*NURSING > STUDY GUIDE > NURS 6501 / NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm Exam Review Guide | Weeks 1-6 | Highly Rated | (All)

NURS 6501 / NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm Exam Review Guide | Weeks 1-6 | Highly Rated | Latest 2020 / 2021

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NURS 6501 / NURS6501 Advanced Pathophysiology Midterm Exam Review Guide | Weeks 1-6 | Highly Rated | Latest 2020 / 2021 Cellular Processes and the Genetic Environment • Describe cellular process... es and alterations within cellular processes  The eight specialized cellular functions are movement, conductivity, metabolic absorption, secretion, excretion, respiration, reproduction, and communication.  The chief functions of the nucleus are cell division and control of genetic information.  Importantly, the ER is responsible for protein folding and sensing cell stress.  Lysosomes are saclike structures that originate from the Golgi complex and contain digestive enzymes. These enzymes are responsible for digesting most cellular substances completely to their basic components, such as amino acids, fatty acids, and carbohydrates. A newly understood role of lysosomes is nutrient-dependent signal transduction. The signaling function cooperates with the known degradative role to mediate basic cell functions, such as nutrient sensing, metabolic adaptation, and quality control of proteins and organelles. 8. Four pathways of degradation in lysosomes include endocytosis, phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and autophagy.  . Mitochondria are found in great numbers in most cells and are responsible for cellular respiration and energy production. The enzymes of the respiratory chain (electrontransport chain), found in the inner membrane of the mitochondria, generate most of the cell’s ATP.  The chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions are referred to as cellular metabolism. Anabolism is the energy-using process of metabolism, whereas catabolism is the energy-releasing process. 2. ATP functions as an energy-transferring molecule. Energy is stored by molecules of carbohydrate, lipid, and protein, which, when catabolized, transfer energy to ATP. 3. Oxidative phosphorylation occurs in the mitochondria and is the mechanism by which the energy produced from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins is transferred to ATP.  • What is the impact of the genetic environment on disease?  Family members share genes and a common environment; therefore, resemblance in traits, such as high blood pressure, reflects both genetic and environmental factors (nature and nurture, respectively).  A genetic predisposition may interact with an environmental-lifestyle factor to increase the risk of disease; this is called a gene-environment interaction.  The complete human genome sequence will facilitate gene identification, diagnosis, and disease treatment.  An individual’s genotype is the person’s genetic makeup, and the phenotype reflects the interaction of genotype and environment.  Environmental factors, such as diet and exposure to certain chemicals, may cause epigenetic modifications.  • Explain how healthy cell activity contributes to good health and how its breakdown in cellular behavior and alterations to cells lead to health issue. • What are the roles genetics plays in disease processes? [Show More]

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