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Chapter 64: Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus | Nursing School Test Banks

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Nursing School Test Banks Chapter 64: Care of Patients with Diabetes Mellitus: Ignatavicius: Medical-Surgical Nursing, 8th Edition MULTIPLE CHOICE 1.A nurse is teaching a client with di... abetes mellitus who asks, “Why is it necessary to maintain my blood glu-cose levels no lower than about 60 mg/dL?” How should the nurse respond? a. “Glucose is the only fuel used by the body to produce the energy that it needs.” b. “Your brain needs a constant supply of glucose because it cannot store it.” c. “Without a minimum level of glucose, your body does not make red blood cells.” d. “Glucose in the blood prevents the formation of lactic acid and prevents acidosis.” 2.A nurse reviews laboratory results for a client with diabetes mellitus who presents with polyuria, lethargy, and a blood glucose of 560 mg/dL. Which laboratory result should the nurse correlate with the client’s polyuria? a. Serum sodium: 163 mEq/L b. Serum creatinine: 1.6 mg/dL c. Presence of urine ketone bodies d. Serum osmolarity: 375 mOsm/kg 3.After teaching a young adult client who is newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the need for eye examinations? a. “At my age, I should continue seeing the ophthalmologist as I usually do.” b. “I will see the eye doctor when I have a vision problem and yearly after age 40.” c. “My vision will change quickly. I should see the ophthalmologist twice a year.” d. “Diabetes can cause blindness, so I should see the ophthalmologist yearly.” 4.A nurse assesses a client who has a 15-year history of diabetes and notes decreased tactile sensation in both feet. Which action should the nurse take first? a. Document the finding in the client’s chart. b. Assess tactile sensation in the client’s hands. c. Examine the client’s feet for signs of injury. d. Notify the health care provider. 5.A nurse cares for a client who has a family history of diabetes mellitus. The client states, “My father has type 1 diabetes mellitus. Will I develop this disease as well?” How should the nurse respond? a. “Your risk of diabetes is higher than the general population, but it may not occur.” b. “No genetic risk is associated with the development of type 1 diabetes mellitus.” c. “The risk for becoming a diabetic is 50% because of how it is inherited.” d. “Female children do not inherit diabetes mellitus, but male children will.” 6.A nurse teaches a client who is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s plan of care to delay the onset of microvascular and macrovascular complications? a. “Maintain tight glycemic control and prevent hyperglycemia.” b. “Restrict your fluid intake to no more than 2 liters a day.” c. “Prevent hypoglycemia by eating a bedtime snack.” d. “Limit your intake of protein to prevent ketoacidosis.” 7.A nurse assesses clients who are at risk for diabetes mellitus. Which client is at greatest risk? a. A 29-year-old Caucasian b. A 32-year-old African-American c. A 44-year-old Asian d. A 48-year-old American Indian 8.A nurse teaches a client about self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Which statement should the nurse in-clude in this client’s teaching to prevent bloodborne infections? a. “Wash your hands after completing each test.” b. “Do not share your monitoring equipment.” c. “Blot excess blood from the strip with a cotton ball.” d. “Use gloves when monitoring your blood glucose.” 9.A nurse teaches a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus who is prescribed glipizide (Glucotrol). Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s teaching? a. “Change positions slowly when you get out of bed.” b. “Avoid taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).” c. “If you miss a dose of this drug, you can double the next dose.” d. “Discontinue the medication if you develop a urinary infection.” 10.After teaching a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus who is prescribed nateglinide (Starlix), the nurse assess-es the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a correct understanding of the pre-scribed therapy? a. “I’ll take this medicine during each of my meals.” b. “I must take this medicine in the morning when I wake.” c. “I will take this medicine before I go to bed.” d. “I will take this medicine immediately before I eat.” 11.A nurse cares for a client who is prescribed pioglitazone (Actos). After 6 months of therapy, the client re-ports that his urine has become darker since starting the medication. Which action should the nurse take? a. Assess for pain or burning with urination. b. Review the client’s liver function study results. c. Instruct the client to increase water intake. d. Test a sample of urine for occult blood. 