Programming > EXAM > Knowledge Systems Institute: CIS 504 For Final MC: Questions and Answers. 100%. (All)

Knowledge Systems Institute: CIS 504 For Final MC: Questions and Answers. 100%.

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1. ___________ are known to be able to carry out any computation that current computers are capable of (though certainly not as efficiently). In fact, the generally accepted Church Thesis states that ... it is not possible to build a machine that is inherently more powerful than a Turing machine. Computing machines Functional machines Automata machines Turing machines Intelligent machines 2. The requirement that computation be described as a sequence of instructions, each operating on a single piece of data, is sometimes referred to as the ________ bottleneck Peter Higgs human machine software von Neumann 3. __________ programs do not predict the control sequence that will occur; they are written to run reasonably to any particular sequence of events that may occur once execution begins. Logical Functional Object-orienred Parallel Event-driven 4. ___________ bottleneck restricts the ability of a language to indicate parallel computation, that is, computation that can be applied to many different pieces of data simultaneously, and non-deterministic computation, or computation that does not depend on order. Machine von Neumann Software Human Peter Higgs 5. Most of the early days programming languages are _________, such as C language. obeject oriented logical functional imperative parallel 6. Execution of an ________ program does not typically terminate; such a program is designed to run for an arbitrary period of time, often indefinitely. Logical event-driven Functional Parallel Object-orienred 7. For a language to be machine-readable, it must have a _____________ to a11ow for efficient translation. logical structure powerful structure Complex sturcture simple enough structure functional structure 8. Two alternative paradigms for describing computation come from mathematics. The functional paradigm comes from traditional mathematics and is based on the notion of a function, The logic paradigm is based on __________. symbolic logic Peter Giggs theory Algorithms Computation theory Decision Trees 9. Computation is usually defined formally using the mathematical concept of a ________, which is a kind of computer whose operation is simple enough to be described with great precision. Such a machine needs also to be powerful enough to perform any computation that a computer can. Computing machine Automata machine Functional machine Intelligent machine Turing machine 10. Object-oriented programming, not only as a language paradigm, but also as a _________ for program design, has experienced an explosion in interest and activity, much as structured programming and top-down design did. algorithm platform theory methodology convention 11. Programming language abstractions fall into two general categories: data abstraction and control abstraction. Data abstractions abstract properties of the data, such as character strings, numbers, or search trees, which is the subject of ____________. algorithm human thinking computation machine reasoning 12. Human readability, unlike machine readability, this is a much less precise notion, and it is also less understood. It requires that a programming language provide _________ of the actions of computers that are easy to understand, even by persons not completely familiar with the underlying details of the machine. functions computations structures algorithms abstractions 13. A programming language is __________ if it has integer values, arithmetic functions on those values, and if it has a mechanism for defining new functions using existing functions, selection, and recursion. Computation complete Turing complete Functional complete Algorithmic complete Power complete 14. Control abstractions abstract properties of the transfer of control, that is, the modification of the execution path of a program based on the situation at hand. Examples of control abstractions are ____________. None of these conditional statements procedure calls All of these loops 15. A programming language is a notational system for describing __________ in machine-readable and human-readable form Human thought Theory Machine Algorithm Computation 1. C# has been developed specifically with the ______ framework in mind, and as such is designated to be the _______ developers language of choice. Java Mobile .NET Internet MS Windows 2. One very important matter about C#, it is the first component oriented programming language. The hot topic at the moment though is not its relation to C/C++ or Visual basic, but how it compares to _____. Java and Delphi Delphi C and C++ Java 3. Every Java interpreter, whether it's a development tool or a Web browser that can run applets, is an implementation of the ________ Java sourcecodes Java objectcodes Java bytecodes Java VM Java exectivecodes 4. We can think of _____________ as the machine code instructions for the Java Virtual Machine (Java VM) Java sourcecodes Java bytecodes Java objectcodes Java targetcodes Java exectivecodes 5. C# is directly related to . This is not just an idea, this is real.C# inherits most of its operators, keywords, and statements C Java C and C++. C++ C++ and Java 6. There are several types of programs written in the Java programming language: ____________. applications applets None of these All of these servlets 7. Java technology is both a programming language and a ___________. structure algorithm platform methodology approach 8. The Java interpreter parses and runs each Java bytecode instruction on the computer. Compilation happens ______; interpretation occurs each time the program is executed. once every