*NURSING > STUDY GUIDE > NR 503 Week 4 Midterm Study Guide; Week 1 - 3 Definitions. (All)

NR 503 Week 4 Midterm Study Guide; Week 1 - 3 Definitions.

Document Content and Description Below

NR 503 Week 4 Midterm Study Guide; Week 1 - 3 Definitions. As we finish off week three & go into week four please remember that the Mid-Term exam is coming up. Please go back & review content fro... m the previous weeks: Week One – Definitions Epidemiology – Greek words epi, meaning on or upon; demos, meaning people, & logos, meaning the study of. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution & determinants of health- related states or events in specified populations & the application of this study to the control of health problems. Disease surveillance – The principal notification system in the United Sates is the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System (NNDSS). This is state & local vital data for monitoring deaths from certain infectious diseases (influenza & aids). Surveillance for chronic disease usually relies upon health care related data (hospital discharge, surveys, mortality data from vital statistics). Tracks both active & passive diseases. Identifies stages of the disease within an individual & the populations, measures of incidence, attack rate, prevalence, mortality rates, case-fatality rates & years of potential life lost. Endemic – A disease or condition regularly found among particular people or in a certain area. “Malaria is an endemic” Epidemic – A widespread occurrence of an infectious disease in a community at a particular time. “a flu is epidemic” P&emic – Of a disease prevalent over a whole country or the world. An outbreak of a p&emic disease. Common vehicle – Refers to agents transmitted by a common inanimate vehicle (food), with multiple cases resulting from such exposure. Horizontal & vertical disease transmission Morbidity – The condition of being diseased. The rate of disease in a population. Mortality – The state of being subject to death. Death, especially on a large scale. Risk – AKA relative risk – compares the risk of a health event (diease, injury, risk factor, or death) among one group with the risk among another group. It does so by dividing the risk (incidence proportion, attack rate) in group 1 by the risk in group 2. Incidence – a measure of the probability of occurrence of a given medical condition in a population within a specified period of time. Although sometimes loosely expressed simply as the number of new cases during some time period, it is better expressed as a proportion or a rate with a denominator. Prevalence – Being widespread & it is distinct from incidence. It is a measurement of all individuals affected by the disease at a particular time, whereas incidence is a measurement of the number of new individuals who contract a disease during a particular period of time. The number of cases of a disease in a given time regardless of when it began. (new & old cases). Mortality rates – A measure of the frequency of occurrence of death in a defined population during a specified interval. Case-fatality rates – the proportion of people who die from a specified disease among all individuals diagnosed with the disease over a certain period of time. Disease impact Primary – Aimed at individuals in the susceptibility stage. Refers to activities or measures both individual & communal that are directed at reducing the risk of exposure to a risk factor or health determinant in an individual or the population. Ex: Immunization. Secondary – Measures focus on the sub-clinical stage & the early clinical stage. These measures enable early detection & prompt effective intervention to correct departures from a state of health. For Ex: BP screening or PAP smear. Tertiary prevention – Measures are directed primarily at the recovery, disability or death stage – although they are used to some extent at the clinical stage. The purpose is to reduce or eliminate long-term impairments & disabilities, minimize suffering optimize function, assist in adjusting to limitations in health & function resulting from the event & sometimes extend survival. For example: Treatment & Rehabilitation. Speech therapy following a CVA. Identify at least two key sources of epidemiological data. Week Two – Definitions Validity – The validity of any screening test is the ability of that test to distinguish correctly who has a disease. Based on specificity & sensitivity. Reliability Sensitivity – The ability of a test to correctly identify those who have a disease. TRUE POSITIVES. Specificity – The ability of a test to correctly identify those who do not have the disease. TRUE NEGATIVES. Positive predictive value – A proportional value of the proportion of people in any given population who are screened as positive & who actually have the disease. Negative predictive value – Also a proportion, but the opposite (& the probability that a result is a true negative). The number of true negatives divided by all of those who tested negative. Descriptive epidemiology – Organizes data by time, place & person. Magnitude – To underst& the magnitude of the problem you must identify the problem. Develop a conceptual framework for the underst&ing of the key determinants of the problem. Identify & develop strategies for intervention & set priorities & recommend intervention. Implement interventions & evaluate outcomes. Communicate strategy. Person, time, & disease impact. Obtaining population health information from different types of surveillance R&omized control trial based research including outcomes. Outcome measures/study designs for epidemiological subfields such as infectious disease, chronic disease, environmental exposures, reproductive health, & genetics. False Negative – Occurs when the test incorrectly reports the absence of disease when disease is in fact present. Secondary prevention – Interventions aimed at detecting a disease early in its course. Natural history of disease – Nature of the disease & how it progresses. True positive – Occurs when the test correctly reports disease presence when disease is in fact present Week Three – Definitions Risk Relative risk – AKA risk ratio is the ratio of the probability of an event occurring (for example, developing a disease, being injured), in an exposed group to the probability of the event occurring in a comparison, non-exposed group. Risk of disease in one group versus another. Risk of developing a disease after exposure. If this number is one, it means there is no risk. R(exposed)/Risk (unexposed). Odds ratio - Is a measure of association between an exposure & an outcome. The OR represents the odds that an outcome will occur given a particular exposure, compared to the odds of the outcome occurring in the absence of that exposure. A measure of exposure & disease outcome commonly used in case control studies. If you don’t underst& how to calculate rates, need to review. [Show More]

Last updated: 8 months ago

Preview 1 out of 3 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

document-preview

Buy this document to get the full access instantly

Instant Download Access after purchase

Add to cart

Instant download

Reviews( 0 )

$10.00

Add to cart

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
59
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Feb 01, 2022

Number of pages

3

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
A+ Solutions

Member since 3 years

164 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Feb 01, 2022

Downloads

 0

Views

 59

Document Keyword Tags

Recommended For You

Get more on STUDY GUIDE »

$10.00
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·