12.A nurse cares for a client with diabetes mellitus who asks, “Why do I need to administer more than one in-jection of insulin each day?” How should the nurse respond? a. “You need to start with multiple injections until you become more proficient at self-injection.” b. “A single dose of insulin each day would not match your blood insulin levels and your food intake patterns.” c. “A regimen of a single dose of insulin injected each day would require that you eat fewer carbohydrates.” d. “A single dose of insulin would be too large to be absorbed, predictably putting you at risk for insulin shock.” 13.After teaching a client with diabetes mellitus to inject insulin, the nurse assesses the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching? a. “The lower abdomen is the best location because it is closest to the pancreas.” b. “I can reach my thigh the best, so I will use the different areas of my thighs.” c. “By rotating the sites in one area, my chance of having a reaction is decreased.” d. “Changing injection sites from the thigh to the arm will change absorption rates.” 14.A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus and notes the client only responds to a sternal rub by moaning, has capillary blood glucose of 33 g/dL, and has an intravenous line that is infiltrated with 0.45% nor-mal saline. Which action should the nurse take first? a. Administer 1 mg of intramuscular glucagon. b. Encourage the client to drink orange juice. c. Insert a new intravenous access line. d. Administer 25 mL dextrose 50% (D50) IV push. 15.A nurse cares for a client with diabetes mellitus who is visually impaired. The client asks, “Can I ask my niece to prefill my syringes and then store them for later use when I need them?” How should the nurse respond? . “Yes. Prefilled syringes can be stored for 3 weeks in the refrigerator in a vertical position with the needle pointing up.” b. “Yes. Syringes can be filled with insulin and stored for a month in a location that is protected from light.” c. “Insulin reacts with plastic, so prefilled syringes are okay, but you will need to use glass syringes.” d. “No. Insulin syringes cannot be prefilled and stored for any length of time outside of the container.” 16.A nurse teaches a client who is prescribed an insulin pump. Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s discharge education? a. “Test your urine daily for ketones.” b. “Use only buffered insulin in your pump.” c. “Store the insulin in the freezer until you need it.” d. “Change the needle every 3 days.” 17.After teaching a client who has diabetes mellitus and proliferative retinopathy, nephropathy, and peripheral neuropathy, the nurse assesses the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a cor-rect understanding of the teaching? a. “I have so many complications; exercising is not recommended.” b. “I will exercise more frequently because I have so many complications.” c. “I used to run for exercise; I will start training for a marathon.” d. “I should look into swimming or water aerobics to get my exercise.” 18.An emergency department nurse assesses a client with ketoacidosis. Which clinical manifestation should the nurse correlate with this condition? a. Increased rate and depth of respiration b. Extremity tremors followed by seizure activity c. Oral temperature of 102° F (38.9° C) d. Severe orthostatic hypotension 19.A nurse assesses a client who has diabetes mellitus. Which arterial blood gas values should the nurse identi-fy as potential ketoacidosis in this client? a. pH 7.38, HCO3– 22 mEq/L, PCO2 38 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg b. pH 7.28, HCO3– 18 mEq/L, PCO2 28 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg c. pH 7.48, HCO3– 28 mEq/L, PCO2 38 mm Hg, PO2 98 mm Hg d. pH 7.32, HCO3– 22 mEq/L, PCO2 58 mm Hg, PO2 88 mm Hg 0.A nurse cares for a client experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis who presents with Kussmaul respirations. Which action should the nurse take? a. Administration of oxygen via face mask b. Intravenous administration of 10% glucose c. Implementation of seizure precautions d. Administration of intravenous insulin 21.A nurse cares for a client who has type 1 diabetes mellitus. The client asks, “Is it okay for me to have an oc-casional glass of wine?” How should the nurse respond? a. “Drinking any wine or alcohol will increase your insulin requirements.” b. “Because of poor kidney function, people with diabetes should avoid alcohol.” c. “You should not drink alcohol because it will make you hungry and overeat.” d. “One glass of wine is okay with a meal and is counted as two fat exchanges.” 