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PHI 208 Week 5 Final Exam|Latest Complete solutions|Ashford University.

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PHI 208 Week 5 Final Exam Score for this attempt: 50 out of 50 Question 1 1 / 1 pts Rachels claims that most actual cases of killing: are morally required. are morally less ba... d than most actual cases of letting die. are morally the same most actual cases of letting die. Correct! are morally worse than most actual cases of letting die. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 2 1 / 1 pts What does Noddings have to say about essentialism about gender? Culture is irrelevant; all of our behaviors are innate It wrongly assumes that God could not have made us in ways that were contrary to our ‘essential nature’ Correct! It is problematic because it has been associated with creation and because it has always favored males over females It is the clearly false view that men and women have essences The answer can be found on p. 214 of Nel Noddings’s “Maternal Ethics” Question 3 1 / 1 pts What, according to Tom Regan, is the contractarian approach to ethics? The view that all humans have equal rights independent of particular abilities The view that what is morally relevant is the pain and suffering that an animal endures when we mistreat it The view that all animals have rights because of the agreements that we have made (or should make) with them Correct! The view that individuals have rights because of a set of rules that they agree to follow, as with agreeing to the terms of a contract The answer can be found on p. 2 of Tom Regan’s “The Case for Animal Rights” Question 4 1 / 1 pts In Hill’s example, what did the wealthy eccentric man do to his yard after he bought a new house? Correct! 1 and 2 remodeled the kitchen covered the yard with asphalt cut down an avocado tree The answer can be found on p. 211 of Thomas Hill’s “Ideals of Human Excellence and Preserving Natural Environments” Question 5 1 / 1 pts What does Singer say about finding the basis for moral duties in the “intrinsic dignity” of humanity? That God ordained humanity to be the top of the “great chain of being” That mankind is the most important species because it is the most intelligent That dolphins have actually been shown to be more intelligent than humans in many respects Correct! That such fine phrases are a last resort for philosophers who cannot find a distinction that gives humans worth while denying it to all other species The answer can be found on p. 8 of Peter Singer’s “All Animals are Equal.” Question 6 1 / 1 pts In 2003, how many people died in Canada, according to the video “Dying for Care: Quality Palliative and End of Life Care in Canada”? 350,000 2.2 million 750,000 Correct! 226,000 The answer can be found in the video “Dying for Care: Quality Palliative and End of Life Care in Canada” Question 7 1 / 1 pts The Ring of Gyges gave the shepherd who found it Intelligence Invincibility Correct! Invisibility Wisdom The answer can be found in “Gyges’ Ring” from Plato’s Republic. Question 8 1 / 1 pts James Rachels points out that when passive euthanasia is employed on infants, they typically die of: Correct! dehydration and infection. suffocation. SARS. poisoning. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 9 1 / 1 pts Which of the following does Tom Regan say about the utilitarian approach to animal ethics? It ignores everything that does not have enough ‘utility’ and therefore does not take into account important things that it does not consider ‘useful’ It is wrong because it treats human suffering as more important than animal suffering It is perfect because it does not allow for discrimination based upon morally irrelevant attributes like race or species Correct! It is inadequate because it does not give value to individuals but only to their feelings The answer can be found on p. 4-5 of Tom Regan’s “The Case for Animal Rights” Question 10 1 / 1 pts Gilligan claims that females tend to see relationships as these duties rules Correct! webs hierarchies The answer can be found on page 62 of Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice Question 11 1 / 1 pts What, according to Noddings, do male philosophers tend to say about death (as opposed to women)? Correct! Male philosophers often talk as though the world or reason and abstraction is superior to the physical world of the body Women are more able to allow their faith in the afterlife overcome their aversion to death Death tends to be harder on men due to their attachments to the glory of this world Men are more brave in the face of death than women because of their natural courageousness The answer can be found on p. 219-220 of Nel Noddings’s “Maternal Ethics” Question 12 1 / 1 pts This is one way that men can contribute to the destruction of sexual objectification of women Correct! they can stop evaluating women based on their looks they can