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A Level PSYCHOLOGY 7182/3 Paper 3 Issues and Options in Psychology June 2021

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A Level PSYCHOLOGY 7182-3 Paper 3 Issues and Options in Psychology June 2021 / A Level PSYCHOLOGY 7182/3 Paper 3 Issues and Options in Psychology June 2021 / A Level PSYCHOLOGY Paper 3 Issues and ... Options in Psychology June 2021 IB/G/Jun21/E7 7182/3 Time allowed: 2 hours Materials For this paper you must have: • an AQA 16-page Answer Book. You may use a calculator. Instructions • Use black ink or black ball-point pen. • Write the information required on the front of your answer book. The Paper Reference is 7182/3. • In Section A, you should answer all questions. • In Section B, choose one topic. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. • In Section C, choose one topic. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. • In Section D, choose one topic. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. • Do all rough work in your answer book. Cross through any work you do not want to be marked. Information • The marks for questions are shown in brackets. • The maximum mark for this paper is 96. • You will be marked on your ability to: – use good English – organise information clearly – use specialist vocabulary where appropriate. A-level PSYCHOLOGY Paper 3 Issues and options in psychology 2 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 0 1 Which of the following terms best represents the view that biology and environment work together to determine behaviour? Write the correct letter in your answer book. [1 mark] A Determinism B Ethnocentrism C Holism D Interactionism E Reductionism Two psychology students investigated the effect of type of play area on friendly behaviours. They watched the behaviour of six-year-old children in two different play areas and recorded their observations using a set of behavioural categories. They observed 25 children in the first play area and another 25 children in a second play area. Play Area 1 was a grass space, surrounded by trees and plants. Play Area 2 was a paved space, surrounded by brick and concrete walls. 0 2 What are behavioural categories? Explain why it was important to use behavioural categories in this observation. [4 marks] Section A Issues and debates in psychology Answer all questions in this section. 3 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Turn over ► When she looks at the results in Table 1, the teacher says, “I can see there is a difference in behaviour between the two conditions, but is the difference significant at the 0.05 level of significance?” 0 4 What do the students need to do with the data in Table 1 so that they can answer their teacher’s question? Explain your answer. [4 marks] In this study, the students used a nomothetic approach for their research. 0 5 Name the opposite approach to the nomothetic approach. Briefly outline what this opposite approach might have involved in a study of friendly behaviour. [3 marks] 0 6 Discuss gender bias in psychological research. Refer to one topic you have studied in your answer. [8 marks] Turn over for Section B Table 1 shows the raw data for the observation. Table 1 The number of friendly behaviours observed in each category Playing near to another child Standing near to another child Sitting near to another child Play Area 1 Grass space 28 35 32 Play Area 2 Paved space 18 19 20 After the observation, the students showed their raw data table to their psychology teacher. The teacher suggested that some of the behavioural categories in Table 1 were not valid examples of friendly behaviour. 0 3 Suggest two better examples of friendly behaviours that the students could have used in their observation. Explain why these might be more valid examples of friendly behaviour than the behaviours in Table 1. [4 marks] 4 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Topic: Relationships 0 7 Describe Duck’s phase model of relationship breakdown. [4 marks] Anji is trying Internet dating for the first time. She is considering what information about herself to put in her online profile. Friend A tells Anji not to be shy and that she should disclose everything. Friend B warns Anji about the anonymity of the Internet and says people can be very critical so she should give out limited information at the start. 0 8 Use your knowledge of self-disclosure in virtual relationships to explain the advice given by Anji’s friends. [4 marks] 0 9 Discuss what psychological research has told us about why people develop parasocial relationships. [16 marks] Topic: Gender 1 0 Describe the role of chromosomes in sex and gender. [4 marks] Beatrix is three years old. At her nursery, there are lots of toys to play with but Beatrix nearly always chooses to play with the dolls and the toy kitchen. When she comes home from nursery she tells her mother about other girls at nursery but hardly ever mentions any of the boys. 1 1 Use your knowledge of gender schema theory to explain Beatrix’s behaviour at nursery and at home. [4 marks] 1 2 Discuss what psychological research has told us about the influence of social learning on gender development. [16 marks] Section B Relationships or Gender or Cognition and development Choose one topic from Section B. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. 5 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Turn over ► Topic: Cognition and development 1 3 Describe what Piaget meant by equilibration. [4 marks] Conrad and Leonard are brothers. Conrad has autism whereas Leonard does not have autism. One day they are playing ball with their father in the garden. When their father goes inside to answer the telephone, Leonard hides the ball in a bucket. Leonard giggles and says to Conrad, “Where do you think Dad will look for the ball?”. 1 4 Use your knowledge of theory of mind and the Sally-Anne study to explain Conrad’s likely response. [4 marks] 1 5 Discuss what psychological research has told us about children’s understanding of object permanence. [16 marks] Turn over for Section C 6 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Section C Schizophrenia or Eating behaviour or Stress Choose one topic from Section C. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. Topic: Schizophrenia 1 6 What terms are used by psychologists to describe A and B below? A When a person has two or more disorders at the same time. B When two different disorders have a symptom in common. In your answer book, write the relevant term alongside each letter. [2 marks] 1 7 Evaluate one psychological explanation for schizophrenia. [6 marks] Jay and Mary are clinical psychologists. They each work with patients who have schizophrenia. Both Jay and Mary treat their patients without the use of drugs. Jay explains how he involves close relatives in treatment so there is less tension. Mary describes how she helps patients to gain understanding of their own thoughts and develop effective strategies to help themselves. 