22.A nurse teaches a client with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s teaching to decrease the client’s insulin needs? a. “Limit your fluid intake to 2 liters a day.” b. “Animal organ meat is high in insulin.” c. “Limit your carbohydrate intake to 80 grams a day.” d. “Walk at a moderate pace for 1 mile daily.” 23.A nurse cares for a client who is diagnosed with acute rejection 2 months after receiving a simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplant. The client states, “I was doing so well with my new organs, and the thought of hav-ing to go back to living on hemodialysis and taking insulin is so depressing.” How should the nurse respond? a. “Following the drug regimen more closely would have prevented this.” b. “One acute rejection episode does not mean that you will lose the new organs.” c. “Dialysis is a viable treatment option for you and may save your life.” d. “Since you are on the national registry, you can receive a second transplantation.” 24.After teaching a client who is recovering from pancreas transplantation, the nurse assesses the client’s un-derstanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional education? a. “If I develop an infection, I should stop taking my corticosteroid.” b. “If I have pain over the transplant site, I will call the surgeon immediately.” c. “I should avoid people who are ill or who have an infection.” d. “I should take my cyclosporine exactly the way I was taught.” 25.A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus 3 hours after a surgical procedure and notes the client’s breath has a “fruity” odor. Which action should the nurse take? a. Encourage the client to use an incentive spirometer. b. Increase the client’s intravenous fluid flow rate. c. Consult the provider to test for ketoacidosis. d. Perform meticulous pulmonary hygiene care. 26.A preoperative nurse assesses a client who has type 1 diabetes mellitus prior to a surgical procedure. The client’s blood glucose level is 160 mg/dL. Which action should the nurse take? a. Document the finding in the client’s chart. b. Administer a bolus of regular insulin IV. c. Call the surgeon to cancel the procedure. d. Draw blood gases to assess the metabolic state. 27.A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus who is experiencing numbness and reduced sensation. Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s teaching to prevent injury? a. “Examine your feet using a mirror every day.” b. “Rotate your insulin injection sites every week.” c. “Check your blood glucose level before each meal.” d. “Use a bath thermometer to test the water temperature.” 28.A nurse reviews the medication list of a client with a 20-year history of diabetes mellitus. The client holds up the bottle of prescribed duloxetine (Cymbalta) and states, “My cousin has depression and is taking this drug. Do you think I’m depressed?” How should the nurse respond? a. “Many people with long-term diabetes become depressed after a while.” b. “It’s for peripheral neuropathy. Do you have burning pain in your feet or hands?” c. “This antidepressant also has anti-inflammatory properties for diabetic pain.” d. “No. Many medications can be used for several different disorders.” 29.A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus. Which clinical manifestation should alert the nurse to de-creased kidney function in this client? a. Urine specific gravity of 1.033 b. Presence of protein in the urine c. Elevated capillary blood glucose level d. Presence of ketone bodies in the urine 30.A nurse develops a dietary plan for a client with diabetes mellitus and new-onset microalbuminuria. Which component of the client’s diet should the nurse decrease? a. Carbohydrates b. Proteins c. Fats d. Total calories 31.A nurse assesses a client who has diabetes mellitus and notes the client is awake and alert, but shaky, di-aphoretic, and weak. Five minutes after administering a half-cup of orange juice, the client’s clinical manifesta-tions have not changed. Which action should the nurse take next? a. Administer another half-cup of orange juice. b. Administer a half-ampule of dextrose 50% intravenously. c. Administer 10 units of regular insulin subcutaneously. d. Administer 1 mg of glucagon intramuscularly. 