Sociology Final Exam Questions and Answers Rated A What does the sociological perspective show us about whom any individual chooses to marry? ✔✔The operation of society guides many of our perso... nal choices What does the symbolic interaction approach see society as? ✔✔A product of the everyday interactions between individuals What does the structural functional approach compare society to? ✔✔An organism What are three personal values of studying sociology? ✔✔Seeing the opportunities and constraints in our lives. The fact that it is good preparation for a number of careers. Becoming more active participants in society. What does the social conflict approach draw attention to? ✔✔Patterns of social inequality Kingsley Davis's Study of Anna, the girl isolated for five years, shows what? ✔✔Without social experience a child never develops personality. Why is the family so important to the socialization process? ✔✔Family members provide necessary care for infants and children. Families give children social identity in terms of class, ethnicity, and religion. Parents greatly affect a child's self-concept. The self, according to Sigmund Freud, is comprised of what? ✔✔The id, the ego, and the super ego Most sociologists believe that ✔✔It is human nature for us to need nurturance experience. What is an example of a total institution? ✔✔Prison Ideas created by members of a society are part of what? ✔✔Nonmaterial culture Which theoretical approach focuses on the link between culture and social inequality? ✔✔Social conflict theory The human species has been successful on earth due to culture. Culture is made possible because of our ✔✔Large brains When Napoleon Chagnon went to live with the Yanomamo tribe in Venezuela what did he experience ✔✔Culture shock Ethel can't believe that the people of India will not eat hamburgers. This is what she says, "No wonder they are starving. What is wrong with them!" What kind of attitude is Ethel displaying? ✔✔Ethnocentrism What concept defines who we are in relation to others? ✔✔Status What is the meaning of "presentation of self"? ✔✔Efforts to create impressions in the minds of others What does the Thomas theorem state? ✔✔Situations defined as real are real in their consequences. Frank is attending the University of smarty-pants on a full football scholarship. However he does not have enough time to study because he is spending so much time practicing with the team. What type of dilemma is this? ✔✔Role conflict What is a status that you receive at birth or take on involuntarily later in life? ✔✔Ascribed status What is the name of a small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships? ✔✔Primary group What is the name of a social group that someone uses as a point of reference in making an evaluation or decision? ✔✔Reference group What did the research of Solomon Asch illustrate? ✔✔Group conformity What did the research of Stanley Milgram illustrate? ✔✔Obedience to authority What is the largest group of people that can carry on a single conversation? ✔✔6 What does a global perspective on human sexuality show us? ✔✔Although sex involves our biology it is also a cultural trait that varies from place to place. What is the term for humans who have some combination of female and male genitalia? ✔✔Intersexual people Looking back in history what do we see once a society develops birth-control technology? ✔✔Attitudes about sexuality become more permissive. What are three reasons why the incest taboo is found in every society. ✔✔It limits sexual competition between members of families. It helps define peoples rights and obligations towards one another. It helps connect members of a family to others in the larger society. Which sociological theory would see traditional gender roles as oppressive to women? ✔✔Social conflict theory What is the oldest justification for punishing an offender? ✔✔Retribution Labeling theory states that deviance ✔✔Arises not from what people do as much as from how others respond to the action. Using Robert Merton's strain theory, a person selling illegal drugs for a living would fall into what category? ✔✔Innovator Emile Durkheim explains that deviance is ✔✔Found in every society because it has useful consequences. When Bart's friends begin calling him an airhead he left the group and spent more time smoking marijuana. He also began hanging out with others who used drugs and by the end of the term he had dropped out of college. What concept best illustrates Bart's situation? ✔✔Secondary deviance The wealthiest 20% of people in the United States own about how much of the country's privately owned wealth? ✔✔85% What did Karl Marx mean when he claimed that society "reproduces the class structure"? ✔✔Class differences are passed on from one generation to the next. What does the Davis Moore thesis state? ✔✔To get people to work at important jobs society must reward them more. According to Max Weber what is social stratification based on? ✔✔Economic class, social status, and power. What income level had the greatest rise in income over the last 20 years? ✔✔Upper income families In America,which ethnic category has the most people in it? ✔✔Hispanic descent When the first Europeans came to the Americas in the late 1400s Native Americans ✔✔Had inhabited this land for 30,000 years. What concept is illustrated by immigrants from Puerto Rico coming to the United States and learning to speak the English language? ✔✔Assimilation In the United States what four states have a "minority majority"? ✔✔Hawaii, New Mexico, California, and Texas. Prejudice is a matter of attitudes, while discrimination is a matter of behavior. ✔✔Prejudice is a matter of attitudes, while discrimination is a matter of actions. Margaret Mead studied gender in 3 New Guinea societies and found ✔✔What is feminine in one society may be masculine in another The "Beauty Myth" in US society encourages ✔✔women to believe that their personal importance depends on their looks What categories of women in the US do more housework than men? ✔✔Women who work for income, are married, and who have children In the US labor force women are ✔✔still concentrated in several types of jobs Gender is not just a matter of personal traits but also a matter of difference in ✔✔Power, wealth, and prestige Building houses and making cars are examples of what sector of the economy? ✔✔Secondary Sector Which sector of the economy accounts for the largest percentage of economic output in all types of countries? ✔✔Tertiary Sector What was revolutionary about the agriculture revolution? ✔✔Using strong domesticated animals to help pull plows greatly increased production Which type of economy is the most productive? ✔✔Capitalist economy In which type of economy is there more economic equality? ✔✔Socialist economy What area of the world has the lowest life expectancy? ✔✔Africa What does the term Demography mean? ✔✔Description of people What was Thomas Malthus worried about? ✔✔That population growth would eventually lead to chaos and starvation The demographic transition theory links population changes in society to ✔✔level of technological development When comparing the age-sex pyramid of the United States to Mexico what do we find? ✔✔That a larger percentage of the Mexican population is young [Show More]
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