stop seeking attention they can tell women that they are attractive they can be kind to women The answer can be found in the video “The Sexy Lie” Question 13 1 / 1 pts Which of the following does not describe how egg-laying hens are treated in factory farms? They have their beaks painfully seared off They are starved into a period of ‘forced molting’ They are kept in such tight confinement that they cannot lift their wings Correct! They are allowed to scratch through dirt and grass looking for seeds and bugs in the fresh open air. The answer can be found at 2:28 in the video “Meet Your Meat” Question 14 1 / 1 pts In Gilligan’s article, the example of Heinz involves which crime racketeering arson murder Correct! theft The answer can be found on pages 25 and 26 of Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice Question 15 1 / 1 pts Passive euthanasia is: the refusal to treat a patient to avoid incurring unnecessary costs. intentionally causing a patient’s death, against the patient’s wishes. Correct! ceasing to use “extraordinary means” to prolong someone’s life. the intentional termination of one’s life by another person, to relieve pain and suffering. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 16 1 / 1 pts Which answer best describes Noddings’s statements about how mothers frequently to feel about losing their children in war? Mothers are generally more enthusiastic for war than anyone else because they know it will make the world safer for future generations Mothers universally oppose war and the death of children that it inevitably brings Correct! Mothers often allow their desire to demonstrate patriotism to override their natural opposition to war and the death of their children Mothers rest assured that the deaths of their children was fully justified by the good they did in the war The answer can be found on p. 217-218 of Nel Noddings’s “Maternal Ethics” Question 17 1 / 1 pts According to Jeremy Bentham (as described by Singer) what should determine whether a being’s interests should be taken into account? Whether they are capable of love Correct! Whether they can suffer Whether they can reason Whether they have the faculty of discourse The answer can be found on p. 4 of Peter Singer’s “All Animals are Equal.” Question 18 1 / 1 pts Which of the following does not describe the ways that chickens and turkeys are treated on factory farms, according to the video “Meet Your Meat” They are often beaten with metal rods, which is considered legal by the industry Correct! They are given ample space to roam and to express their own natural behavior. Some are so crippled from unnatural growth that they are unable to move They are raised in their own excrement among corpses of other birds The answer can be found at 0:43 in the video “Meet Your Meat” Question 19 1 / 1 pts According to Rachels, the case of Smith and Jones shows that: it is never permissible either to let someone die or to kill them. letting die is morally worse than killing. Correct! there is no intrinsic moral difference between killing and letting die. killing is intrinsically worse than letting die. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 20 1 / 1 pts What does Nel Noddings say about rates of violent crime among men and women? There has been no clearly demonstrated relation between gender and crime rates Men can be socialized not to commit crime, as seen in many eastern societies Women commit nearly as much crime as men do; gender differences here are illusory Correct! Men are naturally much more violence prone than women The answer can be found on p. 213-214 of Nel Noddings’s “Maternal Ethics” Question 21 1 / 1 pts Jeremy Waldron argues that drone warfare is neither ethical or effective because it promotes the growth of terrorism inhibits the development of counter-terrorism strategies Correct! all of the above threatens a world of death lists and death squads The answer can be found in the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective” Question 22 1 / 1 pts Rachels argues that the conventional doctrine: leads to patients being euthanized against their will. Correct! leads to decisions concerning life and death made on morally irrelevant grounds. is not what most people believe, but can be supported by strong arguments. is self-evidently correct. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 23 1 / 1 pts Glaukon seems to think that people are Naturally benevolent Naturally pious Naturally just Correct! Naturally egocentric The answer can be found in “Gyges’ Ring” from Plato’s Republic. Question 24 1 / 1 pts What would best express Colonel Nicholson’s (Alec Guinness) view regarding what makes a soldier, as expressed in the The Bridge on the River Kwai clip? Correct! The virtues of a good soldier are consistent no matter the circumstance. A good solider only acts virtuously when it benefits himself and his country. The good soldier regards the enemy as having less intrinsic worth than one’s own people. All of the above. The answer can be found in the clip from The Bridge on the River Kwai. Question 25 1 / 1 pts According to the video “Religion, War, and Violence,” proponents of Just War Theory agree that without the restraints of Just War Theory Correct! the violence and aggression of war would be worse humanitarian intervention would be more successful prisoners and noncombatants would have greater equality none of the above The answer can be found between 1:20-1:28 in the video “Religion, War, and Violence” Question 26 1 / 1 pts Reason is a faculty that we have that: is the fundamental ground of human dignity. Correct! both B and C is only good if it succeeds in satisfying our desires. is the driving principle of a good will. The answer can be found in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals. Question 27 1 / 1 pts This product was pulled from Abercrombie and Fitch stores based on protests through a blog yoga pants Correct! padded swimsuit tops for toddlers deep V-neck t-shirts lingerie The answer can be found in the video “The Sexy Lie” Question 28 1 / 1 pts In The Emperor’s Club, what best describes the teacher’s (Kevin Kline) response to his student’s (Emile Hirsch) admission of cheating? He hugged him and thanked him for being honest. He threatened to turn him in and have him punished. Correct! He challenged him to regard virtue and character as more important than success alone. He reminded him that it is against school policy to cheat, and thus that he erred by breaking the school’s rules. The answer can be found in the clip from In The Emperor’s Club. Question 29 1 / 1 pts In the video “What Is Just War Theory?” Michael Walzer argues it is important to read the essays and memoir literature of soldiers because they make the toughest moral decisions on the battlefield they contain critical material regarding the actual experience of war moral arguments about war should ring true to Correct! all of the above The answer can be found between minutes 10:00-15:00 of the video “What is Just War Theory?” Question 30 1 / 1 pts According to Thomas Nagel’s article, “War and Massacre,” the absolutist position that creates no problems of interpretation is rule utilitarianism act utilitarianism Correct! pacifism humanitarian intervention The answer can be found on p.126 of Thomas Nagel’s article “War and Massacre” Question 31 1 / 1 pts Which would be an example of a hypothetical imperative, according to Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals: Correct! If I want to keep my customers, I should be honest with them. It would be nice if everyone respected each other. I ought never to make a promise that I don’t intend to keep. all of the above. The answer can be found in Kant’s Groundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, p. 19. Question 32 1 / 1 pts This is the name of being aware of one’s appearance in relation to position, light, who is watching, etc. depression anorexia self-awareness Correct! habitual body monitoring The answer can be found in the video “The Sexy Lie” Question 33 1 / 1 pts What does Singer say about other philosophers’ attempts to argue that only humans have moral worth? That they give a good way to determine who has rights in a way that includes all humans and no animals That they all say that animals should have rights too Correct! That they come up with unjustified methods to include all humans while excluding all animals from moral consideration That animals do not have rights because they are not as smart as humans are The answer can be found on p. 7 of Peter Singer’s “All Animals are Equal.” Question 34 1 / 1 pts In the video, “Drones Are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson argues that the use of drones is ethical because none of the above Correct! it is more precise than other forms of weaponry it allows us to maintain a list of high value targets it provides a greater separation between the target and operator The answer can be found in the video “Drones Are Ethical and Effective” Question 35 1 / 1 pts In the video, “Drones are Ethical and Effective,” Kenneth Anderson states that drones are different from other weapon systems because Correct! they provide a longer loiter time they involve remote operation they eliminate civilian casualties none of the above The answer can be found in the video “Drones Are Ethical and Effective” Question 36 1 / 1 pts Aristotle states that if we ask what the highest good of human action is: there is no agreement about the answer. most people agree that it is pleasure. Correct! nearly everyone agrees that it is happiness. there is no objective answer to this question. The answer can be found in section I.4 of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Question 37 1 / 1 pts According to Gilligan, stages five and six of Kohlberg’s analysis of moral development involve a disposition of emotional affectivity Correct! a