32.A nurse reviews the laboratory results of a client who is receiving intravenous insulin. Which should alert the nurse to intervene immediately? a. Serum chloride level of 98 mmol/L b. Serum calcium level of 8.8 mg/dL c. Serum sodium level of 132 mmol/L d. Serum potassium level of 2.5 mmol/L 33.A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about sick day management. Which statement should the nurse include in this client’s teaching? a. “When ill, avoid eating or drinking to reduce vomiting and diarrhea.” b. “Monitor your blood glucose levels at least every 4 hours while sick.” c. “If vomiting, do not use insulin or take your oral antidiabetic agent.” d. “Try to continue your prescribed exercise regimen even if you are sick.” 34.A nurse assesses a client who is being treated for hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar state (HHS). Which clinical manifestation indicates to the nurse that the therapy needs to be adjusted? a. Serum potassium level has increased. b. Blood osmolarity has decreased. c. Glasgow Coma Scale score is unchanged. d. Urine remains negative for ketone bodies. 35.A nurse cares for a client who has diabetes mellitus. The nurse administers 6 units of regular insulin and 10 units of NPH insulin at 0700. At which time should the nurse assess the client for potential problems related to the NPH insulin? a. 0800 b. 1600 c. 2000 d. 2300 36.After teaching a client with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching? a. “I need to have an annual appointment even if my glucose levels are in good control.” b. “Since my diabetes is controlled with diet and exercise, I must be seen only if I am sick.” c. “I can still develop complications even though I do not have to take insulin at this time.” d. “If I have surgery or get very ill, I may have to receive insulin injections for a short time.” 37.When teaching a client recently diagnosed with type 1 diabetes mellitus, the client states, “I will never be able to stick myself with a needle.” How should the nurse respond? a. “I can give your injections to you while you are here in the hospital.” b. “Everyone gets used to giving themselves injections. It really does not hurt.” c. “Your disease will not be managed properly if you refuse to administer the shots.” d. “Tell me what it is about the injections that are concerning you.” 38.A nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus who self-administers subcutaneous insulin. The nurse notes a spongy, swelling area at the site the client uses most frequently for insulin injection. Which action should the nurse take? a. Apply ice to the site to reduce inflammation. b. Consult the provider for a new administration route. c. Assess the client for other signs of cellulitis. d. Instruct the client to rotate sites for insulin injection. 39.A nurse reviews the medication list of a client recovering from a computed tomography (CT) scan with IV contrast to rule out small bowel obstruction. Which medication should alert the nurse to contact the provider and withhold the prescribed dose? a. Pioglitazone (Actos) b. Glimepiride (Amaryl) c. Glipizide (Glucotrol) d. Metformin (Glucophage) 40.After teaching a client who is newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus, the nurse assesses the client’s understanding. Which statement made by the client indicates a need for additional teaching? a. “I should increase my intake of vegetables with higher amounts of dietary fiber.” b. “My intake of saturated fats should be no more than 10% of my total calorie intake.” c. “I should decrease my intake of protein and eliminate carbohydrates from my diet.” d. “My intake of water is not restricted by my treatment plan or medication regimen.” 41.A nurse reviews laboratory results for a client with diabetes mellitus who is prescribed an intensified insulin regimen: • Fasting blood glucose: 75 mg/dL • Postprandial blood glucose: 200 mg/dL • Hemoglobin A1c level: 5.5% How should the nurse interpret these laboratory findings? a. Increased risk for developing ketoacidosis b. Good control of blood glucose c. Increased risk for developing hyperglycemia d. Signs of insulin resistance 42.A nurse prepares to administer insulin to a client at 1800. The client’s medication administration record con-tains the following information: • Insulin glargine: 12 units daily at 1800 • Regular insulin: 6 units QID at 0600, 1200, 1800, 2400 Based on the