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NR442 / NR 442 Community Health Nursing Exam 1 - Latest updated Questions & Answers (all correct).

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NR442 Community Health Nursing Exam 1 Chapter 1: Health: A Community View 1. Which of the following best describes the primary reason that Americans are concerned about health care? A. Polit... icians are discussing how to improve health care. B. The media has provided mixed messages about the health care system. C. Our national health care costs keep increasing. D. The new health care system offers free services to Americans. 2. A nurse has begun to lobby with politicians for changes to the health care system. Why is this involvement important? A. Nurses, as central characters in several popular TV series, are currently very visible in American media. B. Nurses are primarily responsible for managing the various units in our health care system. C. Nurses are the largest group of health care providers. D. Nurses are the only group that is employed both inside and outside of hospitals. 3. What conclusion can be drawn from examining where nurses are employed? A. There is a trend toward consolidation of health care into large central medical centers. B. There is an increased emphasis on community-based health care. C. There is an obvious need to decrease health care costs by cutting positions. D. Managed care organizations (MCOs) are employing nurses to improve customer relations. 4. Which ethical belief would be most helpful in the current health care crisis? A. Emphasis should be on individual and corporation freedom in the marketplace. B. Emphasis should be on individual autonomy and freedom of choice. C. Emphasis should be on social justice and collective responsibility. D. Emphasis should be on the effectiveness of technology in resolving problems. 5. What is the primary problem seen in Healthy People 2020's emphasis on choosing healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as daily exercise or healthy food choices? A. Emphasis on other lifestyle choices, such as not smoking and minimal use of alcohol or drugs, is also needed. B. All of us must work together to make unhealthy behaviors socially unacceptable. C. It costs more to make healthy choices, such as buying and eating fresh fruits and vegetables as opposed to quick and cheap fast-food choices. D. Public policy emphasizes personal responsibility but ignores social and environmental changes needed for well-being. 6. What responsibility does the American Nurses Association (ANA) Code of Ethics require of the nurse beyond giving excellent care to patients? A. Accept longer work schedules to ensure that professional care is always available to clients B. Recognize the need for experienced nurses to mentor new graduates to help increase and expand the number of professionals available C. Support health legislation to improve accessibility and cost of health care D. Volunteer to work overtime as needed to ensure maximum quality of care 7. What is the community health nursing definition of health? A. Health is a person's goal-directed purposeful process toward well-being or wholeness. B. Health is an individual's physical, mental, and social well-being, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. C. Health is the mutual adaptation between a person and his or her environment in meeting daily existence. D. Health is families and aggregates choosing actions to ensure the safety and well-being. 8. How does community health nursing define community? A. A group of persons living within specific geographic boundaries B. A group of persons who share a common identity and environment C. A group of people who work together to meet common goals D. Persons who form a group to resolve a common concern 9. Which variable has a major influence on a community's health? A. Behavior choices made by persons in the community B. Number of health care providers and hospitals in the community C. Quality of public safety officers (police officers, firefighters, etc.) D. The number and credentials of public health officials in the community 10. What change would most effectively lead to a longer life span in Americans? A. Parenting and sexual behavior classes in all public school systems B. Legislation restricting alcohol and drug use C. Notably reducing speed limits on all state and federal highways, and changing the age limit for driving to 21 years of age D. The belief that smoking is shameful and disgusting, as well as expensive, becoming the social norm 11. What is the health issue causing the most concern in the United States today? A. Diabetes epidemic B. Increase in cardiac disease C. Increase in obesity D. Rise in cancer rates 12. What factors are most responsible for the increasing length of life of Americans over the past 100 years? A. Better nutrition and family planning options B. Education concerning the need to reduce salt and fat in the diet C. Improved medical care, including exciting new technologies D. More efficient cancer screenings and early intervention 13. Why would a public health nurse want to know about morbidity and mortality statistics on the local, state, and national level? A. To be able to share current trends in health problems with the community B. To be able to observe the community's statistics over time and compare the community with other communities C. To justify local budgets and the need for increased income from citizens D. To publicize current health issues and suggest appropriate actions to citizens 14. How do public health efforts differ from medical efforts in improving the health of our citizens? A. Medical care providers autonomously choose appropriate interventions, whereas public health care providers must engage in whatever actions legislation requires. B. Medical care providers are self-employed or agency employed, whereas public health care providers are employed by and paid through the government. C. Medical care providers focus only on individuals, whereas public health care providers focus only on aggregates. D. Medical care providers focus on disease diagnosis and management, whereas public health care providers focus on health promotion and disease prevention. 15. Which primary prevention would the school nurse choose to address the school's number of unwed pregnancies? A. Create a class on parenting for both moms-to-be and the dads-to-be B. Convince the school board to allow sex education classes to include birth control measures C. Employ the moms-to-be as 1-hour-a-day employees in the school day care center for children born to school students D. Establish a class where all the unwed moms-to-be can learn infant care 16. What would be the proper term for the action of the school health nurse arranging for all the students in the elementary school to receive H1N1 immunizations? A. Health education B. Secondary prevention C. Specific protection D. Tertiary prevention 17. Which action would probably result in the largest change in health care outcomes for Americans? A. Establish large numbers of scholarships for education of nurses, physicians, and other health care providers B. Fund a one-time extremely large stimulus to allow all health care providers and agencies to create and integrate computer network systems for client health care records C. Increase funding for hospitals and medical centers to expand their neighborhood clinics D. Redirect a large portion of federal funding from acute care to health promotion activities 18. Which task will be most helpful in meeting the public health agency's goals? A. Complete staff evaluations in preparation for individual meetings to plan their agency and individual goals for the next year B. Actively participate in community agencies' collaborative action plan to meet the community's health goals for the year C. Meet with the college of nursing faculty to finalize student objectives and schedules for the next semester D. Teach a free course in healthful living for community residents 19. A community health nurse is overwhelmed with all that needs to be done in one day. Which task could most easily be postponed? A. Reviewing the most recent hospital patient data collected by the local college of nursing B. Deciding which of several possible new clinic options would be most effective in better meeting the needs of the local