Philosophy > SOPHIA PATHWAY > ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS PRACTICE MILESTONE Latest 2020 (A GRADE) (All)

ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS PRACTICE MILESTONE Latest 2020 (A GRADE)

Document Content and Description Below

ANCIENT GREEK PHILOSOPHERS PRACTICE MILESTONE Latest 2020 (A GRADE) UNIT 1 PRACTICE MILESTONE You passed this Practice Milestone. When you take the actual Milestone, you must score 50% or high... er to pass. Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form 21 questions were answered correctly. 4 questions were answered incorrectly. 1 Budapest is a city in Hungary. Roland was born in Budapest. Therefore, Roland was born in Hungary. Assuming that both premises are true, evaluate the argument and determine which of the answer options describes it. • Inductive, strong, cogent • Deductive, valid, sound • Deductive, invalid, unsound • Inductive, weak, uncogent RATIONALE The inferential claim in this example is one of logical certainty, and is about definition and form rather than cause and effect. As a result, this a deductive argument. Because a case cannot exist in which the premises are true and the conclusion is false, this argument is valid. Also, this argument is sound because the premises are true. CONCEPT Evaluating an Argument in Action 2 All of the statements are central themes of Parmenidean metaphysics, EXCEPT: • The world we sense is genuine. • The opinions of mortal men are universally unreliable. • The Parmenidean worldview contradicts the world we are familiar with. • The universe is one, unchanging entity. RATIONALE Parmenidean metaphysics establishes a division between the mortal world (i.e., the world of the senses) and reality. Reality is "what is;" it is eternal and unchanging. The world of the senses is "what is not," a transient and illusory world of change. Therefore, Parmenides would not say that the world we sense is genuine. All of the other statements accurately represent Parmenidean metaphysics.  CONCEPT Parmenides and the Doctrine of Permanence 3 Nancy was talking with a friend about immigration in the U.S. Nancy believes that illegal immigration to the United States is harmful to the nation, and that anti-immigration laws should be strictly applied.  Choose the statement by Nancy that demonstrates an inconsistent belief. • “I hired an immigrant to landscape my yard for much less than my gardener demanded.” • “I will not buy vegetables from farmers who use migrant labor.” • “The United States will become a safe nation when all illegal immigrants are removed.” • “If they break the law to enter the country, it proves that they don’t respect our laws.” RATIONALE To live philosophically, it is necessary to examine beliefs to ground them in knowledge, and to then act according to those beliefs. By making an exception to her position on immigration to hire a migrant laborer at low cost, Nancy displays an inconsistent philosophical worldview. CONCEPT Philosophical Analysis as a Way of Life 4 Several hours of heavy rain is a __________ condition for a wet yard. Choose the answer that correctly completes this sentence. • neither necessary nor sufficient • both necessary and sufficient • necessary, not sufficient • sufficient, not necessary  RATIONALE Several hours of heavy rain will always make the yard wet, so this a sufficient condition, or logical guarantee, for a wet yard. However, not all wet yards are caused by heavy rain, so heavy rain is not a necessary condition, or logical requirement, for a wet yard. CONCEPT Plato: An academic approach to concepts 5 Consider identifying the essence of a pencil. The first question Aristotle would ask is, “What kind of thing is it?” The answer might be: “A pencil is a writing utensil.”  Which question would Aristotle ask next? • How does a union of form and matter create this pencil? • What is the substance that makes up a pencil? • How does the organization of this pencil reveal its purpose? • What distinguishes a pencil from other writing utensils?  RATIONALE Aristotle’s ontology states that to discover and describe the essence of an object, we must identify its genus (i.e., what kind of thing it is) and its differentia (i.e., what sets it apart from other things of the same kind). Therefore, after asking the question "What kind of thing is it?", Aristotle would ask "What distinguishes a pencil from other writing utensils?" CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 6 Choose the statement that describes how Socrates’ approach to philosophy differed from previous approaches. • Socrates’ ideas influenced the growth of the natural sciences. • Socrates believed that all living things were ordered and governed by universal laws. • Socrates focused on ethics, as well as concepts and methodologies of knowledge.  • Socrates claimed that man could never know whether the gods exist or not. RATIONALE Socrates' approach to philosophy differed from that of the Pre-Socratic philosophers because it was focused on ethics and epistemology. The Pre-Socratic philosophers concentrated on topics that included natural philosophy and cosmology. CONCEPT Socrates: The Father of Western Philosophy 7 Recall the similarities and differences between Plato's and Aristotle's philosophical methods.  Select the statement most likely to have been made by Aristotle, rather than by Plato. • “I use logic and reason to find the best answers to questions man cannot answer independent of the world.” • “My ultimate goal is wisdom through contemplating the Forms between knowledge and opinion.” • “I search for truth with a scientific eye toward the world in front of me.”  • “I begin my inquiries into knowledge in the realm of metaphysics.” RATIONALE Because Aristotle's philosophy was based on science and empirical observation, he is most likely to have made this statement. Both philosophers used logic and reason to pursue the truth. Plato's approach began with his metaphysical notion of Forms.   