*NURSING > EXAM PROCTORED > PHARMACOLOGY ATI QUESTIONS & ANSWERS LATEST 2020 COMPLETE SOLUTION GUIDE. (All)

PHARMACOLOGY ATI QUESTIONS & ANSWERS LATEST 2020 COMPLETE SOLUTION GUIDE.

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1. A nurse is caring for a client who has a new prescription for ergotamine. The nurse should recognize that ergotamine is administered to treat which of the following conditions? o Migraine headache... s ▪ Ergotamine prevents or stops migraine headache by blocking alpha-adrenergic receptors in the cranial peripheral vascular smooth muscle, which causes vasoconstriction of dilated cerebral blood vessels. 2. A nurse is caring for a client who has a new prescription for amphotericin B. The nurse should plan to monitor the client for which of the following adverse effects? o Nephrotoxicity ▪ Amphotericin B is an antifungal medication used to treat severe fungal infections; however, it can cause nephrotoxicity. The nurse should monitor the client’s creatinine every 3-4 days and increase fluid intake. The dosage of amphotericin B should be reduced if the client’s creatinine is 3.5 mg/dL or greater. 3. A nurse is preparing to administer heparin 8,000 units subcutaneously every 8 hours. Available is heparin 10,000 units/1 mL. How many mL should the nurse administer per dose? (Round the answer to the nearest tenth. Use a leading zero if it applies. Do not use a trailing zero) o 0.8 mL ▪ 1mL / 10,000 units x 8,000 units / 1 4. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has chronic kidney failure with an AV fistula for hemodialysis and a new prescription for epoetin alfa. Which of the following therapeutic effects of epoetin alfa should the nurse include in the teaching? o Promotes RBC production ▪ Epoetin Alfa stimulates erythropoiesis in the bone marrow to increase RBC production and reduce anemia. Anemia is common in clients who have chronic kidney failure, since erythropoietin is produced by the kidney. 5. A nurse is caring for a client who has a new prescription for enalapril. The nurse should monitor the client for which of the following adverse effects of this medication? o Hypotension ▪ Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, can cause hypotension and postural hypotension, especially during the first 3 hrs. following the initial dosage. 6. A nurse is caring for a client who has a prescription for clopidogrel. The nurse should monitor the client for which of the following adverse effects? o Bleeding ▪ Clopidogrel is an antithrombotic medication that inhibits platelet aggregation. It is used to prevent stenosis of coronary stents, MI’s, and strokes. The nurse should monitor for coffee ground emesis, black tarry stools, ecchymosis or any indication of bleeding. 7. A nurse is caring for a client who has a new diagnosis of oral candidiasis after taking tetracycline for 7 days. The nurse should recognize that candidiasis is a manifestation of which of the following adverse effects? o Superinfection ▪ A superinfection can develop from the overgrowth of fungus due to the antibacterial effect of tetracycline. The nurse should monitor the client for manifestations of a superinfection, such as soreness of the mouth and a swollen tongue. 8. A nurse is teaching a newly licensed nurse about contraindications to ceftriaxone. The nurse should include a severe allergy to which of the following medications as a contraindication to ceftriaxone? o Piperacillin ▪ Clients who have a severe allergy to piperacillin, which is PCN, can have a cross sensitivity to ceftriaxone, a third- generation cephalosporin. Ceftriaxone is contraindicated for the client who has an allergy to cephalosporins or a severe allergy to PCN. 9. A nurse is administering subcutaneous epinephrine for a client who is experiencing anaphylaxis. The nurse should monitor the client for which of the following adverse effects? o Tachycardia ▪ Adverse effects of epinephrine, an adrenergic agonist, can include tachycardia and dysrhythmias as the result of cardiac stimulation. 10. A nurse is administering subcutaneous heparin to a client who is at risk for deep vein thrombosis. Which of the following actions should the nurse take? o Administer the medication into the client’s abdomen 11. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has cirrhosis and a new prescription for lactulose. The nurse should instruct the client that lactulose has which of the following therapeutic effects? o Reduces ammonia levels ▪ Lactulose is a laxative that promotes the excretion of ammonia in a client who has hepatic encephalopathy from cirrhosis of the liver. 12. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has rheumatoid arthritis and a prescription for long-term prednisone therapy. The nurse should instruct the client to monitor for which of the following adverse effects? o Stress fractures ▪ Prednisone can cause demineralization of the bones and can lead osteoporosis and stress fractures. 13. A nurse is caring for a client who has peptic ulcer disease and reports a headache. Which of the following medications should the nurse plan to administer? o Acetaminophen ▪ Acetaminophen is an analgesic used for mild to moderate pain. It can be administered to a client who has peptic ulcer disease because it does not affect blood coagulation and does not increase the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. 14. A nurse is planning care for a client who has a seizure disorder and a new prescription for valproic acid. Which of the following laboratory values should the nurse plan to monitor? o PTT ▪ Valproic acid can alter coagulation; therefore, PT and PTT should be monitored o Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) ▪ Valproic acid can cause life-threatening hepatotoxicity. The client should have baseline liver function tests (LFTs) before starting this medication and LFTs should be repeated at regular intervals during therapy. o Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) ▪ ALT is a liver enzyme that is measured as a component of liver function tests. Levels of the enzyme identify liver damage. 15. A nurse is reviewing laboratory values for a client who reports fatigue and cold intolerance. The client has an increased thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and a decreased total T3 and T4 level. The nurse should anticipate a prescription for which of the following medications? o Levothyroxine ▪ Levothyroxine replaces thyroid hormone for a client who has hypothyroidism. Laboratory values for hypothyroidism include an increased TSH level and decreased T3 and T4 levels. Clinical manifestations for hypothyroidism include fatigue, cold intolerance, and a decreased body temperature and pulse. 16. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has ulcerative colitis and a new prescription for sulfasalazine. The nurse should instruct the client to monitor for which of the following adverse effects of this medication? o Jaundice 17. A nurse is preparing to administer amoxicillin 250 mg liquid suspension PO every 8 hr to an older client. The amount available is amoxicillin 50mg/mL. How many mL should the nurse administer per dose? (round the answer to the nearest whole number. Use a leading zero if it applies. Do not use a trailing zero). o 5 mL ▪ If there are 50 mg/1mL and the amount prescribed is 250 mg, it makes sense to administer 5 mL PO. 18. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has a UTI and new prescriptions for phenazopyridine and ciprofloxacin. Which of the following statements by the client indicates the need for further teaching? o I should notify my provider immediately if my urine turns an orange color. ▪ Phenazopyridine is a UTI analgesic used to relieve pain and burning during urination. The medication can cause the client’s urine to turn a reddish orange. This coloration is expected effect of this medication, although it can stain clothing, and does not need to be reported to the provider. 19. A nurse is providing teaching to a newly licensed nurse about metoclopramide. The nurse should include in the teaching that which of the following conditions is a contraindication to this medication? o Intestinal obstruction ▪ Metoclopramide reduces nausea and vomiting by increasing gastric motility and promoting gastric emptying. It is contraindicated for a client who has an intestinal obstruction or perforation. 20. A nurse is providing teaching to a newly licensed nurse about caring for a client who has a prescription for gemfibrozil. The nurse should instruct the newly licensed nurse to monitor which of the following lab tests? o Liver function ▪ Gemfibrozil reduces triglycerides by decreasing the liver’s uptake of fatty acids. It can cause liver toxicity; therefore, the nurse should monitor the client’s liver function. 