community C. Evaluating the results of the most recent community-wide screening program before planning for the next community health program D. Giving testimony to the state legislature on a new health and safety bill 20. A nurse who works on the surgical unit at the local hospital was asked by the home health unit to make a home visit to a patient who had been discharged the previous day and to give follow-up care (for overload pay). What kind of nursing would this nurse be doing? A. Acute care hospital nursing B. Community-based nursing C. Community health nursing D. Public health nursing 21. Which task is most crucial for the community health nurse to do well? A. Review the most recent morbidity and mortality data B. Create a new clinic to better meet local health needs C. Evaluate the results of the recent screening program D. Give testimony regarding proposed state health legislation 22. A new public health nurse carefully assessed all the local mortality and morbidity data in preparation for making appropriate planning suggestions at a meeting next week. What other action is crucial before the nurse can feel prepared? A. Ask other nursing staff their perceptions of the community's needs B. Assess the nurse's own assets, strengths, and ability to contribute C. Meet members of the community to determine their culture and values D. Review discussions and decisions from previous meetings 23. Why are high-risk and vulnerable subpopulations identified by public health nurses before deciding on appropriate interventions? A. It is easiest to make improvements among these groups. B. Populations are not homogeneous, and resources are limited. C. Such groups are most vocal about their needs and wants. D. These groups are often recipients of special funding. 24. A nurse works hard to develop alliances among various community organizations toward improving health in the community. What are actions such as this called? A. Building coalitions B. Collaboration C. Communication D. Community cooperation 25. After completing a master's degree, a nurse took a course in marketing. Should the agency reimburse the nurse's tuition costs? A. No, courses taken for personal enjoyment are not eligible. B. No, courses taken outside the professional's responsibilities are not eligible. C. Yes, the nurse is demonstrating professional commitment by continuing education. D. Yes, the nurse could use such information in social marketing for the agency. E. 26. Which factor is most responsible for differences in an individual's health? A. Culture of the majority of the community's citizens B. Individual's education and income C. Number of physicians and other health care providers in the community D. Quality of the community health agency and hospital in the community 27. What are the leading health indicators found in Healthy People 2020? (Select all that apply.) A. Financial issues B. Health system issues C. Individual behaviors D. Issues related to legal and illegal immigration E. Legislative issues F. Physical and social environmental factors ,C,F 28. What historically have been public health nurses' two most important priorities? (Select all that apply.) A. Establishing school nursing to improve care of children B. Engaging in political activity to improve living conditions C. Giving superb clinical bedside care in the home D. Increasing funding to public health efforts E. Teaching family members how to care for their family F. Working with the community to confront health issues and poverty ,F 29. As in Healthy People 2010, what are the two primary goals of Healthy People 2020? (Select all that apply.) A. Eliminate health disparities B. Expand health promotion activities in every community C. Improve funding, including diverting funds from other priorities to health care D. Improve health outcomes measures to be more consistent with other developed nations' outcomes E. Increase quality and years of healthy life F. Reduce mortality and morbidity figures nationwide ,E Chapter 2: Historical Factors 1. Which of the following best describes the time period when communities began to agree on collective action to stay healthy? When industrialization occurred When large urban centers began to develop and the population expanded When people gathered together to settle in villages When people were nomads engaged in hunting and gathering 2. Which of the following best describes the first measures used by large communities to ensure community health? Building safe sewage disposal systems Healthy food choices and exercise Praying to the gods for preservation Use of medicine and other herbal remedies 3. A nurse has determined that there is always a consistent level of people in the population who experience pneumonia. Which of the following best describes the prevalence of this disease? Prevalent Endemic Epidemic Pandemic 4. Which of the following best describes an innovation introduced by the Romans? Citizenship duties Daily street cleaning Hospitals and nursing homes Daily exercise 5. Which of the following best describes a modern public health practice that was originally developed as a means of self-protection from the Black Death (bubonic plague)? Care in a hospital Chemical intervention Isolation and quarantine Herbal remedies 6. Which of the following diseases provided immunity to smallpox? Cowpox Measles Mumps Scarlet fever 7. A scholar during the Sanitary Revolution created medical topography. What was the advantage of these surveys? Citizens knew which wells were safe to use for drinking water. People knew what housing areas to avoid. Results demonstrated environmental factors related to regional disease. The king could isolate areas of disease from safe areas. 8. How did Edwin Chadwick's ideas help decrease disease in the nineteenth century? The minimum wage was increased leading to improved quality of life. Parish workhouses where poverty-level children labored for their room and board were closed. Social reform legislation resulted in changes such as sidewalks. The new emphasis on individual responsibility encouraged people to act to protect their own health. 9. Which of the following best describes how John Snow was able to decrease deaths from cholera? Removed a source of contaminated water Created the world's first antibiotic Encouraged the new process of vaccination Helped pass laws that required home quarantine 10. Which of the following best describes the achievement that Lemuel Shattuck is well known for in the United States? Publishing the census of Boston, which demonstrated the effect of sanitary reforms Demonstrating the usefulness of vital statistics by analyzing environmental data Developing ideas about public health care reform, which were eventually adopted Establishing a state board of health to deal with the problems he had noted 11. Which of the following nursing interventions would have most likely been used by Florence Nightingale when treating wounded soldiers? Establishing private visits with spouses Improving food, clothing, and cleanliness Administering intravenous medications Completing a community assessment of the army hospital 12. Which of the following best describes how Nightingale responded to challenges about her suggestions for reform of health care? She influenced male friends as political leaders to publicize her ideas. She conveyed her statistical data in more detail and depth, and shared it with political leaders. She encouraged those who challenged her to come up with more acceptable approaches to lowering the death rate. She understood their concerns and tried to word her suggestions in a more politically acceptable way. 13. When comparing a surgeon today with a surgeon of Nightingale's time, which of the following best describes the primary difference in how they would operate on a patient? Current physicians have better surgical equipment (tools). Current physicians have nursing support staff in the operating room. Current physicians would carefully scrub between cases. Current physicians would prescribe antibiotics in the operating room to avoid possible infections. 14. Which of the following scientific beliefs or ideas eventually changed medical practice and decreased morbidity and mortality? Bad fluids cause disease, which can be cured by their removal. Specific contagious organisms cause disease. Spontaneous generation theory—disease grows naturally. The miasmic theory—environmental conditions cause disease. 