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NR565 / NR 565 Advanced Pharmacology Fundamentals Final Exam Study Guide | Rated A

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NR565 / NR 565 Advanced Pharmacology Fundamentals Final Exam Study Guide | Rated A | Latest 2020 / 2021 NR565 Week 5 Study Outline. Chapter 24: Drugs used in treating infectious diseases (p. 692-760)... SEE DRUG CHART BELOW Know the following for each drug class (penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides, macrolides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin, lipoglycopeptides): • Spectrum of coverage for various organisms • Pharmacodynamics • Pharmacokinetics • Pharmacotherapeutics • Clinical indications & dosing • ADRs • Monitoring • Patient education • Antimicrobial resistance Treatment of Group A and Group B beta streptococci • Cross sensitivity with cephalosporins Category Bacteriocidal or Bacteriostatic What do they Treat? (Indications) Pharmacokinetics Pregnancy Category? Safe in pediatrics? Safe in Lactation? Adverse Effects Penicillins (PCN and Amoxicillin) Used in tx bact. URI, pharyngitis strep, otitis Bacteriocidal; inhibits synthesis of bacterial cell wall Pcn - Treat aerobic and gram positive. Red Book recommends penicillin for Group Absorption – from GI tract, depends on agent, ph of stomach/intestine, - Catergory B - Safe in lactation - Safe in pediatrics - Hypesensivity - Superinfection - GI disturubances media, sinusitis, pna, STI, wound infx A beta streptococci & for Group B beta streptococci due to low resistance Aminopcn – treat gram posivite anaerobes and gram negative (MSSA, strep, H.flu, E.coli, Klebsiella, Neisseria meningitides); amoxicillin, ampicillin; combined with betalactamase inhib Pcnase-resistant – (pcnase staph, strep, MSSA); not effective against MRSA; cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, methicillin, nafcillin, oxacillin Antipseudomonal – gramneg bacilli (pseudo aeruginosa, enterbacter, morganella); piperacillin, ticarcillin presence of food; high doses can cause GI upset/diarrhea Distribution – varies in protein binding, well distributed, inflammation enhance distribution, crosses placenta/breast milk Metabolism – minimal metab except for nafcillin/oxacillin Excretion – primarily unchanged in urine, caution in renal insufficiency (increase half life) - Does not cross BBB unless inflammation - Rash (maculopapular) - Changes in renal function - Candida infections - Seizures/irritability - Decreases oral contrapceptives effectiveness - Interstitial nephritis * Severe, type I allergic reactions to cephalosporins, carbapenems, or beta-lactamase inhibitors may contraindicate use of penicillins. Cephalosporins – 1st Generation (Cephalexin) & 2nd Generation (Cefuroxime) Bactericidal Increase in gram neg up the generations First → gram pos and limited gram neg; doesn’t enter CSF, staph Absorption → oral, GI tract, rate of absorption delayed by In pregnancy d/t increase fluid → shorter half life, lower serum - GI distubances (C. [Show More]

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