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US History II Unit 4 Final Exam

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1 Choose the statement that reflects a foreign policy success for President Gerald Ford. • He helped negotiate peace between Israel and Egypt, which resulted in the Camp David Accords. • Rath... er than containment or Détente, he based his foreign policy on human rights. • He met with Chairman Mao Zedong to establish relations with China. • Along with the Soviet premier and 31 other countries, he agreed to the Helsinki Accords. RATIONALE One of President Ford’s major foreign policy successes during his brief term was the Helsinki Accords, signed in 1975, which formally recognized the territorial boundaries that had been established at the end of World War II and included a provision on human rights. The other foreign policy events are related to the Richard Nixon and Jimmy Carter administrations. CONCEPT From Détente to the Carter Doctrine 2 What group was one of the intellectual arms of the New Right, providing policy positions and political recommendations for conservative candidates? • The Save Our Children organization • The Free Speech Movement • The Moral Majority • The Heritage Foundation CONCEPT The Rise of the New Right 3 Which of the following was a consequence of Richard Nixon's policy of disengaging from the Vietnam War? • President Nixon announced his plans to bomb North Vietnamese supply routes in Cambodia to Congress. • Protests over the Cambodia bombings led to the killing of two protesters at Jackson State College. • South Vietnam was finally able to declare victory over North Vietnam. • The Pentagon Papers revealed that Nixon had negotiated with the Viet Cong. CONCEPT Peace with Honor? The US Withdraws from Vietnam 4 Choose the true statement about the press’s role in uncovering the Watergate scandal. • The Senate Watergate Committee held public hearings in which those accused of wrongdoing denied the accusations. • A federal district judge threatened harsh sentences unless witnesses came forward about what they knew. • An anonymous source in the FBI provided information that implicated President Richard Nixon's administration in the Watergate break-in. • Newspapers ignored the 1972 presidential election and de-escalation of the war in Vietnam to cover a break-in at the Watergate Hotel. CONCEPT The Watergate Scandal 5 Which of the following led to the beginning of the Great Recession? • Home prices began to fall because home construction had reached a saturation point. • Millions of college students were unable to find jobs after graduating. • Investments in high-tech companies were lost when the "dot com" bubble burst. • Federal funds were dispersed to support private industries, such as the auto industry. CONCEPT The American Economy in the 21st Century 6 Which of the following statements reflects an effect of political organizing by evangelical Christians? • “As a Republican politician, I have staked out a position against abortion to appease my constituents.” • "As a voter, I have expressed my support of Lyndon Johnson and the Great Society." • "As a Christian, I believe in the American government first and God second." • "As a Democrat, I feel as though the difference between the two political parties is getting smaller." CONCEPT Religious Influence on the 20th Century Republican Party 7 The average compensation for the highest-paid CEOs in America went up 400% between 1980 and 1988. Which group was least likely to view growing class divisions in America in the 1980s as a problem? • The Moral Majority • Liberal Democrats • Neoconservatives • White Americans CONCEPT Morning in America: The Culture Wars of the 1980s 8 Which act brought a number of government agencies into a single department to better manage terrorist threats, both foreign and domestic? • The USA PATRIOT Act • The Homeland Security Act • The Federal Emergency Management Act • The American Recovery Act RATIONALE The Homeland Security Act centralized control over a number of government agencies, including the Coast Guard, the Secret Service and U.S. Customs, into a single Department of Homeland Security in order to better control foreign and domestic terrorism threats. CONCEPT Seeking Security at Home in the 21st Century 9 One of the most significant and swift social transformations in recent American history occurred when the Supreme Court rendered what ruling? • English was the official language of the United States. • Climate change was real. • Marriage was a union between a man and a woman. • Same-sex marriage was a constitutional right. RATIONALE In 2015, the Supreme Court ruled in Obergefell v. Hodges that the Defense of Marriage Act was unconstitutional and that same-sex marriage was a federally protected constitutional right. The growing acceptance of homosexuality among Americans and, with it, a rethinking of the traditional conventions of marriage, marks one of the most significant social changes of the 21st century. CONCEPT Major Social Issues in the Early 21st Century 10 Which of the following was an effect of busing during the 1970s? • The Nixon administration publicly supported busing efforts after they successfully increased integration. • Resistance to integration was strongest in the South. • Public schools in all northern cities were successfully integrated. • “White flight” saw large numbers of families leaving cities and moving to the suburbs. CONCEPT The 1970s 11 A chemical company wants to release wastewater directly into a river that abuts its property. Which policy requires the company to follow certain regulations and to obtain a permit before doing so? • The Natural Resource Protection Act • The Toxic Substances Control Act • The Clean Water Act • The Environmental Protection Act CONCEPT Emergence of Environmentalism in the 1970s 12 In 2011, revolts associated with the Arab Spring shook the Middle East. The protests in one country led to forceful responses by its president and eventually a civil war, which was still continuing in 2017. Select the map that accurately depicts in red the country in which this occurred. RATIONALE The country that devolved into an ongoing civil war following the “Arab Spring” is Syria, which is located just south of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea. CONCEPT America and the World in the 21st Century 13 Which of the following are examples of the New World Order following the Cold War? • Israel granted a measure of self-rule to Palestinians living in the the Gaza Strip and the West Bank of Israel. • Ethnic cleansing erupted in southeastern Europe after the fall of the Soviet Union. • The Soviet Union succeeded in suppressing political demonstrations in eastern Europe. • The United States unilaterally invaded Iraq and deposed Saddam Hussein. CONCEPT A New World Order 14 Name an unintended effect of Reaganomics in the 1980s. • There was a significant increase in the national debt. • Funding for programs to help the poor was reduced. • Taxes were reduced for citizens and corporations. • The cycle of stagflation was broken. RATIONALE “Reaganomics” is the name given to the Ronald Reagan administration’s economic policy, which rested heavily on supply-side (or trickle-down) economic theory. As a political