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NREMT Exam Questions and Answers/Explained 2023/2024.

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National Registry of Emergency Medical Technicians: Emergency Medical Responder NREMT Exam Questions and Answers/Explained 2022. You arrive to find a 48 year old male complaining that his chest feel... s heavy. The patient is awake and talking to you. During your assessment, you note that his skin is pale, cool, and clammy. Your first step is to: A. apply your AED B. administer supplemental oxygen C. obtain a past medical history D. assist the patient in taking his neighbor's nitroglycerin Which of the following is the correct flow of blood through the heart and lungs? A. inferior/superior vena cavae, lungs, right atrium, right ventricle, left venntricle, aorta B. inferior/superior vena cavae, left atrium, left ventricle, lungs, right atrium, left ventricle, aorta C. inferior/superior vena cavae, lings, aorta, left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, left ventricle D. inferior/superior vena cavae, right atrium, right ventricle, lungs, left ventricle, aorta The mitral or bicuspid valve, A. prevents blood from back flowing into the left atrium B. prevents blood from back flowing into the right atrium C. prevents the blood from back flowing into the lungs D. is located between the left atrium and the right ventricle Which of the following is NOT true of the treatment of an impaled object? A. remove if blocking the airway B. stabilize in place C. remove to accommodate transport of the patient D. control the bleeding The electrical impulse generated in the right atrium is called the: A. atrioventricular node B. purkinje fibers C. sinoatriual node D. bundle of his You are treating a patient that has been involved in a motor vehicle accident. You can lift a flap of skin on the patient's head. This type of injury would e referred to as a(n): A. avulsion B. laceration C. evisceration D. puncture (A puncture is created by an object that is typically sharp and pointed. A laceration is defined as a jagged cut. An evisceration is typically referred to as organs protruding.) Ligaments connect: A. muscle to bone B. bones to tendon C. bone to bone D. muscle to tendons Which of the following heat emergencies is considered a true emergency? A. heat cramps B. heat exhaustion C. heat infarction D. heat stroke You are treating a patient who has overdosed on a narcotic. The greatest risk for this patient is: A. respiratory depression B. seizures C. hypertension D. hyperactivity Which of the following is NOT an imminent sign that birthing is going to occur? A. crowning has occurred B. contractions are 5 minutes apart C. the patient feels the infant's head moving down her birth canal D. the patient's abdomen is very hard Which of the following patient characteristics does NOT represent a potential for violence? A. quick irregular movements B. threatening posture C. large, muscular individual D. loud, thunderous voice There are hollow and solid organs in the abdomen. The gallbladder is considered a hollow organ. A ruptured hollow organ such as the gallbladder is most commonly associated with: A. severe bleeding B. inflammation and infection C. gall stones D. appendicitis A 29 year old male has taken LSD. The patient appears very anxious and in a panic state. He is showing signs of paranoia. You should: A. agree withe everything the patient says B. restrain the patient C. be aggressive and talk very straight and stern to the patient D. talk the patient down by reassuring the patient The most serious side effect of alcohol consumption is: A. liver damage B. hepatitis C. death D. loss of consciousness You arrive on the scene of an incident where a 16 year old male fell approximately 12 feet. That would be considered: A. a trauma alert B. a significant mechanism of injury C. not a significant mechanism of injury D. a case with a load 'n' go patient When assessing a 35 year old patient complaining she is short of breath, you note that her breathing is in excess of 28 times per minute. This is considered: A. neuropnea B. apnea C. bradypnea D. tachypnea You arrive on the scene of a patient who fell from a ladder. You should open the patient's airway by using: A. head-tilt/chin-lift B. jaw thrust maneuver C. neck-lift/head-tilt D. head-tilt/jaw-thrust You arrive on the scene, finding an unconscious patient. There are no other individuals in the vicinity to give any other information or permission to treat the patient. Even though the patient cannot give you consent to treat him, you begin to do so because of" A. expressed consent B. implied consent C. advanced directives D. emergency consent The AED is used to treat patients in: A. asystole B. ventricular tachycardia with a pulse C. ventricular fibrillation D. pulseless electrical activity You arrive on the scene