requesting to go to the bathroom. Which action should the nurse implement? 54. One week after being told that she has terminal cancer with a life expectancy of 3 weeks, a female client tells the nurse, "I think I will plan a big party for all my friends." How should the nurse respond? 55. A seriously ill female client tells the nurse, "I am so tired and in so much pain! Please help me to die." Which is the best response for the nurse to provide? 56. Ten minutes after signing an operative permit for a fractured hip, an older client states, "The aliens will be coming to get me soon!" and falls asleep. Which action should the nurse implement next? 57. Urinary catheterization is prescribed for a postoperative female client who has been unable to void for 8 hours. The nurse inserts the catheter, but no urine is seen in the tubing. Which action will the nurse take next? 58. When assisting a client from the bed to a chair, which procedure is best for the nurse to follow? 59. When bathing an uncircumcised boy older than 3 years, which action should the nurse take? 60. When emptying 350 mL of pale yellow urine from a client's urinal, the nurse notes that this is the first time the client has voided in 4 hours. Which action should the nurse take next? 61. When performing sterile wound care in the acute care setting, the nurse obtains a bottle of normal saline from the bedside table that is labeled "opened" and dated 48 hours prior to the current date. Which is the best action for the nurse to take? 62. When taking a client's blood pressure, the nurse is unable to distinguish the point at which the first sound was heard. Which is the best action for the nurse to take? 63. When the health care provider diagnoses metastatic cancer and recommends a gastrostomy for an older female client in stable condition, the son tells the nurse that his mother must not be told the reason for the surgery because she "can't handle" the cancer diagnosis. Which legal principle is the court most likely to uphold regarding this client's right to informed consent? 64. When turning an immobile bedridden client without assistance, which action by the nurse best ensures client safety? 65. Which action should the nurse implement when providing wound care instructions to a client who does not speak English? 66. Which client is most likely to be at risk for spiritual distress? 67. Which instruction is most important for the nurse to include when teaching a client with limited mobility strategies to prevent venous thrombosis? 68. Which intervention is most important to include in the plan of care for a client at high risk for the development of postoperative thrombus formation? 69. Which nonverbal action should the nurse implement to demonstrate active listening? 70. Which nursing diagnosis has the highest priority when planning care for a client with an indwelling urinary catheter? 71. Which serum laboratory value should the nurse monitor carefully for a client who has a nasogastric (NG) tube to suction for the past week? 72. Which step(s) should the nurse take when administering ear drops to an adult client? (Select all that apply.) 73. While conducting an intake assessment of an adult male at a community mental health clinic, the nurse notes that his affect is flat, he responds to questions with short answers, and he reports problems with sleeping. He reports that his life partner recently died from pneumonia. Which action is most important for the nurse to implement? 74. While reviewing the side effects of a newly prescribed medication, a 72-year-old client notes that one of the side effects is a reduction in sexual drive. Which is the best response by the nurse? [Show More]

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