CONCEPT Aristotle: The Dissection of Reality 8 According to Plato’s Doctrine of Forms, can humans create a perfect square? • Yes, if the square is created in our minds. • No, because no two squares would be exactly the same.  • No, because a perfect square exists only in Platonic Heaven.  • Yes, if we use a ruler to produce perfectly straight lines. RATIONALE According to Plato, the only perfect entities that exist are the Forms in Platonic Heaven. While humans can access understanding of these Forms, they cannot create them. Therefore, a human cannot create a perfect square. CONCEPT Applying Plato's Metaphysics 9 Angie makes a New Year's resolution to start a diet. "Read this," her brother says, and gives Angie a book on Stoicism. Puzzled, she flips through the pages and begins to read. Choose the statement that indicates how a Stoic approach to ethics can help Angie with her diet. • She can judge the eating habits of her friends to eliminate her guilt when she over-eats. • When co-workers bring candy to the office, she doesn’t have to eat it.  • She can replace her desire for sweets with a desire for healthy food. • When she views thinness as a desirable virtue, she can achieve it. RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages people to focus only on what they can control (e.g., their desires, emotions, and reactions). People should not concern themselves with things that are beyond their control (e.g., the behavior of others). Angie cannot control whether her co-workers bring candy to the office, but Stoicism can help her to control her response to the presence of sweets. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 10 Plato believed that knowledge of reality is grounded in knowledge of __________. • Platonic Heaven • oneself • metaphysics • the Forms RATIONALE Plato believed that knowledge of reality is grounded in knowledge of Forms. Forms are the "essences" that make an object what it truly is. For example, we can know that a good thing is good because we know the Form of Goodness and see that the thing in question imitates it. CONCEPT Plato's Forms: The Objects of Knowledge 11 Choose the FALSE statement about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms. • Forms exist co-dependently with the notions of truth and knowledge.  • Forms such as Goodness and Justice exist in the intellectual realm of Platonic Heaven. • Essences are real entities, not merely abstract thoughts. • To justify a belief in a thing, one must know the essence of the thing, which is its Form. RATIONALE Plato maintained that Forms are real entities that exist in the intellectual realm called Platonic Heaven. These Forms enable us to have knowledge (i.e., justified true belief). They do not exist co-dependently with the notions of truth and knowledge. Instead, they provide the foundation for truth and knowledge.  CONCEPT Plato Forms: The Foundations of Being 12 Which statement about Aristotle’s metaphysics is FALSE? • Aristotle, unlike Plato, believed that the essence of a thing is located inside the thing, and does not exist independently. • In order for a statement to be true, we must grant three qualities: a universal entity, a universal quality, and a particular. • Truth is achievable through pure reason, independent of experience. • Aristotle believed that ontology — the kinds of things that exist, and how they exist — was the first philosophy. RATIONALE Aristotle was an empiricist who based his philosophy on his perceptions of the material world (i.e., on what he observed). He did not believe that truth can be found independent of experience. CONCEPT Aristotle on What There Is 13 Choose the true statement about a central belief of the Greek atomists. • Complex phenomenon are explained as the configuration of atoms.  • The world is composed of opposites that create a system of connection through atoms. • Everything is temporary in atomism; reality is in a constant state of change. • In atomism, the ultimate nature of reality is static, making all change an illusion. RATIONALE The atomists believed that everything that exists is either an atom or a collection of atoms. They also maintained that the matter and phenomena we perceive are produced by different configurations of atoms of different shapes and sizes. The atomists defined change as a reorganization of atoms, and believed that arrangements of atoms may be temporary, but atoms are not.  CONCEPT The Atomistic Worldview 14 Choose the FALSE statement about Aristotle’s ethics. • Something is good when it excels at its function. • Virtue is cultivated as a mean between extremes. • The important question is “What kind of person should I be?” • Ethics is determined by the consequences of the action.  RATIONALE Aristotle did not believe that the rightness or wrongness of an action is determined by the consequences of that action. Rather, he proposed in his ethics that an action is good when it enables a human to excel at its function. This is known as his Function Argument.  CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 15 Choose the FALSE statement about the Apology. • Observing that death was either something or nothing, Socrates argued it was not to be feared. • Socrates was charged with denying the gods and corrupting the youth of Athens. • Socrates claimed that if he had harmed others, it was unintentional and he regretted it.  • Socrates demonstrated that he was determined to live — and die — according to his philosophy. RATIONALE The Apology is Plato's transcription of the defense Socrates presented at his trial on charges of "denying the gods" and "corrupting the youth of Athens." In response to the second charge, Socrates does not state that if he harmed others, it was unintentional and he regretted it. Rather, he argues that he did not corrupt the youth of Athens. Additionally, he states that even if he had corrupted the youth unintentionally, he would not have committed a crime by doing so. CONCEPT The Apology: A Defense of Philosophy 16 Choose the FALSE statement about the ethics of Stoicism. • Freedom lies in our reactions to the world, not in the world itself. • No good comes from becoming upset about things you cannot change. • The desire for material things is natural and should be encouraged.  • Focus only on those things that you can control. RATIONALE Stoicism is a philosophy that encourages people to focus only on what they can control (e.g., their desires, emotions, judgments, and reactions). They should not be concerned by things that are beyond their control. Stoicism does not lead people to desire material things. Instead, it teaches people to abandon their desires, including desires for material things, to live free of emotional struggle. CONCEPT Stoicism: The Ethics of Dispassion 17 “Although I am not an atheist, I believe that man’s ingenuity is more reliable than superstitious beliefs about the gods.”   The ancient philosopher most likely to make this statement was __________. • Xenophanes • Protagoras • Thales • Empedocles RATIONALE Xenophanes was a Pre-Socratic philosopher who questioned divine explanations for natural phenomena. While he was not an atheist, he maintained that it is better to rely on observation and reason than to interpret events as signs from the gods or evidence of their intervention. CONCEPT Cosmology and the First Philosophers 18 In the Apology, Socrates makes the following statement: “But you have just admitted that the good do their neighbors good, and the evil do them evil. Now, is that a truth which your superior wisdom has recognized thus early in life, and am I, at my age, in such darkness and ignorance as not to know that if a man with whom I have to live is corrupted by me, I am very likely to be harmed by him; and yet I corrupt him, and intentionally, too….But either I do not corrupt them, or I corrupt them unintentionally; and on either view of the case you lie. If my offence is unintentional, the law has no cognizance of unintentional offences: you ought to have taken me privately, and warned and admonished me.” Extract Socrates' argument from the preceding excerpt, then choose the sentence that accurately restates the main premise of his argument. • If everyone else improves the youth and only I corrupt them, then the rest of the world has far greater influence than I. • The goal of rhetoric is to persuade, rather than to seek the truth. Winning at any cost is both unwise and unjust. • Corruption of youth is either intentional, in which case I would harm myself by doing so, or unintentional, which is not a crime.  • The afterlife will be ruled by true judges who will not fault or punish me for dedicating my life to pursuing wisdom. RATIONALE In this selection, Socrates defends himself against the charge that he has corrupted the youth of Athens. He argues that corruption of youth is either intentional or unintentional. If it is intentional, he would harm himself by corrupting the youth, so it would be absurd for him to do so intentionally. This is indicated when he states that ". . . if a man with whom I have to live is corrupted by me, I am very likely to be harmed by him." On the other hand, if an action is unintentional, it is not a crime. This is indicated when Socrates says that "If my offence is unintentional, the law has no cognizance of unintentional offences." Therefore, Socrates cannot be guilty of this charge. CONCEPT The Apology — Socrates' Arguments 19 According to Socrates in the Phaedo, why might a philosopher welcome death? • Death is a continuation of the soul and the body seeking what is true and just. • A philosopher's life has no value unless it is judged by those who have passed before. • In death, he or she can find answers to the most important questions.  • It is only through the loss of the senses that the soul can find worldly truths. RATIONALE The Phaedo is a conversation between Socrates and his students about death that takes place just prior to his execution. Socrates explains why philosophers should not fear death, which he defines as the end of the life of the body, but not of the soul. Socrates believed that the body hindered the efforts of philosophers to gain wisdom and realize truth. Once they are free of their bodies (after death), philosophers can find answers that cannot be found during life. They will have access to essences (i.e, pure knowledge), not inferior worldly truths.  CONCEPT The Phaedo: The Death of Socrates 20 Select the FALSE statement about the Crito. • Crito is Socrates’ friend and wants to help him escape his punishment.  • Death is something every man fears and tries to avoid.  • Socrates says the opinion of many is less important than the opinion of one who has understanding. • Not all life has value; only the good life has value.  RATIONALE In the Crito, Socrates' friend (Crito) tries to convince Socrates to escape and avoid execution. Socrates refuses, and explains why escape would be wrong. As he did in the Apology, Socrates asserts that death is not to be feared. He argues that not all life has intrinsic value; only the good life does. Since he believes that actions to avoid death would be in opposition to the principles of the good life he lived, Socrates rejects all such actions. CONCEPT The Crito: The Duties of the Social Contract 21 Philosophy pursues __________ by using logic, reasoning, and critical thinking. • opinion • wisdom • reality • science RATIONALE Philosophy is a field of study that pursues wisdom, as evidenced by the root words of its name. "Philosophy" comes from two Greek words, philos (meaning "love") and sophia (meaning "wisdom"). Science, reality, and opinion are topics that philosophers investigate, but they are not the ultimate goal of philosophy.  CONCEPT What is Philosophy? 22 Heraclitus went further than his predecessors by considering reality from an entirely human point of view. 