to discover a 65-year-old female lying on the floor of her living room. Your first step in the care of this patient is to" A. begin chest compressions B. apply the AED C. maintain an open airway D. assess level of consciousness You arrive on the scene to find an unconscious patient about 14 years of age. Where would you assess for a pulse on this patient? A. carotid artery B. brachial artery C. femoral artery D. radial artery The appropriate care for a patient with epistaxis is to: A. have the patient lay down and remain calm B. pinch the nostrils and have the patient lean forward C. pinch the nostrils and have the patient lean back D. have the patient lay in a supine position with his head lower than the body (Epistaxis is a nose bleed. In these cases you should have the patient pinch their nose and lean forward.) During your assessment of a patient's chest you note that the left side of the chest moves opposite to the right. This is called: A. crepitus B. paradigmal motion C. subcutaneous emphysema D. paradoxical movement A minute after a baby is born, the heart rate is less than 60 beat per minute. You should: A. blow by oxygen B. attempt to stimulate the newborn C. aggressively warm the newborn D. begin chest compressions You arrive on the scene to find an unresponsive female patient who is in her car in the garage. The car is still running and the door is closed. Looking through an outside window, your next action would be to: A. attempt and immediate rescue B. open the large garage door and any other outside openings C. wait for the car to run out of gas D. shut the car off immediately and remove the patie When you listen to the lungs of an asthma patient you would expect to hear: A. wheezes B. rales C. stridor D. rhonchi Tidal volume is best defined as the: A. volume of air inhaled on a single breath B. volume of air that remains in the upper airway C. total volume of air that the lungs are capable of holding D. volume of air moved in and out of the lungs each minute (average is 500 ml) During transport of a patient with a head injury, what assessment factor will provide you with the most information regarding the patient's condition? A. pupil size B. heart rate C. mental status D. blood pressure Which of the following would findings would be most significant during an assessment of a patient with a severe headache? A. pain in both legs B. chest discomfort C. unilateral weakness D. abdominal tenderness Seizures in children most often are the result of: A. a life threatening infection B. a temperature greater than 102 F C. an abrupt rise in body temperature D. an inflammatory process in the brain A 34-year-old woman, who is 36 weeks pregnant, is having a seizure. After you protect her airway and ensure adequate ventilation, you should transport her: A. on her left side B. in the prone position C. in the supine position D. in a semisitting position Snoring respirations are most rapidly managed by A. suctioning the oropharynx B. initiating assisted ventilations C. correctly positioning the head D. inserting an oropharyngeal airway The scene size-up includes all of the following components, except: A. determining scene safety B. applying personal protective gear C. assessing the need for assistance D. evaluating the mechanism of injury Which of the following actions should be carried out during the initial assessment? A. assessing the skin B. palpating the cranium C. auscultating the lungs D. obtaining a blood pressure Firefighters have rescued a man from his burning house. He is conscious and in considerably respiratory distress. He has a brassy cough and singed nasal hairs. The most immediate threat to this patient's life is: A. hypothermia B. severe burns C. severe infection D. closure of the airway Immediately upon delivery of a newborn's head, you should first: A. dry the face B. cover the eyes C. suction the nose D. suction the mouth Which of the following conditions would most likely cause flushed skin? A. shock B. hypoxia C. exposure to heat D. low blood pressure After a patient has a seizure, they will have a gradual state of awakening. This phase of a seizure is called: A. the tonic phase B. the postictal phase C. the clonic phase D. an aura The process of losing heat through direct contact is called: A. radiation B. convection C. conduction D. evaporation You are called to assist s SCUBA diver who is having trouble breathing. The patient states that it started approximately 15 minutes after she surfaced. She complains of chest pain, dizziness, blurred vision and nausea and vomiting. The patient is most likely suffering from: A. pneumothorax B. decompression sickness C. barotrauma D. an air embolism You are called to the home of a 20-year-old male who is depressed. The patient states he is going to kill himself. Your first step in treating this patient after the scene is safe is to: A. restrain