client’s medication administration record, which action should the nurse take? a. Draw up and inject the insulin glargine first, and then draw up and inject the regular insulin. b. Draw up and inject the insulin glargine first, wait 20 minutes, and then draw up and inject the regular insulin. c. First draw up the dose of regular insulin, then draw up the dose of insulin glargine in the same syringe, mix, and inject the two insulins together. d. First draw up the dose of insulin glargine, then draw up the dose of regular insulin in the same syringe, mix, and inject the two insulins together. DIF:Applying/ApplicationREF:1314 43.A nurse prepares to administer prescribed regular and NPH insulin. Place the nurse’s actions in the correct order to administer these medications. 1. Inspect bottles for expiration dates. 2. Gently roll the bottle of NPH between the hands. 3. Wash your hands. 4. Inject air into the regular insulin. 5. Withdraw the NPH insulin. 6. Withdraw the regular insulin. 7. Inject air into the NPH bottle. 8. Clean rubber stoppers with an alcohol swab. a. 1,3,8,2,4,6,7,5 b. 3,1,2,8,7,4,6,5 c. 8,1,3,2,4,6,7,5 d. 2,3,1,8,7,5,4,6 44.A nurse reviews the chart and new prescriptions for a client with diabetic ketoacidosis: Vital Signs and Assessment Laboratory Medications Results Blood pressure: 90/62 mm Hg Serum potassium: 2.6 mEq/L Potassium chloride 40 mEq IV bolus STAT Pulse: 120 beats/min Increase IV fluid to 100 mL/hr Respiratory rate: 28 breaths/min Urine output: 20 mL/hr via catheter Which action should the nurse take? a. Administer the potassium and then consult with the provider about the fluid order. b. Increase the intravenous rate and then consult with the provider about the potassium prescription. c. Administer the potassium first before increasing the infusion flow rate. d. Increase the intravenous flow rate before administering the potassium. 45.At 4:45 p.m., a nurse assesses a client with diabetes mellitus who is recovering from an abdominal hysterec-tomy 2 days ago. The nurse notes that the client is confused and diaphoretic. The nurse reviews the assess-ment data provided in the chart below: Capillary Blood Glucose Testing (AC/HS) Dietary Intake At 0630: 95 Breakfast: 10% eaten – client states she is not hungry At 1130: 70 Lunch: 5% eaten – client is nauseous; vomits once At 1630: 47 After reviewing the client’s assessment data, which action is appropriate at this time? a. Assess the client’s oxygen saturation level and administer oxygen. b. Reorient the client and apply a cool washcloth to the client’s forehead. c. Administer dextrose 50% intravenously and reassess the client. d. Provide a glass of orange juice and encourage the client to eat dinner. MULTIPLE RESPONSE 1.A nurse assesses clients at a health fair. Which clients should the nurse counsel to be tested for diabetes? (Select all that apply.) a. 56-year-old African-American male b. Female with a 30-pound weight gain during pregnancy c. Male with a history of pancreatic trauma d. 48-year-old woman with a sedentary lifestyle e. Male with a body mass index greater than 25 kg/m2 f. 28-year-old female who gave birth to a baby weighing 9.2 pounds 2.A nurse assesses a client who is experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). For which manifestations should the nurse monitor the client? (Select all that apply.) a. Deep and fast respirations b. Decreased urine output c. Tachycardia d. Dependent pulmonary crackles e. Orthostatic hypotension 3.A nurse teaches a client with diabetes mellitus about foot care. Which statements should the nurse include in this client’s teaching? (Select all that apply.) a. “Do not walk around barefoot.” b. “Soak your feet in a tub each evening.” c. “Trim toenails straight across with a nail clipper.” d. “Treat any blisters or sores with Epsom salts.” e. “Wash your feet every other day.” 4.A nurse provides diabetic education at a public health fair. Which disorders should the nurse include as com-plications of diabetes mellitus? (Select all that apply.) a. Stroke b. Kidney failure c. Blindness d. Respiratory failure e. Cirrhosis 5.A nurse collaborates with the interdisciplinary team to develop a plan of care for a client who is newly diag-nosed with diabetes mellitus. Which team members should the nurse include in this interdisciplinary team meeting? (Select all that apply.) a. Registered dietitian b. Clinical pharmacist c. Occupational therapist d. Health care provider e. Speech-language pathologist [Show More]

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