He claimed that there is one true reality, which he called _________. • Ethos • the Unity of Opposites • Logos • the Doctrine of Flux RATIONALE Heraclitus believed in one true reality which he named the Logos, a Greek word that can be translated as “account.” Heraclitus believed that the Logos organizes and serves as the basis of all things. CONCEPT Heraclitus and the Doctrine of Impermanence 23 Select the statement that both Plato and Aristotle would agree is true. • Humanity is a genuine entity located within each human being. • The Form of Humanity would exist even if there were no humans. • Truth must be pursued using logic and reason rather than opinion and beliefs. • Truth must be arrived at empirically, by examining the world as it is.  RATIONALE Plato and Aristotle disagree on all of these points except for the statement that truth must be pursued using logic and reason rather than opinion and beliefs. As philosophers who were interested in metaphysics and epistemology, both Plato and Aristotle believed that knowledge (or truth) must be grounded in justification. They differed as to how that justification is achieved. CONCEPT Plato vs. Aristotle: The Mathematician or the Biologist 24 Dolly was impressed with her new furnace. It kept the house at a comfortable temperature, was energy-efficient, and ran very quietly. According to Aristotle’s ethics, this is an example of the __________. • Ethics of Virtue • Doctrine of the Mean • Doctrine of the Forms • Function Argument  RATIONALE Aristotle's Function Argument states that something is good when it excels at its function. Because Dolly's new furnace excels at its purpose, it is good.  CONCEPT Aristotle's Highest Good 25 Choose the FALSE statement about the philosophical value of the Socratic Method. • Students understand why the answer is what it is. • Existing knowledge is the basis for new knowledge. • Truth is discovered through reasoning. • The teacher imparts knowledge based on experience.  RATIONALE The Socratic Method is not a teaching system in which a teacher communicates knowledge based on his or her experience to students. Rather, it is an approach that involves an exchange between student and teacher. In this exchange, the teacher uses the student's knowledge to guide him or her to a truth.  CONCEPT The Socratic Approach [Show More]

Last updated: 1 year ago

Preview 1 out of 19 pages

Add to cart

Instant download

We Accept:

We Accept
document-preview

Buy this document to get the full access instantly

Instant Download Access after purchase

Add to cart

Instant download

We Accept:

We Accept

Reviews( 0 )

$14.50

Add to cart

We Accept:

We Accept

Instant download

Can't find what you want? Try our AI powered Search

OR

REQUEST DOCUMENT
67
0

Document information


Connected school, study & course


About the document


Uploaded On

Sep 07, 2020

Number of pages

19

Written in

Seller


seller-icon
Martin Freeman

Member since 4 years

485 Documents Sold


Additional information

This document has been written for:

Uploaded

Sep 07, 2020

Downloads

 0

Views

 67

Document Keyword Tags

More From Martin Freeman

View all Martin Freeman's documents »

Recommended For You

Get more on SOPHIA PATHWAY »

$14.50
What is Browsegrades

In Browsegrades, a student can earn by offering help to other student. Students can help other students with materials by upploading their notes and earn money.

We are here to help

We're available through e-mail, Twitter, Facebook, and live chat.
 FAQ
 Questions? Leave a message!

Follow us on
 Twitter

Copyright © Browsegrades · High quality services·