the patient to prevent him from hurting himself B. ask the patient why he wants to do something so stupid C. ask the patient how he plans t kill himself D. turn the scene over to law enforcement The patient is bleeding severely from the lower leg. You have applied direct pressure and elevated the leg. Your next step is to: A. apply a tourniquet B. apply direct pressure C. apply pressure at the pressure point D. elevate the arm When treating an eye injury involving an impaled object, it is important to: A. cover both eyes and stabilize the object B. cover the affected eye and stabilize the object C. stabilize the object and do not cover either eye D. remove the object and cover both eyes You have successfully converted your cardiac arrest patient out of v-fib with your AED. The patient has a pulse and respirations are 6 per minute. You should: A. continue CPR B. monitor patient C. administer 15 LPM via NRB D. continue to assist the patient with ventilations via a BVM and oxygen Which of the following arryhythmias should be shocked using an AED? A. asystole B. ventricular tachycardia C. pulseless electrial activity D. atrial fibrillation A soft-tissue injury that results in a flap of torn skin is referred to as: A. an incision B. an avulsion C. an abrasion D. a laceration When is it most appropriate to clamp and cut the umbilical cord? A. as soon as the cord stops pulsating B. after the placenta has completely delivered C. before the newborn has taken its first breath D. immediately following delivery of the newborn You are treating a patient with a fractured femur. The most appropriate splint to use for this patient would be: A. a ladder splint B. the other leg C. two board splint D. a traction splint Albuterol is a medication administered by: A. injection B. inhalation C. absorption D. orally You arrive on the scene of a tanker truck carrying a hazardous material. You should position your vehicle: A. 2,000 feet from the tanker truck B. uphill C. upwind D. all of the above You are treating a 35 year old conscious choking victim. The patient suddenly goes unresponsive. Your next step is to: A. attempt to ventilate the patient B. perform CPR C. deliver 5 abdominal thrusts D. deliver 5 chest thrusts You are the triage officer at the scene of a mass casualty incident. Which of the following patients should be treated first? A. A 37-year-old female patient who is unresponsive B. An 18-year-old male patient who is not breathing and has no pulse C. A 29-year-old male patient with a femur fracture D. An 8-year-old patient who is conscious but is having trouble breathing When treating children, all of the following are important considerations except: A. the fact that they are more susceptible to hypothermia B. the padding is needed when immobilizing C. that they should be treated just like adults D. that they have smaller airways When established a landing zone for a medical helicopter, the minimum area secured should be A. 100' x 100' B. 200' x 200' C. 50' x 50' D. 60' x 60' A 20-year-old patient was sexually assaulted. The patient states that she is hemorrhaging profusely from the vagina. You should A. do nothing and transport immediately B. apply a sterile sanitary napkin C. pack the vagina with sterile dressings D. have the patient squeeze her leg together and transport immediately A 45-year-old male was involved in a MVA. The patient is complaining of shortness of breath and chest pain. You recognize that the patient has JVD and the patient's pulse is weak and thready. You believe the patient has a pericardial tamponade. You distinguish that this is the problem with the patient by nothing or discovering A. decreased heart sounds B. patient has JVD C. narrowing pulse pressure D. patient is complaining of chest pain You arrive on scene to find a patient who had a productive cough for the past two weeks. The patient is complaining of a fever and night sweats. Your next step would be to A. obtain a better medical history B. obtain vital signs C. immediately transport the patient to the hospital D. put the HEPA mask on You arrive at an emergency room to find that the nurses are busy taking care of other patients. You are getting off shift and want to get back to the station. You and your partner move the patient into a hospital bed, lay the report on the bed with the patient, and leave. You and your partner have just committed A. abandonment B. negligence C. appropriate patient care D. vicarious liability Which artery do you typically assess on an infant? A. brachial artery B. carotid artery C. femoral artery D. radial artery You are treating a patient suffering from anaphylactic shock. Which of the signs and symptoms would you likely see in this patient? A. urticaria, bradycardia, tachypnea, and stridor B. subcutaneous emphysema, bradycardia, dyspnea, and wheezing C. urticaria, hypertension, tachypnea, and