conservative and representative of the New Right, Reagan’s economic policy was to stimulate the economy by cutting taxes on wealthy individuals and corporations—which in theory would promote economic growth—and reducing spending on domestic social welfare programs. Despite Reagan's commitment to rolling back government spending, however, the national debt tripled from $914 billion to $2.7 trillion during his administration, as tax cuts depleted government revenue and defense spending skyrocketed. CONCEPT Morning in America: Reaganomics 15 Why did President Ronald Reagan begin to change his position toward the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s? • Reagan was determined to exploit obvious weaknesses within the Soviet economy and government. • He wanted to distract from his administration’s secret weapons sales to Iran and support of the Contras. • Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev made efforts to reform the Soviet government and economy. • America’s stature as the world’s greatest power had been acknowledged by all other nations. RATIONALE President Reagan began to change his position toward the Soviet Union in the mid-1980s because of the actions of Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev, who came to power in 1985. Gorbachev sought to reinvigorate the Soviet government and economy through perestroika (political openness) and glasnost (economic restructuring), which signaled a change from the policies of his predecessors. CONCEPT The End of the Cold War 16 Read the excerpt from a speech Ronald Reagan gave to the National Association of Evangelicals in 1983: "Let us pray for the salvation of all of those who live in that totalitarian darkness—pray they will discover the joy of knowing God. But until they do, let us be aware that while they preach the supremacy of the state, declare its omnipotence over individual man, and predict its eventual domination of all peoples on the Earth, they are the focus of evil in the modern world." According to the excerpt, why did President Reagan refer to the Soviet Union as “the focus of evil in the modern world?” • Because the Soviet Union accused the United States of imperialism • Because the Soviet Union threatened nuclear war • Because the Soviet Union claimed global dominion • Because the Soviet Union rejected Christian values RATIONALE Throughout his administration, Reagan referred to the Soviet Union as an “evil empire” that advanced a set of values antagonistic to the Christian values of the United States. According to this excerpt, one of those values advanced by the Soviet Union is atheism. This is evident in the phrases “pray they will discover the joy of knowing God” and “they preach the supremacy of the state” (rather than the supremacy of God). CONCEPT The End of the Cold War 17 Choose a reason why the federal government increased efforts to address violent crime and drug use in the 1980s and 1990s. • The expanding population of men aged 16 to 36 was associated with a rise in crime rates. • States implemented mandatory minimum prison sentences for any drug offense. • More prisons were needed to employ rural Americans. • African American communities decried racism within the justice system. CONCEPT The Culture Wars Continue 18 Choose the statement that describes a success of Operation Iraqi Freedom. • Iraq assumed the task of rebuilding after the American invasion. • Members of al-Qaeda leadership were captured or killed. • U.S. forces occupied Baghdad within one month. • Many al-Qaeda training camps were destroyed. CONCEPT 9/11 and the War on Terror 19 Consider this image from 1991 that depicts immigrant workers in a New York City garment shop. Source: Andrea Ades Vásquez, American Social History Project. This image reflects what trend in immigration in the late 20th century? • The immigrants to the United States increasingly were Asian. • The United States entered a period of immigration restriction after decades of more relaxed immigration policies. • Immigrants to the United States obtained jobs that paid less than what they earned in their home countries. • Immigrant workers began to occupy low-wage occupations in the United States by the late 20th century. RATIONALE This photograph depicts a primarily female, immigrant workforce employed in a New York City garment shop. The photo reflect the rise of Asian immigrants in the United States, a key trend in U.S. immigration in the late 20th century. CONCEPT 20th Century American Immigration 20 Choose the true statement about the effects of the 1990s economy in America. • The federal government had to borrow less money as the federal deficit shrank. • The unemployment rate reached a 30-year high. • Taxes were reduced for all Americans, whether wealthy or poor. • Free trade agreements increased the prices of consumer goods. CONCEPT Globalization and the American Economy 21 Read the excerpt from an address to Congress made by President George W. Bush articulating the Bush Doctrine in 2001: "Our response involves far more than instant retaliation and isolated strikes. Americans should not expect one battle, but a lengthy campaign unlike any other we have ever seen. . . We will starve terrorists of funding, turn them one against another, drive them from place to place until there is no refuge or no rest. And we will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. Every nation in every region now has a decision to make. Either you are with us or you are with the terrorists. From this day forward, any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime." Which organization was President Bush most likely referring to when using the word "terrorists?" • Hezbollah • Al-Qaeda • ISIS • Saddam Hussein CONCEPT 9/11 and the War on Terror 22 Choose the true statement about the nature of the American economy in the 1970s. • The United States faced increasing economic competition from the Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc. • The United States continued to export more than it imported, resulting in a trade surplus. • Economic stagnation was exacerbated by deflation. • The Sunbelt gained political influence as a center for economic and technological progress. CONCEPT The 1970s 23 Choose the true statement about the Johnson administration's Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965. • It banned immigrants from accessing publicly funded services like healthcare and education. • It required all new immigrants to have family members already in the United States. • The new law placed an annual limit on immigrants from Latin American countries. • American farmers were required to provide decent wages and decent housing for migrant workers. CONCEPT 20th Century American Immigration 24 Choose the true statement about the American economy in the early 2000s. • Large corporations were accused and convicted of allegations of massive accounting fraud. • Regulatory changes to the banking industry made it more difficult for Americans to obtain mortgages. • The majority of American households profited from investing in high-tech and Internet companies. • Cuts in federal spending led to a reduction in the national debt. CONCEPT The American Economy in the 21st Century [Show More]

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