*NURSING > EXAM REVIEW > Final REVISED Final Exam Study Guide Patho Spring 2020 (All)

Final REVISED Final Exam Study Guide Patho Spring 2020

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▪ Gastritis Gastritis – inflammation of the stomach lining Acute Gastritis – (just acquired) ingestion of toxins, alcohol, aspirin or other irritating substances Chronic- 2 months to become c... hronic Triggers of Gastritis: Alcohol, caffeine, autoimmune disease, viral or bacteria Chronic Gastritis: H Pylori is always a factor H Pylori goes very deep in the lining of the stomach and It causes persistent inflammation S/S: N/V – Anorexia- postcranial discomfort Post Cranial Discomfort- after eating- goes away and come back 1-2 hrs Gastritis- hematemesis- blood in the vomit- coffee brown color Treatment: Treat H pylori treat GERD, change lifestyle, PPI ▪ Peptic Ulcer Disease Inflammation and ulceration in the stomach (acid and pepsin) Gastric: stomach location Duodenal: duodenal location PUD is a complication of Gastritis PUD is caused by aspirin, H pylori, Nsaids, Stress, Smoking S/S Gastric N/V Anorexia Chest discomfort, asymptotic, Dyspepsia Duodenal – normal weight Biggest complication of PUD- GI bleeding due to Ulcer perforation- hole in the lining and bleed It is life-threatening if it keep bleeding (Anemic, electrolytes imbalance (losing volume) Duodenal – Blood in the stool – black and tarry Bleeding profusely-frank with cloth Hematemesis- Bleeding in vomiting Treatment: Cortery of perforation, treatment of H. pylori, PPI, Cessation of smoking ▪ Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s the difference in the complications Complication in UC Malnutrition – dehydration, increased risk factor of colon cancer 7-10 yrs, rarely in megacolon Complication of Chron- Fistulas, perianal fissures, abscesses. The risk of colorectal cancer ▪ Bowel Obstruction Manifestations Obstructions in the jejunal area: Vomiting, dehydration, electrolyte depletion Obstructions of the distal portion of the small bowl or ileum, dehydration to hypovolemic schock Obstructions of the colon: Massive gas distention Blockage of the colon by a tumor is the most common cause of colonic obstruction and perforation of the bowel wall adjacent to the tumor. ▪ What percentage of the pancreas is dedicated to endocrine functions? Only 5% ▪ Pancreatic Cancer Pancreatic Cancer – 2% of all cancers Ranked 4th among death in all malignancies Risk Factors; cigarette smoking, obesity S/S; head: Jaundice, malabsorption, weight loss tail: Abd pain, nausea’ ▪ Hepatic Encephalopathy is due to? Hepatic encephalopathy is a decline in brain function due to severe liver disease Hepatic encephalopathy is usually precipitated by certain well-defined clinical developments, including hypokalemia, hyponatremia, alkalosis, hypoxia, hypercarbia, infection, use of sedatives, GI hemorrhage, protein meal gorging, renal failure, and constipation. In some patients, progressive liver failure leads to chronic encephalopathy without other exacerbating factors. Hepatic encephalopathy is graded 1 to 4: • Grade 1: Confusion, subtle behavioral changes, no flap • Grade 2: Drowsy, clear behavioral changes, flap present • Grade 3: Stuporous but can follow commands, marked confusion, slurred speech, flap present • Grade 4: Coma, no flap ........................................................................CONTINUED........................................... [Show More]

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