tachycardia D. urticaria, tachycardia, tachypnea, and hypotension When you grab a backboard, you realize that blood remains from an earlier call. With your hand covered in blood, your first step towards decontamination should be: A. contacting your Infection Control Officer B. washing your hands with soap and water C. completing exposure control forms D. going to the emergency department for admission Which of the following is the most common cause of suicide? A. alcohol B. drugs C. depression D. the holidays You are called to the scene of a possible drowning at a local pool. When you arrive on the scene, a bystander is holding the patient at the surface of the water. The patient is unconscious. Your next step is to: A. being rescue breathing B. remove the patient from the pool C. start CPR D. apply cervical and spinal immobilization You arrive on the scene of a patient who says that she was bitten by fire ants. She has bites all over her legs. Your first step in treating this patient would be to: A. apply high flow oxygen and remove any jewelry B. cleanse the bites with alcohol to remove the sting C. transport the patient to the hospital D. use her epi-injector - You are treating a patient with frostbite. Which of the following actions should be taken? A. break any blisters on the wound B. apply direct heat to the affected area C. rub or massage the affected area D. remove any jewelry from the afflicted limb You are suctioning your patient's airway. One of the biggest side effects of suctioning is: A. hypoxia B. aspiration C. suction power D. suction catheter clogging Which of the following are the signs and symptoms of shock in the early stages? A. tachycardia, anxious, restless, skin pale, cool, clammy B. bradycardia, anxious, restless, skin pale, cool, and clammy C. tachycardia, hypotension, increased breathing D, bradycardia, hypotension, skin pale, cool, clammy Which of the following pressures is considered narrowed? A. 30 B. 20 C. 20 D. 35 You are treating a patient with shortness of breath. You want to deliver 6 liters per minute of oxygen. You would deliver this flow rate with a: A. nasal cannula B. simple face mask C. partial re-breather D. non-rebreather Which of the following is the first line of defense in fighting against infectious diseases? A. vaccinations B. hand washing C. using BSI D. using 100% bleach The production of insulin occurs in the A. pancreas B. liver C. gallbladder D. kidney You are treating a 62-year-old female patient who is complaining of shortness of breath, chest pain, and is coughing up a frothy sputum. You would suspect this patient has: A. right sided congestive heart failure B. left sided congestive heart failure C. emphysema D. pneumonia You arrive on the scene of a 2 year old that has a barking cough, low-grade fever, and cold-like symptoms. You suspect - The three main bones of the arm are the: A. humerus, tibia, and radius B. humerus, ulna, and fibula C. humerus, tibia, and fibula D. humerus, ulna, and radius - Which of the following is not considered a significant mechanism of injury for an adult? A. roll-over vehicle B. falls greater than 10 feet C. penetrations of head, chest, or abdomen D. ejection from vehicle Your patient has what appears to be a dislocated shoulder. Treatment for this patient should be: A. sling and swathe the injured shoulder B. immobilize the arm to the side of the patient C. reset the shoulder and then immobilize D. wrap the upper body in a pillow and immobilize both arms You arrive on the scene to discover a patient who refuses to allow you to touch her. You feel the patient is in need in treatment and attempt to take her blood pressure. You have just committed: A. an assault B. battery C. negligence D. an act befitting your profession You are assessing a 24-year-old male who was involved in a bar room brawl. Witnesses say the patient was struck with a barstool. The patient is unresponsive. You note battle signs on your assessment. This is a sign of: A. intracranial bleeding B. basilar skull fracture C. epidural hematoma D. subdural hematoma Your patient is vomiting large amounts of bright red blood. The patient does not complain of any pain or tenderness in the abdomen during your assessment. The patient's pulse is 128 and he is having difficulty breathing. His skin is pale, cool and clammy. You noticed he has a jaundiced appearance. You would suspect this patient has: A. pancreatitis B. esophageal varices C. abdominal aortic aneurysm D. appendicitis There are three stages of labor. In the second stage of labor. A. labor pains develop C. the cervix becomes dilated C. the baby is born D. the placenta is expelled kjpo - joj - You are at the scene of a mass casualty incident. Who is in charge of the overall scene? A. the EMT-B B. the incident commander C. the paramedic D. the medical director You arrive at the scene of a possible unconscious