time all of these twice never 9. With most programming languages, you either compile or interpret a program so that you can run it on your computer. The Java programming language is unusual in that a program is ________________ none of these compiled interpreted both compiled and interpreted 10. There is some difference between C# and C++, C# supports ____________________ multiple inheritance of classes, but not of classes multiple inheritance of interfaces, and of classes no multiple inheritance of classes, and classes multiple inheritance of interfaces, but not of classes 11. With the compiler, first you translate a program into an intermediate language called __________:the platform-independent codes interpreted by the interpreter on the Java platform. Java objectcodes Java sourcecodes Java targetcodes Java bytecodes Java exectivecodes 12. C# has the functionality of ___________ and it a very strong language. Visual Basic Delphi Java All of these 13. ____ is a strong language for network and internet programming. It has redefined the programming landscape. In addition, it designed with the need of C/C++ and Java programmers. Delphi C# None of these Visual Basic 1. Reducing the rules and restrictions of a language reduces the complexity of its definition and makes the language easier to use actually to solve the task. Algol has the goal to provide more powerful ___________ mechanisms, and to reduce the complexity of the language by being completely general and orthogonal. abstraction function algorithm computation 2. _______: the language features were designed to have as few restrictions as possible and be combinable in any meaningful way. General and efficient General and orthogonal General and power Orthogonal and efficient 3. Further principles may include ________ principles in the programming languages. Expressiveness Preciseness Security, Restrictability Machine independence All of these Simplicity Extensibility 4. ______________ are general design principles in most of the programming languages. Efficiency, and generality, Efficiency, and uniformity Efficiency, generality, orthogonality, and uniformity Efficiency, generality and uniformity 5. When programming languages began, there was one principal design criterion: __________. efficiency of representation efficiency of coding efficiency of execution efficiency of compilation 6. Class concept was an innovation that influenced the _________ mechanisms provided by many languages computation abstraction function algorithm 7. When programming languages began, programs should be readable by ____________. humans hardware humans and machines software machines software and hardware 8. The readability-the quality of a language that enables a programmer to understand and comprehend the nature of a ______ easily and accurately-was also an important design goal. function hardware algorithm software computation 1. A translator will often construct a syntax tree rather than a full parse tree because it is more concise and expresses the essentials of the structure. true false 2. The parse tree describes graphically the replacement process in a derivation. computation algorithm translation derivation 3. The words or token symbols are also called _______, since they are never broken down. literals terminals symbols nonterminals 4. A grammar written in BNF, EBNF, or as syntax diagrams describes the strings of tokens that are syntactically legal in a programming language. True False 5. A ________ grammar consist of a series grammar rules as described: the rules consist of a left-hand side that is a single structure name, then the metasymbol "::=", followd by a right-hand side consisting of a sequence of items that can be symbols or other structure names. context-restricted context-free context-sensitive context-right 6. An revised grammar is to express both precedence and associativity. Moreover, the parse tree corresponds to the semantics of the arithmetic operationsas they are usually defined. Sometimes the process of rewriting a grammar to eliminate ambiguity causes the grammar to become extremely complex. True False 7. Why is a grammar context-free? The simple reason is that the ________ appear singly on the left-hand sides of productions terminals symbol nonterminals literals 8. The usual way to revise the grammar is to write a new grammar rule (called a "<term>") that establishes a "precedence cascade" to force the matching of the "<term>" at a higher point in the parse tree. True False 9. Grarmmar rules are also called productions, since they "produce" the strings of the language using derivations. False True 10. The names for structures (like < sentence >) are called ___________, since they are broken down into further structures. terminals nonterminals tokens literals 11. The _________ structure of a programming language is the structure of its words, or tokens. syntactical symbolic logic lexical 12. A grammar for which two distinct parse (or syntax trees are possible for the same string is _______. clear complete ambiguous concrete 13. A useful graphical representation for a grammar rule is the ________, which indicates the sequence of terminals and nonterminals encountered in the right-hand side of the rule. precedence diagram semantic diagram parse diagram syntax diagram 14. It is impossible to write out rules for abstract syntax in a similar way to the BNF rules for ordinary syntax. False True 15. Sometimes ordinary syntax is distinguished from abstract syntax by calling it concrete syntax. true false 16. Productions are in _________ if they are as given using only the metasymbols "::=", "|", "<", and ">". (Sometimes parentheses are also allowed to group things together. ) Backus-Standard Form Standard Form Standard-Naur Form Backus-Naur Form 17. Tokens