21. A nurse is caring for a client who has been taking isoniazid and rifampin for 3 weeks for the treatment of active pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). The client reports his urine is a dark orange color. Which of the following statements should the nurse make? o Rifampin can turn body fluids orange. ▪ Rifampin can cause body fluids, such as tears, sweat, saliva, and urine to turn a reddish-orange color. The nurse should inform the client that this effect does not cause harm. 22. A nurse is providing teaching to a client who has gout and a new prescription for allopurinol. The nurse should instruct the client to discontinue taking the medication for which of the following adverse effects? o Fever ▪ Fever can indicate a potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction. The client should discontinue the allopurinol and notify the provider if a fever or rash develops. 23. A nurse is assessing a client who is receiving IV gentamicin three times daily. Which of the following findings indicates that the client is experiencing an adverse effect of this medication? o Proteinuria ▪ Proteinuria is a manifestation of nephrotoxicity, an adverse effect of gentamycin. The nurse should monitor for oliguria and hematuria. o A nurse is preparing to administer furosemide 4 mg/kg/day PO divided into 2 equal doses daily to a toddler who weighs 22 lb. How many mg should the nurse administer per dose? (Round to the nearest whole number).20 mg ▪ 4 mg x 10kg = 40 mg/kg divided by 2 24. A nurse is preparing to administer prochlorperazine 2.5 mg IV. Available is prochlorperazine injection 5 mg/mL. How many mL should the nurse administer? (Round the answer to the nearest tenth). o 0.5 mL ▪ 2.5 mg x 5mg/mL = 0.5 mL 25. A nurse is caring for an older client who has a prescription for zolpidem at bedtime to promote sleep. The nurse should plan to monitor the client for which of the following adverse effects? o Dizziness ▪ Zolpidem can cause dizziness and daytime drowsiness. It can cause confusion in the older adult client. 26. A nurse is providing teaching to a parent of a child who has asthma and a new prescription for a cromolyn sodium metered dose inhaler. Which of the following statements by the parent indicates the need for further teaching? o I will give my child a dose as soon as wheezing starts. ▪ Cromolyn is a mast cell inhibitor that has a slow onset and is given prophylactic treatment of asthma. It is not a rescue medication. 27. A nurse is providing teaching to a group of new parents about medications. The nurse should include that aspirin is contraindicated for children who has a viral infection due to the risk of developing which of the following adverse effects? o Reye’s syndrome ▪ ASA should not be given to children or adolescents who has a viral infection, such as chickenpox or influenza, due to the risk of developing Reye’s syndrome. 28. A nurse is caring for a client who has a prescription for chlorothiazide to treat hypertension. The nurse should plan to monitor the patient for which of the following adverse effects? o Muscle weakness ▪ Chlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic used to treat HTN and CHF. It promotes excretion of water, sodium, and potassium and can cause hypokalemia. Manifestations of hypokalemia include muscle weakness, muscle cramps and dysrhythmias. 29. A nurse is caring for a client who is at 28 weeks’ gestation and is experiencing preterm labor. Which of the following medications should the nurse plan to administer? o Nifedipine 30. Nifedipine is a tocolytic medication that is administered to stop preterm labor.A nurse is providing teaching to a newly licensed nurse about administering morphine via IV bolus to a client. Which of the following information should the nurse include in the teaching? o Respiratory depression can occur 7 min after the morphine is administered. ▪ The nurse should monitor the client’s respirations and have naloxone available to reverse the effects of the morphine. 31. A nurse is reviewing the lab results for a client who has a prescription for filgrastim. The nurse should recognize that an increase in which of the following values indicates a therapeutic effect of this medication? o Neutrophil count ▪ This medication increases the neutrophil production. It is given to treat neutropenia and reduce the risk of infection for client who are receiving chemotherapy for cancer or who have undergone bone marrow transplant. 32. A nurse is caring for a client who has a new prescription for tamoxifen. The nurse should recognize that tamoxifen has which of the following therapeutic effects? o Antiestrogenic ▪ It is used to treat cancer of the breast in both pre- and postmenopausal women. It is used to prevent breast cancer in women who are at an increased risk [Show More]

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