patient located in a lab setting. On the exterior of the room there is a NFPA diamond with a 4 in the blue portion of the diamond. This is an: A. extreme health hazard B. extreme fire hazard C. extreme reactivity hazard D. extreme water reactivity You have just intubated a patient in cardiac arrest. Your partner tells you he hears breath sounds on the right side but not on the left. You would suspect: A. intubated the right stem bronchus B. intubated the left stem bronchus C. are in the proper position D. are in the esophagus You are attempting to intubate a patient. The vocal cords appear anterior and you are having a difficult time visualizing them. You could A. have your partner try B. ask your partner to perform the Sellick maneuver C. insert the laryngoscope further D. wait until you get to the hospital - Which of the following medications is an EMT-B not allowed to assist the patient in taking? A. the neighbor's nitroglycerin for chest pain B. an albuterol inhaler for shortness of breath C. the patient's nitroglycerin of chest pain D. the patient's epipen for an allergic reaction - Which of the following is not part of the history or secondary exam? A. form a general impression of the patient B. take the patient's history C. conduct a physical exam D. take baseline vitals In which age is capillary refill most useful? A. infants only B. patients less than six years of age C. patients greater than six years of age D. all ages You are assessing a conscious patient complaining of chest pain. Which mnemonic will assist you in assessing the patient's current chief complaint? A. DCAP-BTLS B. SAMPLE C. OPQRST D. ABC The patient you are treating has white, waxy skin on both hands. The patient's hands feel as if they're frozen. They are swollen and you notice that blisters are forming. Which of the following would you not want to do in caring for the patient. A. rub the hands B. remove any jewelry C. cover the hands with dry sterile dressings D. leave blisters intact The kidneys are located in the A. upper abdominal quadrant B. peritoneum C. lower abdominal quadrant D. pelvic region - The right side of the heart has a three-flap valve called the A. tri-valve B. semilunar valve C. mitral valve D. tricuspid valve - Which of the following is a late sign of shock? A. hypotension B. tachycardia C. cyanosis D. anxiety You should never approach a helicopter from the: A. front B. rear C. left D. right EMTs should wear high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) respirators when they are in contact with patients who would have which of the following? A. HIV B. TB C. open wounds D. hepatitis B You are called to assist a 60-year-old female who consists of a severe headache. Upon entering the home, you smell a strong odor of natural gas. What is your first action? A. check the patient's airway, breathing and circulation B. insert a nasopharyngeal airway and assess vital signs C. remove the patient from the house to your ambulance D. open all the windows and determine the source of the gas leak The most common electrical rhythm disturbance that results in sudden cardiac arrest is called: A. pulseless electrical activity B. ventricular fibrillation C. ventricular tachycardia D. asystole Which of the following is the highest priority patient? A. 57 year old male with chest pain and systolic blood pressure of 80 B. 40 year old female with moderate pain from a leg injury C. 75 year old male who appears confused but responds to commands D. 25 year old female in labor with contractions six minutes apart Of the following, which body fluid has the most potential to transmit blood-borne diseases? A. nasal discharge B. vomitus C. amniotic fluid D. feces Your patient is an 11-month-old female. How can you determine if she was decreased mental status and is responsive to verbal stimuli? A. she will be upset when you take her from her mother's arms B. she will be unable to tell you how old she is if you ask her C. she will attempt to locate her parents' voices when they speak D. she will try to pull away from a painful stimulus on her toe What is the best method to assess circulation in an infant? A. palpate the carotid pulse B. palpate the brachial pulse C. palpate the radial pulse D. observe capillary refill time A 45 year old male is experiencing chest discomfort. After placing him in his position of comfort, your next action should be to A. ventilate the patient with a nonrebreather mask at 15L/min B. ventilate the patient with the bag-valve-mask at 15L/min C. administer oxygen by nonrebreather mask at 15L/min D. administer oxygen by the nasal cannula at 6L/min Which patient should receive a rapid trauma survey to determine hidden injuries? A. alert 2-year-old child in car seat who was in a medium-speed crash B. alert 20-year-old male who fell ten feet and is complaining of leg pain C. alert 65-year-old female who