1 8 Describe and evaluate family therapy and cognitive behaviour therapy as treatments for schizophrenia. Refer to Jay and Mary in your answer. [16 marks] 7 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Turn over ► Topic: Eating behaviour 1 9 What terms are used by family systems theorists to describe A and B below? A Being free to decide how to behave, and feeling in control of one’s own life. B When a family is over-protective and distinctions between family members are blurred. In your answer book, write the relevant term alongside each letter. [2 marks] 2 0 Evaluate one psychological explanation for anorexia nervosa. [6 marks] Arya and Neela each have a six-year-old child. Arya says, “I cannot understand why he will only eat sweet things like peas and biscuits. He just spits out any new food that I give him.” Neela says, “We don’t have that problem. We always eat together and he seems to like everything that we eat, especially roast dinners.” 2 1 Describe and evaluate two explanations for food preferences. Refer to Arya and Neela in your answer. [16 marks] Turn over for the next topic 8 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Topic: Stress 2 2 What terms are used by psychologists to describe A and B below? A A stage-based process of adapting to a stressor which can end with damage to the immune system. B When a person’s immune system becomes compromised so that it cannot protect the individual against disease. In your answer book, write the relevant term alongside each letter. [2 marks] 2 3 Evaluate personality type as an explanation for stress. [6 marks] Beth and Oscar both experience stress. Beth worries a lot about her family whereas Oscar thinks about how to solve problems at work. Each of them has developed strategies for managing and coping with their stress. Oscar asks his friends for practical help, whereas Beth relies on her friends to cheer her up with positive comments. 2 4 Discuss gender differences and the role of social support in coping with stress. Refer to Oscar and Beth in your answer. [16 marks] 9 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Turn over ► Topic: Aggression 2 5 Psychology students sometimes propose hypotheses that are untestable. Which one of the following is essential for a testable hypothesis? Write the correct letter in your answer book. [1 mark] A The hypothesis should be written to include the word ‘significant’. B The hypothesis should include fully operationalised variables. C The hypothesis should refer to a difference between the conditions. D The hypothesis should use appropriate psychological terminology. An expert in institutional aggression focuses on how living conditions and environment can affect prisoner aggression. He visits Sharksville prison where there has recently been a prison riot. He observes the prison accommodation, prison conditions and how decisions about daily routine at the prison are made. 2 6 Which explanation for institutional aggression assumes that aggression is due to the institutional environment? [1 mark] 2 7 Referring to your answer to Question 26, describe what the expert could recommend to reduce institutional aggression at Sharksville prison. [4 marks] 2 8 Outline one limitation of the explanation for institutional aggression you have used to answer Question 27. [2 marks] 2 9 Describe and evaluate one or more of the following biological explanations for human aggression: neural, hormonal, genetic. [16 marks] Section D Aggression or Forensic psychology or Addiction Choose one topic from Section D. Answer all questions on the topic you choose. 10 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Topic: Forensic psychology 3 0 Psychology students sometimes propose hypotheses that are untestable. Which one of the following is essential for a testable hypothesis? Write the correct letter in your answer book. [1 mark] A The hypothesis should be written to include the word ‘significant’. B The hypothesis should include fully operationalised variables. C The hypothesis should refer to a difference between the conditions. D The hypothesis should use appropriate psychological terminology. Jack has been convicted of a burglary and attends Betterway centre for young offenders. At Betterway, case workers aim to change how offenders think about their crimes by involving victims. The case workers encourage offenders to consider the wider effects of their crimes and appreciate how they should make up for what they have done wrong. 3 1 Which way of dealing with offending involves victims? [1 mark] 3 2 Referring to your answer to Question 31, describe what a case worker might recommend in order for Jack to deal with his offending. [4 marks] 3 3 Outline one limitation of the way of dealing with offending you have described in your answer to Question 32. [2 marks] 3 4 Describe and evaluate one or more of the following biological explanations for offending: atavistic form, genetics, neural. [16 marks] 11 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 Topic: Addiction 3 5 Psychology students sometimes propose hypotheses that are untestable. Which one of the following is essential for a testable hypothesis? Write the correct letter in your answer book. [1 mark] A The hypothesis should be written to include the word ‘significant’. B The hypothesis should include fully operationalised variables. C The hypothesis should refer to a difference between the conditions. D The hypothesis should use appropriate psychological terminology. Warren is addicted to gambling. In the evening he plays poker on the computer. He has recently started to attend Bettsoff gambling recovery centre. At the centre, staff aim to change how people think about their addictive behaviour. They also promote coping skills and alternative ways of behaving so addicts are less likely to fall back into their gambling habit. 3 6 Which therapy for addiction relies on changing the way the person thinks about his or her addictive behaviour? [1 mark] 3 7 Referring to your answer to Question 36, describe what the staff at the centre might do to help Warren’s gambling addiction. [4 marks] 3 8 Outline one limitation of the way of reducing addiction you have described in your answer to Question 37. [2 marks] 3 9 Describe and evaluate one or more of the following explanations for nicotine addiction: brain neurochemistry, learning theory. [16 marks] END OF QUESTIONS 12 IB/G/Jun21/7182/3 There are no questions printed on this page Copyright information For confidentiality purposes, all acknowledgements of third-party copyright material are published in a separate booklet. This booklet is published after each live examination series and is available for free download from www.aqa.org.uk. Permission to reproduce all copyright material has been applied for. In some cases, efforts to contact copyright-holders may have been unsuccessful and AQA will be happy to rectify any omissions of acknowledgements. If you have any queries please contact the Copyright Team. Copyright © 2021 AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. *216A7182/3* [Show More]

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