15. Why did local and state governments start to become more involved in controlling disease? Hospitals were becoming overcrowded. Businesses were unable to make a profit when employees were ill. Physicians demanded government support in their individual efforts. Citizens were becoming upset with local conditions. 16. Which of the following interventions was the first step in controlling the incidence of tuberculosis (TB)? Institutions were required to report TB cases. Federal funding was devoted to seeking TB causes and cures. Physicians began surveillance of TB cases. States built large public hospitals to treat patients with TB. 17. Which of the following best describes the overall result of Abraham Flexner's report? All medical schools reorganized into the German model. Citizens were encouraged to become more involved in medical education. Folk healers again became more widely used than physicians. Funding was withdrawn from weak medical schools. 18. Which of the following groups was primarily responsible for the establishment of the first school of public health? The American Medical Association The Association of State Departments of Public Health The federal government The Rockefeller Foundation 19. A family living in England in 1860 was part of the community where district nursing was implemented. Who would most likely have seen this family? A social worker and a nurse A health teacher and a nurse A nurse A physician and a nurse 20. Which of the following interventions was most helpful in assisting people become educated on healthy living in nineteenth-century England? Brochures were distributed without charge in public places. Health visitors joined nurses in providing care in the homes. Nurses spend the majority of their time teaching families. Schools set up health programs for neighborhood adults. 21. Which of the following best describes the district nursing service created in the United States by Lillian Wald and Mary Brewster? House on Henry Street Visiting Nurses Association New York City District Nursing Service Wald and Brewster Nursing Service 22. Which of the following statements best summarizes Wald and Brewster's approach to home nursing? "All services all the time" "Helping people to help themselves" "One person, one family at a time" "Your home or ours" 23. Which of the following did Lillian Wald help establish? Child employment centers with shortened work days Daycare centers for preschool-aged children Nurseries for infants of working mothers School health nursing for school-aged children 24. Which of the following statements best summarizes the view of nurses as seen in novels over the past 100 years? Nurses are and have always been seen as very strong intelligent women. For the past 50 years, nurses were primarily viewed as promiscuous women. Nurses are controlling, almost sadistic women who enjoy their power over patients. Nurses are obedient handmaidens to physicians, following whatever orders are given. 25. Which of the following best describes the primary focus of health care efforts in the United States? Acute illnesses and trauma Chronic diseases Diarrhea and starvation Infectious diseases 26. Which of the following statements best describes why there is an increased need for advanced practice nurses in primary care? Clinics are being built in many middle-class neighborhoods. Hospitals are increasing their number of beds. More nurses are choosing to obtain master's degrees. Most physicians are specialists. 27. Which of the following statements best explains the continued incidence of infectious disease in the United States today? Illness theory explains that there are many causes of illness resulting from environmental conditions. No single theory adequately explains why a particular person gets a particular illness at a particular time. The germ theory explains that a specific infection is caused solely by the invasion of particular bacteria. The theory of susceptibility states that an individual only gets ill when there is extensive stress in his or her life. 28. Which of the following best describes the primary concern both historically and today for many people when they become ill? Can they get an appointment to see their physician in a timely fashion? Can they get admitted to their local hospital without delay? How can they afford to take time off from work and lose pay to be ill? Will the expenses be covered by their health insurance? 29. Which of the following statements best describes the increase in life expectancy among Americans during the twentieth century? Life expectancy increased by 30 years; the majority can be attributed to advances in medical technology. Life expectancy increased by 30 years; the majority can be attributed to public health efforts. Life expectancy increased by 30 years; the majority can be attributed to improved physician education. Life expectancy increased by 30 years; the majority can be attributed to increased access to care. 30. Which of the following is a major challenge for health care provider education today? Ensuring that research findings related to families and groups are included in the curriculum Expanding the curriculum to allow additional experiences in community health settings outside the hospital Increasing course emphasis on environmental influences on health Refocusing the curriculum from care of the individual to needs of aggregates 31. Which of the following tool(s) were used by Florence Nightingale to create change? (Select all that apply.) Her incredible beauty and personality Influence of all the nurses Nightingale trained Political advocacy Publication of treated soldiers' death rate changed from 42% to 2% Use of statistics to demonstrate the effectiveness of her interventions Wealth of her family and relatives , D, E 32. Which of the following of Nightingale's ideas were forgotten until recently? (Select all that apply.) The need for education for women The influence of environment on health The importance of clinical practice for expertise to develop The need to recognize gender role limitations The problem-solving (nursing) process The use of statistics and a sound research base , F 33. Which of the following best describes why folk healers are used by many people? (Select all that apply.) Folk healers are often effective. Folk healers do not charge for their efforts. Folk healers integrate religion and medicine. Folk healers use media very effectively. Folk healers may involve the whole family. Many physicians recommend folk healers. , C, E 34. What current emphases are focusing attention on public health? (Select all that apply.) Cost containment and managed care models Focus on disease prevention and health promotion Increased funding for care of chronic diseases Liberal politicians encouraging public health as part of a national health reform Movies showing national disasters and government lack of preparedness Shortage of the H1N1 flu vaccine , B 35. Which of the following were the chief factors that led to the creation and growth of Blue Cross hospital insurance? (Select all that apply.) Hospitals banded together, and their leaders encouraged such plans. Hospitals thought such a plan would allow them to expand further and faster. It was an employer alternative to increasing employee pay compensation. Nurses fought for the right of all citizens to purchase insurance as desired. Physicians were concerned with nonpayment of their office fees. Politicians encouraged this alternative to government-supported health care. , C Chapter 5: Epidemiology 1. An epidemiologist has written a summary of a food poisoning outbreak, including its cause and ways to prevent it from occurring in the future. Which of the following best describes what has been done? Analytic epidemiology Descriptive epidemiology Prospective cohort study Retrospective cross-sectional survey 2. Two brothers played with their cousin. One brother later became quite ill, whereas the other did not. Which of the following provides the best explanation for this occurrence? Difference in length of time exposed Difference in how actively the children played Difference in genetic inheritance between the two brothers Difference in lifestyle between the two brothers 3. In which of the following circumstances would it be more helpful to use the wheel model of epidemiology than the epidemiological triangle model? When factors outside the triangle model are involved When there are multiple causes for a chronic disease When research has not yet determined the exact cause When trying to explain the situation to a lay person 4. Which of the following best describes the importance of discovering all of the variables that may be involved in creating a disease state in some persons? People want an explanation of why they are ill. Knowing causes helps obtain funds for research to try to create a cure. Finding variables that are susceptible to prevention or early intervention is important. It is important to educate communities on how to avoid any risk factors. 