fell in the bathtub and is complaining of wrist pain D. alert 11-year-old who tripped while roller-skating and fell down three steps After arriving at the hospital you notice blood on your stretcher. The most appropriate way to disinfect the stretcher is a(n) A. 1:10 ratio of bleach to water solution B. 1:100 ratio of bleach to water solution C. 1:1000 ratio of bleach to water solution D. straight bleach solution In which of the following situations may an EMT-B place their hands in a patient's vagina? A. there is never an incident that allows this B. a breech birth C. to examine the vagina D. to relieve pressure on a prolapsed cord Which of the following is NOT a risk for a stroke? A. previous TIA B. diabetes C. hypervolemia D. hypertension During your assessment you find a possible fractured leg and hear the bones grinding together. This is called: A. crepitus B. complete fracture C. subcutaneous fracture D. multi-linear fracture You are the first on the scene of a mass casualty incident. Your responsibility is to A. treat the first patient with life-threatening injury B. begin removing the patients from the scene C. establish treatment D. begin triaging the patients To assess the motor function in the lower extremities of a responsive patient you want to: A. ask the patient to wiggle his toes B. ask the patient to bend his knees C. carefully move the patient's leg D. touch the skin of the patient's foot Which patient can safely receive only a focused physical examination rather than a rapid trauma assessment? A. 10 year old male with deformed right lower leg who is responsive after falling off his bicycle B. 20 year old female who complains of severe pain in her ankle after stepping off a curb C. 70 year old male who complains of neck pain after a medium speed car collision D. 30 year old male who is unresponsive but only has minor cuts on the extremities Immediately after delivering a shock with an AED t a patient in cardiac arrest, you should: A. check for a pulse B. check breathing and provide rescue breaths as necessary C. analyze with the AED and shock again if indicated D. do CPR In which of the following situations should you call for immediate assistance? A. you must care for two critical patients with gunshot wounds B. your patient is a 26 year old female in active labor C. your patient is a child with fever who has had a brief seizure D. your partner is needed to stabilize the cervical spine The air sacs in the lung where oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange occurs are the A. bronchioles B. bronchi C. epiglottis D. alveoli Which of the following is a sign of inadequate breathing? A. warm, dry skin B. no audible sounds C. equal chest expansion D. accessory muscle use Pink or bloody sputum is often seen in patients with A. pulmonary edema B. anaphylaxis C. allergic reaction D. flu A patient complaining of facial paralysis on one side of his face with tearing, localized pain, and sensitivity may be suffering from the most common form of facial paralysis called: A. dystonia B. muscular dystrophy C. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis D. bell's palsy A gurgling sound heard with artificial ventilation is a sign that A. the patient must be suctioned immediately B. supplemental oxygen should be added to the gas-valve mask C. the airway is most likely open, patent, and clear D. the patient is trying to communicate with you - If a person was hit by an object described in the following, which would have the potential to cause the most damage? A. one-pound object traveling at 10 mph B. two-pound object traveling at 20 mph C. one-pound object traveling at 30 mph D. one-pound object traveling at 20 mph Which rhythm often converts to ventricular fibrillation? A. asystole B. ventricular tachycardia C. atrial fibrillation D. atrial tachycardia You are transporting a patient who has been resuscitated but is still unresponsive. You should check the patient's pulse every: A. 30 seconds B. 1 minute C. 5 minutes D. ten minutes What is the primary action of nitroglycerin? A. lower the blood pressure B. contract the heart muscles C. slow the heart rate down D. dilate the coronary arteries Patients commonly describe heart attack pain as which of the following characteristics? A. like pin needles B. crushing or squeezing C. intermittent (it comes and goes) D. less severe than indigestion In pedestrian versus automobile impacts, which of the following statements are true? A. children often turn toward the impact and are often thrown down and under the vehicle B. adults tend to turn toward the vehicle before impact C. children often turn towards the impact and are often scooped and thrown over the vehicle D. there tends to be no difference in the way adults and children respond in these situations Your patient has profuse bleeding from a wound on her lower leg but no signs of skeletal