generally fall into several distinct categories. Typical token categories include the following: ___________. special symbols, and identifiers constants or literals All of these Reserved words 18. To make use of the syntactic structure of a program to determine its semantics we must have a way of expressing this structure as determined by a _______. algorithm tranlation derivation computation 1. All Java classes must have at least one constructor, either declared in the class or as an implicit default constructor. false true Answer: True 2. ____________ are chunks of code used to initialize a new object. loaders Initials Constructors Starters None of these builders Answer: Constructors 3. In Java, a class must be declared ________ if it has one or more methods declared _________. Language designers use abstract classes to establish a pattern that can be filled out with concrete methods for a specific situation. abstract, abstract None of these all of these concrete, abstract concrete, concrete abstract, concrete Answer : abstract, abstract 4. Although constructors look like methods, they are considered separately. Constructors have ________________. All of these the name of the class only the return type only the name of the class and no return type None of these the name of the class and a return type Answer : the name of the class and no return type 5. Object-oriented programming, not only as a language paradigm, but also as a ________ for program design, has experienced an explosion in interest and activity, much as structured programming and top-down design. None of these Algorithm structure convention platform methodology Answer : methodology 6. When a method in a derived class has the same name and signature as a method in the parent class, we say that the parent class method is _________. abstract all of these None of these overloading concrete overridden Answer : overridden 7. Within a particular class, you can have more than one method with the same name as long as they have different _________. This is described as overloading the method name. All of these extentions output values input parameter types abstraction properties Answer : input parameter types 8. There are several basic ways that a software component can be modified for reuse: abstraction All of these extension, redefinition polymorphization restriction Answer : All of these 9. The concepts of object-oriented programming include the dynamic nature of operations as an essential feature of reuse All of these the notions of object and class as a pattern for objects inheritance of operations as a tool for code reuse and the maintenance of control over dependencies None of these Answer : All of these 10. The terms overloading and overriding are applied to situations in which you have multiple methods with the same _______. all of these abstraction definition extention name property Answer : name 11. ________, or the collection of similar operations from two different components into a new component is a foundation for object-oriented programming. extension All of these restriction Abstraction redefinition polymorphization Answer : Abstraction 12. A Java class declared _____ cannot be used as a parent for another class. abstrcat restricted None of these concrete final extended Answer : final 13. Java Interfaces are reference types like classes, but can have ____________. Interfaces are defined in the same way as classes. None of these no method declarations but with constants as members no method declarations and constants as members only abstract method declarations only constants as members abstract method declarations and constants as members Answer : abstract method declarations and constants as members 1. A single-quote,', tells the Lisp interpreter that it should return the following expression as _______, and not evaluate it as it would if the quote were not there. computed written evaluated valued desceibed None of these 2. A string between double quotes evaluates to ___. a new string itself a new variable a new value None of these a new constant 3. When you evaluate a symbol by itself, its _________ is returned. varable value constant parameter name None of these 4. Arguments are the information passed to a function. The arguments to a function are computed by evaluating the _____ of the elements of the list of which the function is the _____ element. first, last first, rest first, first last, first None of these rest, first 5. When you evaluate a list, the Lisp interpreter looks at the first symbol in the list and then at the ______ definition bound to that symbol. Then the instructions in the function definition are carried out. function initialize None of these algorithm subroutine program 6. A function always returns a _______ when it is evaluated (unless it gets an error); in addition, it may also carry out some action called a "side effect". In many cases, a functions primary purpose is to create a side effect. None of these constant value literal list variable 7. Atoms are multi-character _______, like forward-paragraph, single character symbols like +, strings of characters between double quotation marks, or numbers. None of these symbols variables lexical tokens literals 8. Lisp programs are made up of expressions, which are lists or single atoms. all of these algorithms expressions structures sentences statements 9. A list can be empty. False True 10. Lists are made up of zero or more atoms or ________, separated by whitespace and surrounded by parentheses. restricted lists recursive lists outer lists None of these extended lists inner lists 11. A number evaluates to _______. a new value None of these another constant a new constant itself another value [Show More]

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