5. Which of the following best describes the advantage of the web of causation model in comparison with the epidemiological triangle model? The web of causation model is easier to understand and use. The web of causation model is more widely known and publicized. The web of causation model is more recent and current. The web of causation model shows the relationships among variables. 6. Which of the following has been determined to be a major variable in transmission of sexually transmitted infections? The pathogenesis of the involved agents The susceptibility of the host The environment in which the hosts live The amount of sex education provided in the schools 7. A community health nurse determined exactly how many cases of a particular disease were currently occurring in the community. Which of the following actions should the nurse take before determining what interventions should be planned? Analyze whether the disease was a priority to the nurse's agency Compare the current rate with the previous rate of disease Determine what resources are available to intervene Share the findings with the public health agency leadership 8. People were very concerned about another outbreak of swine flu. All care providers were asked to report, without individual names, any new cases to the public health department for tracking. Which of the following would be most helpful for the local media to report to keep citizens informed? The ongoing incidence rate The ongoing prevalence of the illness How many were hospitalized How many had died so far in local hospitals and care facilities 9. When trying to determine whether the swine flu outbreak was getting worse, which of the following rates should be carefully observed? The crude death rate The age-specific death rate The swine flu incidence rate The swine flu prevalence rate 10. A newspaper published an article stating that the athletic banquet at the local high school had approximately 1000 family members in attendance. Exactly 650 persons became ill within 24 hours, complaining of severe diarrhea, vomiting, and cramping. Which of the following best describes the attack rate? 650 persons 1000 persons 650:1000 6.5% 11. In a particular community, the rate of new cases of diabetes and the rate of new cases of flu during the month of January were precisely the same. Which disease would have the higher prevalence rate? As an acute condition, flu would have the higher prevalence rate. As a chronic condition, diabetes would have the higher prevalence rate. Flu would have the higher prevalence rate because people can get the flu several times in one season. Flu would have the higher prevalence rate because it is so contagious. 12. Which of the following statements best describes why the incidence and prevalence of strep throat (streptococcus A) is unknown? Strep throat is not a reportable condition. Strep throat can vary in how long the infection remains in the body. Strep throat can be cured with antibiotics, so people do not remain infected. People often don’t go to the doctor if they have strep throat. 13. Which of the following groups should be used to determine the community's pregnancy rate? All persons between 15 and 45 years old in the community The total population of the community The total population of women in the community Women between 15 and 45 years old in the community 14. Which of the following research studies would determine the attributable risk of a sedentary lifestyle in cardiac disease? Measuring all cases of cardiac problems in a specific community Comparing the number of persons with cardiac disease among athletes with the number among nonathletes in a community Subtracting the rate of cardiac disease among athletes from the rate of cardiac disease among nonathletes Calculating the relative risk and then subtracting the attack rate to determine the attributable risk 15. A nurse conducted a study of two skin lotions: (1) an inexpensive one and (2) an expensive one. The nurse found that there was a relative risk of 0.7 for skin sores using the inexpensive one and a relative risk of 1.2 using the expensive one. Which skin lotion should the nurse use? Impossible to tell from the data given It made no difference which lotion was used The expensive lotion The inexpensive lotion 16. Which of the following best describes a model that demonstrates the progression of disease from prepathogenesis through disease outcome? Epidemiological model Ecosocial model Natural history model Wheel model 17. A student athlete receives a screening examination before being active in school sports. Which of the following levels of prevention is being used? Health prevention Primary prevention Secondary prevention Tertiary prevention 18. For which of the following would a screening test be most appropriate? Disease A, which must be caught early because society punishes those known to have the disease Disease B, which can be controlled if caught early in the disease process Disease C, which people need to know whether they have contracted, even though there is no treatment for the disease Disease D, because people may want to use that information in family planning 19. One hundred women received notification that their screening tests suggested that they might have a serious health problem. Which of the following actions should the nurse take to ensure that they will complete follow-up testing? Compliment them on their willingness to be tested and suggest an immediate appointment before they have too much time to think about the issue. Imply that the test could be wrong; the testing materials may not be effective, but the only way to be sure is to be tested further. Point out that screening is only suggestive and that not all positive screenings mean they actually have the health problem. Reassurance is not therapeutic; reality must be faced. Emphasize the need for immediate treatment. 20. Which of the following would be the best method to increase the positive predictive value of a screening test? Test a large population at once Test a group at high risk for the health problem Use a very sensitive screening test Use a very specific screening test 21. Which of the following is the most effective way to determine if Healthy People 2020 is improving the health of Americans? Availability of relatable data on total population's health problems Comprehensive and systematically collected surveillance data on the health status of various population groups Increased financing to allow ongoing collation of information Willingness of individuals to share health information with the federal government 22. A researcher is examining potential risk factors in comparison with disease at a specific time through collecting data regarding current exercise, sleep patterns, and current health status among 12-year-olds. Which of the following research studies would be most appropriate? Cross-sectional study Prospective study Retrospective study True experiment 23. A researcher, interested in the onset of early menses, compared the life experiences and history of 1000 14-year-old girls, half of whom had monthly periods and half of whom did not, to determine what variables might be observed. Which of the following would be the most appropriate categorization of this study? Cross-sectional study Prospective study Retrospective study True experiment 24. One famous study followed a cohort of nurses over their lives, collecting data and health histories as they aged. Which of the following would be the most appropriate categorization of this study? Cross-sectional study Prospective study Retrospective study True experiment 25. A researcher wanted to engage in the best possible