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G150/PHA1500 MODULE 06 FINAL EXAM 3

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G150/PHA1500 Section 11 Structure and Function of the Human Body – Online Plus – 2019 Term 1 Module 06 Final Exam 1. Which plane divides the body/organ into anterior and posterior sections? 2. W... hich plane divides the body/organ into superior and inferior sections? 3. Which term best describes the body maintaining a constant internal balance despite changes in the external environment? 4. Physiology refers to the study of the body’s structure, whereas anatomy refers to the study of the body’s function. 5. The axilla region is medial compared to the nose. 6. What organelle or structure is the DNA, our genetic material, found within? 7. Which phase of the cell cycle does the cell divide into two new cells? 8. What is the state of balance in which the body’s internal environment (factors) remains within normal ranges? 9. Which organelle is responsible for producing our body’s energy source, ATP? 10. Where is our body’s DNA, genetic material, located? 11. Which cellular structure is selectively permeable for specific items to freely pass through it? 12. The processes of diffusion and osmosis require energy, ATP, for it to occur. 13. Cells have to replicate, or make a copy of, their DNA prior to going through mitosis and dividing into two new cells. 14. Which type of tissue allows for the transmission of electrical impulses that provide communication signals with the body? 15. Which type of tissue lines hollow organs, covers the outer surface of the skin and functions to provide protection or allow for absorption and secretion of substances? 16. What statement is true of the skin? 17. A permanent tattoo will have ink in which layer or layers of the skin? 18. Which type of skin cell is involved in regulating our overall skin tone and color? 19. Blood cell production is a function of the skeletal system. 20. A sarcomere stores calcium within the muscle cell. 21. What term is given to the end of long bones? 22. Which section of the vertebral column contains seven vertebrae? 23. Calcium is a vital component for muscle contraction to occur. 24. Osteoporosis is a bone disease that occurs when bone tissue loses enough mass to become extremely brittle. 25. What best describes a muscle fascicle? 26. ATP is needed in muscle contraction for what process? 27. Muscle cells are filled with specialized proteins that allow for contraction to occur. 28. Which neurons carry information from the central nervous system to the target gland, organ, or muscle? 29. Which cerebral lobe of the brain is involved in our ability to see? 30. Which region of the brain is involved in coordinated movement of large muscle groups, posture, and balance? 31. The sympathetic nervous system will cause an increase to the heart rate and respiration rate. It will also cause the pupils to dilate. 32. What lobe of the cerebrum controls our consciousness, intelligence and conscious movement of muscles? 33. A neurotransmitter is a chemical released from the soma (cell body) of the neuron. 34. The spinal cord transmits information from the body to the brain only. 35. Which region of the brain controls primitive functions of the body such as respiration rate, heart rate, sneezing, and coughing? 36. Which hormone controls the body’s metabolism? 37. Which endocrine gland secretes hormones that help the body adapt to stressful situations and release hormones that can reduce inflammation? 38. The hormone insulin increases blood glucose (sugar) levels. 39. Which receptors respond to factors such as pressure and stretch? 40. Pain originating from the skin or joint that’s perceived as pain coming from an organ, such as the liver, is called referred pain. 41. The general senses are only found in localized areas of the body, such as the head, and includes pain, touch, and temperature sensation. 42. What endocrine gland secretes a hormone that increases the blood calcium levels? 43. What blood vessel carries blood away from the heart out to the body and typically carries oxygenated blood? 44. What blood vessel carries blood back to the heart? 45. Which type of blood vessel allows nutrient exchange between the blood vessel and body’s cells and tissues? 46. Which heart chamber receives deoxygenated blood from the body? 47. Which heart chamber will pump oxygenated blood out to the body? 48. The AV bundle, also called the pacemaker, assists in setting the heart rate of the heart? 49. What type of blood cell assists in transporting oxygen throughout the body? 50. What statement is true of type A+ blood type? 51. Which disorder is characterized by an excessive white blood cell count? 52. The myocardium of the heart contains the heart muscle that allows for muscle contraction. 53. Congestive heart failure occurs when a ventricle fails to effectively pump blood. 54. When the immune system overreacts to a normal, non-harmful antigen as in the case of allergies, what type of immune disorder is this called? 55. When the immune system is weak and cannot optimally perform its normal function, what type of immune disorder is this called? 56. When a person contracts and gets a cold or infection, what type of immunity is this? 57. Specific immunity is more effective when it has been previously been exposed to a specific bacteria or virus. 58. The pancreas makes bile and stores it in the gallbladder, which assists in the digestion of lipids (fat). 59. The majority of nutrient absorption occurs in what digestive organ? 60. Which nutrient is the primary source of energy (ATP) production for the body? 61. The diaphragm and abdominal muscles are the main muscles that initiate the pulmonary respiration process to occur. 62. Where does gas exchange occur within the respiratory system? 63. What part of the nephron is involved in the glomerular filtration process of urine formation? 64. The ureter transports urine from the bladder to the outside or external portion of the body. 65. The stomach’s main function is to mechanically digest food into a substance called chyme. 66. It is the inner layer of the vagina that is sloughed off during the uterine (menstrual) cycle. 67. What organ will produce estrogen and progesterone in the female reproductive system? 68. Fertilization of an egg typically occurs here (first answer), while implantation of a fertilized egg occurs here (second answer)? 69. What statement best describes the role of the epididymis? 70. What is not an obstacle sperm face within the female reproductive system? 71. Which organ of the female reproductive system produces the eggs and sex hormones estrogen and progesterone? 72. The primary organ of the digestive system that produces digestive enzymes is the: 73. What structure secretes progesterone during the last half of the ovarian cycle? 74. Which type of nutrient is considered sugars and is the primary energy source for the body? 75. Mechanical digestion is dependent upon digestive enzymes. [Show More]

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