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NR 565 / NR565 Advanced Pharmacology Final Exam Review | Already Rated A | Latest, 2021/2022| Chamberlain College

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NR 565 / NR565 Advanced Pharmacology Final Exam Review | Already Rated A | Latest, 2021/2022| Chamberlain College 1. gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - common disorder characterized by ... heartburn and acid regurgitation. 2. Major groups of GERD - erosive esophagitis and - non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). 3. Drug of choice for GERD - Proton Pump Inhibitors; 4. Cimetidine use for GERD - drug of choice for relieving symptoms.; does little to hasten healing. 5. Proton Pump Inhibitor MOA - irreversibly blocking hydrogen and the amount of HCl produced by the stomach 6. Proton Pump Inhibitor Prototype Drug - Omeprazole 7. PPI AE - Pneumonia, - FX, - Rebound Acid Hypersecretion, - Hypomagnesemia 8. PPI Monitoring - Magnesium (Hypomagnesimia) 9. PPI Drug Interaction - Clopidogrel (Plavix) 10. Antidiarrheal drugs fall into two major groups - (1) specific antidiarrheal drugs: Treat the underlying causative agent - (2) nonspecific antidiarrheal drugs: Treat the symptom but do not treat the agent 11. Opioids (antidiarrheals) - most effective antidiarrheal agents; - activating opioid receptors in the GI tract, - these drugs decrease intestinal motility and thus slow down intestinal transit, which allows more time for absorption of fluid and electrolytes. 12. diphenoxylate (Lomotil, others) and loperamide (Imodium, others) - most frequently employed opioids for diarrhea 13. Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) - Opioid Antidiarrheal; Formulated w/ atropine to discourage abuse 14. Diphenoxylate (Lomotil) MOA 15. Loperamide (Imodium) - Opioid Antidiarrheal; Meperidine analog 16. Loperamide (Imodium) MOA - treat diarrhea and reduce the volume of discharge from ileostomies. - Benefits derive from suppressing bowel motility and from suppressing fluid secretion into the intestinal lumen. 17. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) - -popular over-the-counter medication that can be used for upset stomach, diarrhea, heartburn, and general indigestion. - -antibacterial and antisecretory properties; used to treat traveler's diarrhea 18. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) Contraindication - contraindicated in children or teenagers during or after recovery from chickenpox or flu-like illness due to the risk of Reye's syndrome and in individuals with aspirin hypersensitivity. 19. Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol) AE - gray/black stools and - black tongue from the bismuth. 20. Traveler's diarrhea - Escherichia coli 21. Traveler's Diarrhea Treatment - -Ciprofloxacin for adults. - -Azithromycin (Zithromax) is preferred for children and for pregnant women). - -Rifaximin (Xifaxan) may also be used provided the patient is not pregnant or febrile and that stools are not bloody. 22. Metoclopramide MOA - A prokinetic agent: (1) suppresses emesis (by blocking receptors for dopamine and serotonin in the CTZ) (2) it increases upper GI motility (by enhancing the actions of acetylcholine). 23. Prokinetic Agent - Metoclopramide; Drugs that increase the tone and motility of the GI tract. Indications include gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), CINV, and diabetic gastroparesis. 24. Metoclopramide (Reglan) PO Dose Use - 1) diabetic gastroparesis - 2) suppression of gastroesophageal reflux. 25. Metoclopramide (Reglan) IV Dose Use - 1) suppression of postoperative nausea and vomiting, - 2) suppression of CINV, - 3) facilitation of small bowel intubation - 4) facilitation of radiologic examination of the GI tract. [Show More]

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