research design to obtain reliable information about the possible cause(s) of a disease. Which of the following designs would the researcher choose? Cross-sectional study Descriptive study Prospective study Retrospective study 26. A researcher has limited time and funds. Which of the following research designs would be most appropriate? Cohort study Incidence study Longitudinal study Retrospective study 27. On the basis of findings related to elevated blood levels of cholesterol, a researcher wanted to determine whether a new drug would notably lower the blood levels of cholesterol in otherwise healthy persons. Which of the following studies would the researcher most likely use? Cross-sectional study Experimental study Prospective study Retrospective study 28. A client has developed pellagra because of a lack of certain B vitamins. Which of the following best describes the classification of the nutritional deficiency? Relative risk factor Agent factor Environment factor Host factor 29. Which of the following best describes the Tuskegee Syphilis Study? It provided excellence in research design. It used an extensive subject base leading to confirmed conclusions. It developed information about the causes and treatment of syphilis. It implemented unethical and racist treatment of uninformed subjects. 30. An epidemiologist is gathering data to determine which factors may lead to disease. Which of the following data will be gathered? (Select all that apply.) Demographic characteristics Disease characteristics Geographic data Health protection measures taken Length of the disease process When disease struck the area 31. Which of the following information must be analyzed to derive an adequate explanation of disease? (Select all that apply.) Description of commonalities among those who became ill Depiction of the possible pathogen Explanation of the health care system in the community Portrayal of the geographic area where people became ill Review of the methods by which disease can be spread Substances that are effective in sanitizing the area described 32. Which of the following best describes the advantage of the ecosocial epidemiology model over both the web of causation model and the epidemiological triangle model? (Select all that apply.) It decreases the focus on the individual person. It demonstrates the usefulness of molecular epidemiology in disease prevention. It emphasizes the role of complex political and economic context. It is more useful in public policy campaigns in explaining what people need to do to protect themselves. It reflects the current emphasis on ecology and the environment. Its use suggests possible public policy interventions. 33. Which of the following factors are necessary to assume there might be a cause-effect relationship between a particular variable A and a specific illness? (Select all that apply.) It is easy to understand how the variable A could lead to the illness. Research studies consistently demonstrate a relationship between variable A and the illness. The illness is frequently seen without the presence of variable A. The more variable A present, the sicker the person becomes. Variable A is always found after the person becomes ill. Variable A is never found in the presence of other illnesses. 34. A nurse wanted a screening test that was very sensitive in determining who might have a particular illness. What might be a problem with using such a sensitive test? (Select all that apply.) Many persons have true negative test results. Persons who test negative are able to celebrate their healthy state. Persons who do not have the illness are told that they might, which leads to anxiety, as well as time and cost of follow-up diagnostic tests. Such a test may have lower specificity, so some persons with the disease are told they are disease free and hence do not receive care. There is no problem; it is best to use the most sensitive screening test available. Persons who have the disease are notified and receive treatment. Chapter 6: Community Assessment 1. Which of the following best describes how care can be appropriately given in a community? Provide individualized care to unique individuals as much as resources allow. Consider the community itself as the "client." Administer care according to the priorities of the local health department. Prioritize care for the sickest populations first. 2. Which of the following provides the most accurate way to explain community health nursing? Being employed outside a medical center, such as in a physician's office Focusing care on the community as a whole Providing care within the community, rather than a hospital or extended-care facility Working for a public health department 3. Which of the following activities would be most helpful to a person in whom a serious chronic illness has been diagnosed? Discuss it with a religious leader on a confidential, do-not-tell basis Join a support group of others with the same illness Share the diagnosis with coworkers and neighbors to gain sympathy and support Tell extended family because many diseases have a genetic component 4. Which of the following is a major factor in determining which people or groups are most likely to be helpful to a particular individual? Anyone who has time to be available Environmental proximity Same employment responsibilities Similar religious faith 5. Which of the following best describes how people typically respond when asked of what community are they a member? Geographic community (neighborhood or city) House of worship participants or members Occupational or professional group Those who are devoted to a particular craft or hobby 6. Which of the following best describes what community members receive from each other? Safe environment to live and work Entertainment and recreational opportunities Socialization and role fulfillment Useful services such as physicians and medical centers 7. An individual lives in a healthy community. Which of the following characteristics would this community most likely display? Ability to adapt and respond to changes Lack of environmental pollution Low unemployment rate Ongoing growth in population 8. A nurse is helping a community develop its capacity to address future problems. Which of the following activities is the nurse most likely implementing? Addressing problems in priority order Promoting collaboration and team building Developing community competence Providing education about health issues 9. Which of the following best describes shoe leather epidemiology? Implementing the wheel model of epidemiology Engaging in extensive truth seeking like a detective in the community Traveling throughout the community to absorb an overall impression of it Facilitating sharing of the community's history by community leaders 10. A community health nurse wants to obtain an overview of the community, but has limited time and resources. Which of the following methods would the nurse most likely use to obtain this information? Engage in a windshield survey Establish a health department committee of community leaders willing to fill out periodic surveys related to various health issues in the community Live in the community for several years Review public health department records from up to 5 years ago 11. Which of the following best describes how the U.S. Census Bureau surveys are helpful to a community health nurse? They provide the distribution of age, sex, race, and ethnicity in the community. They document the mortality and morbidity of the community. They ensure that all community residents are involved. They temporarily give employment opportunities to residents. 