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Sophia Learning Ancient Greek Philosophers. History Milestone. Passed this Milestone.

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Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone exam (Complete) (A guaranteed) The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. RATION... ALE The Socratic Method is a pedagogical method in which a teacher asks questions to which the student knows the answers, thereby leading him or her to the truth. The Method's value lies in showing students how to use what they know to gain additional knowledge. CONCEPT The Socratic Approach 2 Which of the following statements about Aristotle's metaphysics is FALSE? RATIONALE Aristotle would agree with all of these statements except the suggestion that the nature of reality is change. To Aristotle, reality is what we can observe. It can be described as a substance and a way of being, or matter and form. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 3 Water is a condition for staying alive. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. RATIONALE Water is a logical requirement for staying alive, therefore it is a necessary condition. However, water is not a logical guarantee for staying alive, so it is not a sufficient condition. CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 4 According to Aristotle’s ethics, virtues should be pursued by . RATIONALE Aristotle's Doctrine of the Mean states that virtue must be cultivated as a rational mean between extremes. For example, the virtue of courage is found between the vices of cowardice and foolhardiness. CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 5 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages people to focus only on what they can control (e.g., their desires, emotions, and reactions). Because Stoicism focuses on eliminating desires, and emphasizes control of emotions, it leads people to perform their assigned jobs (or roles) skillfully and dispassionately. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 6 Kendra believes that women have a right to choose to have an abortion. Select the statement that is consistent with Kendra's belief. RATIONALE To live philosophically, a person must examine his or her beliefs to ground them in knowledge, and then act according to those beliefs. By voting for a presidential candidate who supports a woman's right to have an abortion, Kendra displays a consistent philosophical worldview. CONCEPT Philosophical Analysis as a Way of Life 7 Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism? RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages us to focus only on what we can control (e.g., our desires, emotions, judgments, and reactions). We should not be upset by things that are beyond our control. Stoicism encourages us to reduce desire and to view reality as neither good nor bad. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 8 In Plato's view, justified true beliefs must be related to his metaphysical notion of , which he called the Forms. RATIONALE Plato's Forms are also referred to as "essences." An essence is that which makes an object what it truly is. Essences provide the basis for knowledge (i.e., justified true belief). For example, we can know what "goodness" truly is because a real thing that is the essence of goodness, called the Form of Goodness, exists. CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 9 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond? RATIONALE In the Crito, Socrates' friend (Crito) tried to convince him to escape and avoid execution. Socrates refused to do so, and explained why escape would be wrong. Socrates asserted that not all life has intrinsic value; only the good life does. Since he believed that he would violate the principle of justice (established by the Social Contract) by avoiding death, Socrates refused to avoid it. CONCEPT The Crito: The Duties of the Social Contract 10 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? RATIONALE Aristotle's notion of hylomorphism states that being is a relationship, a union of form and matter. All of the examples that signify relationships are cases of hylomorphism: bodily organs (matter) and human beings (form); an unborn child (matter) and a human being (form); human beings (matter) and the soul (form). There is no [Show More]

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