logic of equality and reciprocity shared conventions of societal agreement an egocentric understanding of fairness The answer can be found on page 27 of Carol Gilligan’s In a Different Voice Question 38 1 / 1 pts Rachels claims that once it has been decided that euthanasia is desirable in a case: the amount of suffering of the patient becomes irrelevant. it has been decided that the patient does not have a right to life. Correct! it has been decided that death is no greater an evil than the patient’s continued existence. a moral error has already been made. The answer can be found in the article “Active and Passive Euthanasia” Question 39 1 / 1 pts Which of the following does not happen to pigs on today’s factory farms in the “Meet Your Meat” video? Many are quite conscious while being slaughtered Correct! They are slaughtered quickly and painlessly They are castrated and have tails chopped without pain killers They are raised in extreme confinement so dense that they can’t turn around The answer can be found at 8:00-12:00 in the video “Meet Your Meat” Question 40 1 / 1 pts Which of the following does not happen in the “Meet Your Meat” to animals with diseases or injuries on modern factory farms: They are taken to slaughter anyway Correct! They are generally given immediate veterinary attention They are killed for growing too slowly The meat is allowed to be “USDA pure” The answer can be found at 4:35, 5:25, 5:58, and 9:34 in the video “Meet Your Meat” Question 41 1 / 1 pts Aristotle claims that the function of human life is: survival and reproduction. service to the gods. Correct! rational activity. to pursue pleasure. The answer can be found in section I.7 of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Question 42 1 / 1 pts Leon Kass argues that the primary responsibility of physicians is to: preserve a patient’s life by every means possible. Correct! benefit sick by the activity of healing. make decisions on the basis of compassion and good intention. respect the autonomy of the patient. The answer can be found in the article “Why Doctors Must Not Kill”. Question 43 1 / 1 pts According to Colin Stokes, in this film all the heroic, wise, and villainous characters are female. Les Miserables Correct! The Wizard of Oz Star Wars The Little Mermaid The answer can be found in the video “Colin Stokes: How Movies Teach Manhood” Question 44 1 / 1 pts In Aristotle’s view, the virtues are: something we are either born with or not. a gift from the gods. acquired through philosophical reflection. Correct! acquired through habit. The answer can be found in section II.1 of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics Question 45 1 / 1 pts When faced with the complaint that utilitarianism is a doctrine worthy of pigs, Mill responds that pleasures differ in: weight. species. Correct! quality. purity. The answer can be found in John Stuart Mill’s Utilitarianism, pp. 5-6. Question 46 1 / 1 pts According to Caroline Heldman, which of the following is a question that applies to her sexual object test? Does the image display violence against people in the image? Does the image display a full image of a woman? Correct! Does the image show a person as something that can be bought or sold? Does the image show people having sex? The answer can be found in the video “The Sexy Lie” Question 47 1 / 1 pts In the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective,” Jeremy Waldron argues that drones are not ethical because their use involves total transparency and accountability the assurance that only combatants will be targeted Correct! the maintenance of a secret death list by government authorities all of the above The answer can be found in the video “Drones Are Not Ethical and Effective” Question 48 1 / 1 pts According to Glaukon, justice is based on Correct! Mutually advantageous agreements among people. The laws of God. Natural goodwill among people. The will of the powerful. The answer can be found in “Gyges’ Ring” from Plato’s Republic. Question 49 1 / 1 pts Michael Walzer argues that there is a radical distinction between war and civil life because war is an intensely collective and collectivizing experience the circumstances of war are intensely coercive in ways not found elsewhere in society war is a world of pervasive uncertainty Correct! all of the above The answer can be found between minutes 25:00-40:00 of the video “What is Just War Theory?” Question 50 1 / 1 pts According to the video “Meet Your Meat”, which of the following is not true of how animals are slaughtered on factory farms Correct! They are ensured every means of avoiding fear and stress during the slaughtering process. They are often roughly handled and severely injured by the time they make it to slaughter They are often still conscious while being slaughtered They are driven in extreme weather conditions without food or water [Show More]

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