12. A public health nurse wanted statistics on the disability, illness, and other health-related variables for the state. Which of the following would be the best resource for the nurse to obtain the most extensive data? State health department records State department of vital statistics The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The National Center for Health Statistics 13. Which of the following best describes when a community health nurse would try to collect data on a health issue? When available data exists When data must be purchased from the agency that collects it When there is no source of previously collected data When the data previously collected is available to the public 14. All of the needed objective data on a specific health problem are available for the community health nurse. Which of the following best describes why the nurse would also interview community residents about the health problem? To confirm the accuracy of the previously collected data To emphasize to residents the importance of the health problem To obtain the residents' personal insights and beliefs about the problem To update the previously collected data 15. A nurse begins to collect information about a particular health problem from community residents. Which of the following potential problems would most likely arise? Residents might become suspicious about why the nurse needs this information. Residents might believe the nurse is becoming intrusive in their personal lives. Residents might wonder why they are being asked about the problem when previous surveys may also have asked about the same problem. Residents might begin to expect service to be given to address the problem. 16. The nurse is interviewing community members as part of a community assessment. Which of the following groups of people would the community health nurse most likely want to interview? Bankers who could share economic data on the community Long-time residents who were informal leaders in the community Pastors and other religious leaders who share the faith of the community Realtors who could share housing and living conditions in the community 17. A nurse was debating about which approach to use to both obtain data about community needs and encourage community participation in their resolution. Which of the following approaches would be most effective in meeting both goals? A community forum, open to all interested residents of the community A community survey mailed to all residents Establishing focus groups with selected participants Conducting in-depth interviews with select community residents 18. A community health nurse has completed a community assessment and is now writing a community diagnosis for the problem. Which component of the diagnosis will be used to summarize the assessment data of the problem? Identification of the health risk Evidence supporting the choice of priority The aggregate that needs the intervention The cause of the identified health problem 19. A community health nurse is trying to determine the success of a planned intervention. Which of the following would the community health nurse most likely examine? Changes in funding made available to the agency to continue their efforts An increase or decrease in the number of persons asking for assistance Current problem data to compare with original baseline data Feedback from community residents 20. A community health nurse found a very small number of families in the community who were desperately in need of basic preventive health services. Which of the following ethical approaches supports expending agency resources on these few, but needy, families? Beneficence suggests focusing on the most needy, so resources should be expended on these families. Deontological ethics suggest that the nurse must give priority to the intervention that would have the broadest impact. Utilitarianism (the most good for the largest number) would suggest continuing to focus on broader community needs. Virtue ethics would suggest focusing on these families to support the nurse's own character development. 21. Which of the following best describes the aspects central to the definition of community? (Select all that apply.) Geographic boundaries at a point in time Whatever is most convenient for the nurse Patterns of disease found Persons who share common goals and interests Persons who band together to address a shared problem The name the people have given themselves 22. Which of the following is a central function unique to community health nursing? (Select all that apply.) Being willing to travel to give care in an appropriate setting Collaborating and cooperating with other health care team members Gathering appropriate comprehensive assessment data on the community Incorporating epidemiological approaches throughout the nursing process Keeping accurate and detailed medical records on care given Being willing to contribute to health policy development 23. Which of the following are considered the most important determinants of a healthy community? (Select all that apply.) Child-friendly neighborhoods Several different choices of houses of worship Employment opportunities Low crime rate Safe food and water supplies Varied housing choices , D 24. Which of the following from vital statistics records is useful to community health nurses? (Select all that apply.) Relatively early age of death may suggest a new pathogen in the community Divorce rate, suggesting whether children will need additional services Documentation of the mortality and morbidity of the local community Indication of whether the total population is growing or declining Records of occurrence of congenital malformations Stability of marriages, making family structure become obvious Chapter 7: Community Health Planning, Implementation, and Evaluation 1. Which of the following best describes how care can be appropriately given in a community? Provide individualized care to unique individuals as much as resources allow. Consider the community itself as the "client." Administer care according to the priorities of the local health department. Prioritize care for the sickest populations first. 2. Which of the following provides the most accurate way to explain community health nursing? Being employed outside a medical center, such as in a physician's office Focusing care on the community as a whole Providing care within the community, rather than a hospital or extended-care facility Working for a public health department 3. Which of the following activities would be most helpful to a person in whom a serious chronic illness has been diagnosed? Discuss it with a religious leader on a confidential, do-not-tell basis Join a support group of others with the same illness Share the diagnosis with coworkers and neighbors to gain sympathy and support Tell extended family because many diseases have a genetic component 4. Which of the following is a major factor in determining which people or groups are most likely to be helpful to a particular individual? Anyone who has time to be available Environmental proximity Same employment responsibilities Similar religious faith 5. Which of the following best describes how people typically respond when asked of what community are they a member? Geographic community (neighborhood or city) House of worship participants or members Occupational or professional group Those who are devoted to a particular craft or hobby 6. Which of the following best describes what community members receive from each other? Safe environment to live and work Entertainment and recreational opportunities Socialization and role fulfillment Useful services such as physicians and medical centers 7. An individual lives in a healthy community. Which of the following characteristics would this community most likely display? Ability to adapt and respond to changes Lack of environmental pollution Low unemployment rate Ongoing growth in population 8. A nurse is helping a community develop its capacity to address future problems. Which of the following activities is the nurse most likely implementing? Addressing problems in priority order Promoting collaboration and team building Developing community competence Providing education about health issues 9. Which of the following best describes shoe leather epidemiology? Implementing the wheel model of epidemiology Engaging in extensive truth seeking like a detective in the community Traveling throughout the community to absorb an overall impression of it Facilitating sharing of the community's history by community leaders 10. A community health nurse wants to obtain an overview of the community, but has limited time and resources. Which of the following methods would the nurse most likely use to obtain this information? Engage in a windshield survey Establish a health department committee of community leaders willing to fill out periodic surveys related to various health issues in the community Live in the community for several years Review public health department records from up to 5 years ago 11. Which of the following best describes how the U.S. Census Bureau surveys are helpful to a community health nurse? They provide the distribution of age, sex, race, and ethnicity in the community. They document the mortality and morbidity of the community. They ensure that all community residents are involved. They temporarily give employment opportunities to residents. 