Psychology > EXAM > Openstax Psychology Chapter 11 Key Terms and Definitions (All)

Openstax Psychology Chapter 11 Key Terms and Definitions

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Openstax Psychology Chapter 11 Key Terms and Definitions Personality traits and patterns that result in a person thinking, feeling, and behaving in a specific and consistent way. It is what makes in... dividuals unique and different from others. It is also long-term, stable, and not easily changed. Conscious thoughts, feelings, and memories that we can access at any time Unconscious thoughts, feelings, and memories that we are unaware of and unable to access. According to Freud, most of the human mind operates at this level. Id operates on the pleasure principle; the aspect of personality that consists of our most primitive drives and urges, including impulses for hunger, thirst and sex. "I want to do that now!" Ego operates on the reality principle; the aspect of personality that represents the self, or the part of one's personality visible to others. serves as a balance between the other personality components. "Maybe we can compromise." Superego operates on the morality/guilty principle; the aspect of personality that serves as one's moral compass or conscience. "It's not right to do that." Neurosis/Neuroticism a tendency to experience negative emotions Defense Mechanisms unconscious protective behaviors that aim to reduce anxiety; operate in various ways that distort reality Psychosexual Stages of Development Freud's stages of child development in which a child's pleasure-seeking urges are focused on specific areas of the body called erogenous zones. Failure to resolve a stage can lead to fixation. Freud's Psychosexual Stages Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital Oral Stage psychosexual development stage from birth to 1 where pleasure is focused on the mouth (eating and sucking nipples, pacifiers, and thumbs); major conflict is weaning off breast or bottle. The adult fixation might be smoking, nail-biting or overeating. Associated with the id principle Anal Stage stage of psychosexual development from 1-3 in which children experience pleasure in their bowel and bladder movements; major conflict is toilet training; the adult fixation might be neatness or messiness. Associated with the ego principle Phallic Stage stage of psychosexual development from 3-6 in which children focus on pleasure on the genitals/erogenous zones; major conflicts are the Oedipus and Electra complexes, where the child feels a desire for the opposite sex parent and jealousy toward the same sex parent. The adult fixation is having a very strong super ego Latency Period this period is not considered a stage of psychosexual development and occurs from 6 to puberty; sexual feelings are dormant; focus is on school, friendships, hobbies, and sports Genital Stage stage of psychosexual development from puberty on in which the focus is on the maturation of sexual interests; incestuous urges resurface, but in a more socially acceptable way. For example, boys look for girls that are like their mothers and girls look for boys that are like their fathers Psychoanalysis/Psychoanalytic Theory Refers to releasing the tension of repression and resolving unconscious inner conflicts; the typical image is where the patient is lying on a couch and the analyst is behind the patient and not visible so the patient will talk letting out thoughts from his/her unconscious mind Elements of Psychoanalysis free association, interpretation, slips of the tongue, dreams, transference, resistance Free Association speak whatever comes to mind [Show More]

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