*NURSING > EXAM > NR 507 Midterm Exam / NR507 Midterm Exam (Latest, 2020 / 2021): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlai (All)

NR 507 Midterm Exam / NR507 Midterm Exam (Latest, 2020 / 2021): Advanced Pathophysiology: Chamberlain College of Nursing (Already Graded A)

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NR-507 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm Exam 1. What causes the S2 heart sound? - closing of semilunar (aortic and pulmonary) valves 2. What prevents the backflow into the ventricles? - ... 3. Stenosis of heart valve - 4. Stenosis of a heart valve, may result in what? - 5. heart failure - 6. Left sided heart failure characteristic - 7. Causes of left sided heart failure - 8. How does LV hypertrophy lead to left sided heart failure? - 9. How does Aortic SL valve or bicuspid valve damage lead to heart failure? - 10. Biventricular failure - 11. How does heart failure progress from hypertension? - 12. What does fluid in the pulmonary tissue result in - 13. cor pulmonale - 14. right sided heart failure - 15. Causes of right sided heart failure - 16. What is the most common cause of right sided heart failure? - 17. Progression of right sided heart failure - 18. signs and symptoms of right sided heart failure - 19. Why does hepatosplenomegaly develop in right sided heart failure? - 20. why does peripheral edema occur in right sided heart failure? - 21. High output failure - 22. causes of high output failure - 23. Process of high output failure - 24. Troponin-Calcium Binding - 25. sliding filament theory - 26. Hematopoiesis - 27. Where does blood cell formation occur in a fetus - 28. Blood cell formation in children 0-5 years old - 29. blood cell formation in adults over 20 - 30. Erythropoietin - 31. hematopoietic stem cells - 32. How does a hematopoietic stem cell produce a red blood cell? 33. Erythrocyte function - 34. Erythrocyte life span - 35. anemia risk factors - 36. function of hemoglobin - 37. causes of anemia - 38. hemolytic anemia - 39. causes of hemolytic anemia - 40. development of anemia due to gastrectomy - 41. what kind of anemia can result from incorrect blood transfusion? - 42. normocytic normochromic anemia - 43. hemolytic anemia is what kind of anemia - 44. polycythemia vera - 45. Kidney Anatomy - 46. Nephron Anatomy - 47. Bladder anatomy - 48. reabsorption (kidney) - 49. what solutes are typically reabsorbed? - 50. Where is most of the solute reabsorbed? - 51. What effects amount of water and solute reabsorption - 52. secretion (kidney) - 53. filtration (kidney) - 54. Conditions associated with renal failure - 55. vesicoureteral reflux - 56. renal agenesis - 57. Potter syndrome - 58. Wilms tumor - 59. polycystic kidney disease - 60. Why are kidneys and bladders at high risk for cancer - 61. Descending infection - 62. Ascending infection - 63. glomerulonephritis - 64. tubular necrosis - 65. Causes of tubular necrosis - 66. Pathophysiology of tubular necrosis - 67. Acute Kidney Injury - 68. Prerenal disease - 69. prerenal disease causes - 70. What are most cases of AKI caused by? - 71. Intrarenal disease - Causes of intrarenal disease - 73. postrenal disease - 74. Causes of postrenal disease - 75. Chronic kidney disease - 76. kidney stones - 77. kidney stone treatment - 78. causes of kidney stones - 79. benign prostatic hyperplasia - 80. BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) - 81. BPH treatment - 82. pathogenesis of primary glomerulonephritis - 83. clinical indicators of glomerulonephritis - 84. Why is there edema with glomerulonephritis - 85. Azotemia - 86. Why is there azotemia with renal failure? - 87. Why is there oliguria with renal failure? - 88. What happens in renal failure when the coagulation cascade is activated - 89. blood hydrostatic pressure - 90. filtration (kidney) - 91. angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) - 92. What does angiotensin II do? - 93. Role of macrophages - 94. Asthma - 95. What are 5 s/s of asthma - 96. Pathophysiology of asthma (5) - 97. Bronchioles - 98. 3 layers of the bronchioles - 99. lamina propria - 100. structure of the lamina propria - 101. purpose of the lamina propria - 102. How does the lamina propria effect the lungs in regards to asthma? - 103. What does the innermost layer of the bronchioles contain? - 104. What does the outermost layer of the bronchioles contain? - 105. what does the outermost layer of the bronchioles do? - 106. alveolar hyperinflation - 107. how does hyperinflation occur? - 108. Effect of hyperinflation of the alveolar - 109. What are two anticholinergic drugs used for asthma? - 110. What do anticholinergics do in the lungs? - 111. MOA of anticholinergic drugs for asthma - - 112. bronchitis - 113. 3 characteristics of bronchitis - 114. Perfusion - 115. results of chronic bronchitis/ low perfusion - 116. Why is there cyanosis with chronic bronchitis - 117. Right to left shunting - 118. Causes of bronchitis - 119. Pathogenesis of bronchitis - 120. most common irritant with bronchitis is? - 121. what does long term exposure to irritants promote in bronchitis? (5) - 122. What does smooth muscle hypertrophy do in lungs? 123. Hypertrophy and hyperplasia of goblet cells do what in the bronchioles - 124. What are characteristics of epithelial cell metaplasia? - 125. What does the migration of WBCs to the bronchioles do? - 126. How does the thickening and rigidity of bronchial basement membranes effect the lungs? - 127. What acid-base disorder is seen in chronic bronchitis? - 128. how does chronic bronchitis lead to respiratory acidosis? - 129. Where does air enter the body? - 130. Where does air go after it passes through the nose and mouth? - 131. After air passes through the trachea where does it go? - 132. Where does air flow after the bronchi? - 133. Where does air flow after the bronchioles? - 134. Describe how blood flows to become oxygenated - 135. What is the formula for cardiac output? - 136. cardiac reserve - 137. What type of relationship does heart rate and stroke volume have? - 138. What is preload? - 139. average amount of preload? - 140. When fibers stretch during diastole how does that effect contraction? - 141. What happens when cardiac fibers overstretch during diastole? - 142. What can cause increased preload - 143. What can cause decreased preload - 144. What are two common causes of hypovolemia - 145. Afterload - 146. what influences afterload (3) - 147. what can cause an increase in afterload - 148. what can decrease afterload - 149. what influences cardiac contractility (inotropic state) 150. What electrolytes are used for cardiac muscle contraction? - 151. What increases cardiac muscle contraction - 152. what decreases cardiac muscle contraction - 153. Stimulation of what set a resting HR (chronotropic state) - 154. what stimulates the parasympathetic system? - 155. What does the parasympathetic system do? - 156. What can extreme vagal response result in? - 157. What mediates the sympathetic system? - 158. What does the sympathetic system promote in the cardiac system? - 159. What can uncontrolled tachycardia lead to? - 160. What are the two parts of the cardiac cycle? - 161. What causes blood to move from the atria to the ventricles - 162. What causes the S1 heart sound? - 163. What are the atrioventricular valves? - 164. What are the semilunar valves? - 165. What causes the semilunar valves to open? - 166. ejection fraction - 167. What causes the semilunar valves to close? - [Show More]

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