12. A public health nurse wanted statistics on the disability, illness, and other health-related variables for the state. Which of the following would be the best resource for the nurse to obtain the most extensive data? State health department records State department of vital statistics The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention The National Center for Health Statistics 13. Which of the following best describes when a community health nurse would try to collect data on a health issue? When available data exists When data must be purchased from the agency that collects it When there is no source of previously collected data When the data previously collected is available to the public 14. All of the needed objective data on a specific health problem are available for the community health nurse. Which of the following best describes why the nurse would also interview community residents about the health problem? To confirm the accuracy of the previously collected data To emphasize to residents the importance of the health problem To obtain the residents' personal insights and beliefs about the problem To update the previously collected data 15. A nurse begins to collect information about a particular health problem from community residents. Which of the following potential problems would most likely arise? Residents might become suspicious about why the nurse needs this information. Residents might believe the nurse is becoming intrusive in their personal lives. Residents might wonder why they are being asked about the problem when previous surveys may also have asked about the same problem. Residents might begin to expect service to be given to address the problem. 16. The nurse is interviewing community members as part of a community assessment. Which of the following groups of people would the community health nurse most likely want to interview? Bankers who could share economic data on the community Long-time residents who were informal leaders in the community Pastors and other religious leaders who share the faith of the community Realtors who could share housing and living conditions in the community 17. A nurse was debating about which approach to use to both obtain data about community needs and encourage community participation in their resolution. Which of the following approaches would be most effective in meeting both goals? A community forum, open to all interested residents of the community A community survey mailed to all residents Establishing focus groups with selected participants Conducting in-depth interviews with select community residents 18. A community health nurse has completed a community assessment and is now writing a community diagnosis for the problem. Which component of the diagnosis will be used to summarize the assessment data of the problem? Identification of the health risk Evidence supporting the choice of priority The aggregate that needs the intervention The cause of the identified health problem 19. A community health nurse is trying to determine the success of a planned intervention. Which of the following would the community health nurse most likely examine? Changes in funding made available to the agency to continue their efforts An increase or decrease in the number of persons asking for assistance Current problem data to compare with original baseline data Feedback from community residents 20. A community health nurse found a very small number of families in the community who were desperately in need of basic preventive health services. Which of the following ethical approaches supports expending agency resources on these few, but needy, families? Beneficence suggests focusing on the most needy, so resources should be expended on these families. Deontological ethics suggest that the nurse must give priority to the intervention that would have the broadest impact. Utilitarianism (the most good for the largest number) would suggest continuing to focus on broader community needs. Virtue ethics would suggest focusing on these families to support the nurse's own character development. 21. Which of the following best describes the aspects central to the definition of community? (Select all that apply.) Geographic boundaries at a point in time Whatever is most convenient for the nurse Patterns of disease found Persons who share common goals and interests Persons who band together to address a shared problem The name the people have given themselves 22. Which of the following is a central function unique to community health nursing? (Select all that apply.) Being willing to travel to give care in an appropriate setting Collaborating and cooperating with other health care team members Gathering appropriate comprehensive assessment data on the community Incorporating epidemiological approaches throughout the nursing process Keeping accurate and detailed medical records on care given Being willing to contribute to health policy development 23. Which of the following are considered the most important determinants of a healthy community? (Select all that apply.) Child-friendly neighborhoods Several different choices of houses of worship Employment opportunities Low crime rate Safe food and water supplies Varied housing choices 24. Which of the following from vital statistics records is useful to community health nurses? (Select all that apply.) Relatively early age of death may suggest a new pathogen in the community Divorce rate, suggesting whether children will need additional services Documentation of the mortality and morbidity of the local community Indication of whether the total population is growing or declining Records of occurrence of congenital malformations Stability of marriages, making family structure become obvious Chapter 25: Communicable Disease 1. Which of the following infections continues to increase in the United States? Measles Pertussis Hepatitis A, B, and C Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) 2. Which of the following best describes what is happening with infectious diseases in the United States? There is a continuing decrease in vector-borne infections. There is a continuing increase in food-borne and waterborne infections. Many airborne diseases are being spread by bioterrorists. The rate of infection varies extensively by income and ethnic groups. 3. Which of the following is a fairly recent surprise regarding infectious diseases in the United States? Cervical cancer and coronary artery disease may be caused by infectious agents. Epidemics such as the H1N1 flu continue to occur. Mortality caused by infectious diseases continues to rise. Some infectious diseases remain endemic in our society. 4. A female client develops a fungal vaginal infection after being treated with antibiotics for strep throat. Which of the following components of the epidemiological triangle is primarily responsible? Agent Environment Host Interaction of agent and environment 5. Which of the following statements is true concerning tuberculosis (TB) infections in the United States? Subclinical cases of TB can occur in patients who fight off the infection and thus are not a danger to themselves or others. TB can be cured by a 6-month period of treatment with INH. TB can only be caused by Mycobacterium bovis bacillus. Under certain conditions, susceptible hosts may be infected by the TB bacillus. 6. One child in a kindergarten room had a slight fever and did not eat lunch. Otherwise, the child seemed OK. Three days later, several children were absent from kindergarten. Which of the following best describes what happened? Another nursery school was offering the same child care at a much lower price. Infectious diseases can be contagious before any diagnostic symptoms occur. No way to tell; there are many reasons why parents keep children home. Parents chose to protect their children from the child with a fever, so they kept their children home for a few days. 7. A day care center asked the nurse to come because they had several children out as a result of chickenpox. Which of the following statements should the nurse make to the staff? Chickenpox has low infectivity so few children will get sick." Chickenpox has low pathogenicity so the children won't be sick enough to stay home if the parents really need to go to work." Chickenpox has low virulence so the children will be back at the day care center in a week or so." Adults never catch chickenpox, so the staff are safe and may continue working." 8. A city that depended on tourist dollars had feedback that tourists were saying they were never returning because of the constant mosquito bites. Which of the following actions should be taken by the city? Do not have any tourist events at dawn or dusk. Have everyone in town search for and remove any standing stagnant water. Give free bug repellent to each tourist. Tell tourists to avoid wearing bright colors. 9. The daily patrons of a local town restaurant became ill with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Without knowing the cause, which of the following actions should be taken immediately to help avoid future problems? Establish a series of cooking classes for all citizens Have a citywide campaign to cover your mouth when sneezing Use bleach to clean the entire restaurant Strongly emphasize the importance of proper hand washing to staff 10. Which of the following best describes why clinical areas are so careful to ensure sanitization of surfaces and equipment between each patient? To avoid direct patient-to-patient transmission of infection To provide a clean environment for clients and staff To decrease transmission by fomites To decrease transmission by vectors 11. Which of the following is the first step in preventing further spread of a particular sexually transmitted disease (STD)? Have a citywide free screening program in all high schools and colleges Provide public education about safe sex from abstinence to monogamous relationships Require all public facilities to sanitize all restrooms with a stronger, more effective agent Treat each infected person with the appropriate pharmaceutical agent 12. A case of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was diagnosed immediately on signs of illness at a tourist site in China. Which of the following actions should be taken to protect the badly needed income from tourist dollars? Close the airports and refuse to let the tourists in the area leave Begin to immunize everyone in the immediate area with protective vaccine as soon as possible Quarantine the ill person and use isolation techniques when providing care Screen everyone in the area by requiring a blood and urine sample 13. A patient walks into a community clinic complaining of severe intestinal cramps and diarrhea. Which of the following actions can be taken to protect the staff at the clinic? Refuse to see anyone that sick as clinics have a different mission than secondary and tertiary care of the obviously ill Send the patient immediately to the closest hospital emergency department Treat the patient with broad-spectrum antibiotics and lots of fluids Use universal precautions with all patients regardless of the situation 14. During an outbreak in the hospital, all staff members were given immunoglobulin if they were not already immune to the disease. Which of the following types of immunity will the staff who received the immunoglobulin have? Active immunity Long-lasting immunity Natural immunity Passive immunity 15. The nurse could not find a vaccine in the refrigerator. The unopened vaccine vial had been put in a storage cabinet with the other medications. The nurse drew up the appropriate dose in the syringe and then put the vial of vaccine in the refrigerator. Which of the following would be the most likely result? The client will have immunity to the disease after the vaccination Primary vaccine failure Secondary vaccine failure The injection will not feel so cold to the client 16. A school had tried very hard to uphold the requirement for all children to be vaccinated. However, state law allowed parents to exempt their child if they had a religious reason for refusal. Two children have been diagnosed with chickenpox. Which of the following will be the most likely result? Adults as well as children in the neighborhood will get chickenpox. All the children who played with the two sick children will probably get chickenpox. All the unimmunized children will probably come down with chickenpox. Few children will get chickenpox because of herd immunity. 17. A community health clinic put a tax levy on the ballot. An angry man asks a nurse, "How can you ask me to pay taxes to buy immunizations for parents who do not want to pay for their kids to get their shots?" Which of the following is the most appropriate response by the nurse? Don't you think ethically we should help if we can?" For many of us, our faith says we have to treat our neighbor as ourselves." Only by getting almost everyone immunized can we prevent epidemics that can hurt us all." "The law requires childhood immunizations, and, if parents can't afford it, you and I will have to help pay." 18. Which of the following statements best explains how infectious diseases are different from any other health problem? Infectious diseases are easier to treat by using pharmaceuticals. Infectious diseases are more prevalent now than in the past. Infectious diseases are acute illnesses that catch clients unprepared. Infectious diseases have the potential to spread, creating a community emergency. 19. Which of the following would be one of the first steps in attempting to control a disease? Create an appropriate screening test for widespread use Define what the disease looks like in confirmed or probable cases Determine the disease's portal of entry and portal of exit Measure the extent of its spread geographically 20. The charge nurse notes that two patients had communicable infectious diseases and were treated appropriately. Which of the following actions should be taken next by the nurse? Depends on your state health department's requirements Report the two cases to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Report the two cases to your regional health department Send the information for inclusion in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 21. Parents have requested that their child be brought up to date on appropriate immunizations. After reviewing the child's medical history, the nurse prepares to give the two immunizations. What additional action should be taken by the nurse before administration of the immunization? Ask if there is any chance the girl child could be pregnant Ask the child if she consents to the immunizations Assess whether the child has a fever or other illness that would require the immunization be postponed Explain the pros and cons of obtaining immunizations to the parents Give the parents the Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) Answer:E 22. Which of the following groups is especially at risk for sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)? Recently divorced adults Single young women between 19 and 24 years of age Teenage girls Young males between the ages of 15 and 19 years 23. A young woman is panic-stricken. She had not realized how much she was drinking, and she thinks she had unprotected sex with several men last night. She is petrified and wants an HIV test immediately. Which of the following actions should be taken by the nurse? Give her a strong lengthy lecture about the dangers of alcohol Administer the HIV test Provide a physical examination, testing for all sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Suggest she be treated immediately to be safe 24. Which of the following best explains why the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) was originally legislated? (Select all that apply.) To ensure that data are used to educate health care professionals on proper vaccine administration To conduct media campaigns to help convince parents to bring their children in to receive appropriate immunizations To determine whether changes should be made in procedures or biological agents To illustrate, using actual data, that vaccines are widely given to healthy people with almost no side effects To monitor actual and potential vaccine-related problems. To provide assistance to families who experience a vaccine-related injury [Show More]

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