injury. The steps you should take to stop the bleeding in the correct order, are: A. direct pressure, elevation, pressure dressing and pressure point B. pressure point, tourniquet, and concentrated or diffuse direct pressure C. pneumatic anti-shock garments (PASG), lower extremity elevation, and diffuse direct pressure D. elevation, pressure point, pressure dressing and PASG Where should you place your hands when using the head-tilt chin-lift maneuver to open an unconscious patient's airway? A. on the nose, with the fingertips pinching it closed, and under the neck B. on the nose, with the fingertips pinching it closed, and on the forehead C. on the forehead, with the other hand under the neck D. on the forehead, with the fingertips of the other hand under the lower jaw When performing the modified jaw-thrust maneuver to open your patient's airway, which of the following steps is NOT correct? A. stabilize the patient's cervical spine with your forearms B. rest your elbows on the same surface as the patient C. tilt the head by applying gentle pressure to the forehead D. use your index fingers to push the angles of the lower jaw forward Following an explosion, a patient is trapped in a collapsed structure and suffers crush injuries to both lower extremities. How would the injuries be classified based on the blast-injury phase? A. primary blast injury B. secondary blast injury C. tertiary blast injury D. none of the above When splinting an injured limb, you should assess pulse, motor function, and sensation distal to the injury A. after applying the splint B. before applying the splint C. while applying the splint D. before and after applying the splint The golden hour in emergency medicine refers to the first 60 minutes after the A. arrival of EMS B. occurrence of multisystem trauma C. arrival at the emergency room D. start of surgery Your patient is a 25-year-old female who is severely hypothermic after having plunged into an icy river. Although she was rescued after only a few minutes in the water, she is showing a diminished level of responsiveness. Your care should include A. encouraging the patient to walk in order to improve her circulation B. covering the patient in blankets and turning up the heat in the ambulance C. giving her hot coffee or tea to drink and massaging her extremities D. beginning active rewarming measures under direct medical direction Your unconscious patient has blood in his airway. You should: A. use a suction unit to immediately clear the airway B. apply oxygen using a nonrebreather mask at 15L/min C. use a bag-valve mask to clear the airway D. perform a finger sweep to remove the blockage Your patient is behaving abnormally but refuses treatment after falling down a flight of stairs. Before transporting the patient without consent, you should: A. document the presence of any injury B. ask bystanders to serve as witnesses C. have bystanders help talk him into care D. contact medical direction for advice You should not suction a patient's airway for more than 15 seconds because: A. the patient's tongue may be injured B. the suction unit's batter may drain too quickly C. the patient will become hypoxic during this time D. you may cause the patient to vomit Which of the following is true regarding using a pocket mask to ventilate a nonbreathing patient? A. there is direct contact between the rescuer and the patient's mouth B. oxygen cannot be connected to the mask C. a one-way valve prevents exhaled air from contacting the rescuer D. oxygen levels of 100% may be achieved To which patient should you administer oral glucose? A. 60-year-old female behaving as if she is intoxicated, and whose daughter informs you that she takes insulin by injection B. 45-year-old male with a history of diabetes behaving erratically after falling and hitting his head in the bathtub C. 70-year-old male with a long history of diabetes who is unconscious and cannot swallow D. 52-year-old female who tells you that she is feeling dizzy and has low blood sugar The focused history for patients with altered mental status should include questions about a history of trauma, diabetes, seizures and which of the following? A. heart disease B. pregnancy C. fever D. stress All of the following may be signs of an allergic reaction except: A. headache and dizziness B. rapid, labored breathing C. decreased blood pressure D. decreased heart rate Under medical direction, the EMT-Basic may administer epinephrine to a patient with respiratory distress or hypoperfusion resulting from an allergic reaction if the: A. patient has no history of heart disease B. patient is in severe respiratory distress or arrest C. medication has been prescribed for this patient D. medication has been stored in the refrigerator Ethics is best described as: A. the principles of conduct, concerns for what is right or wrong, good or bad B. a code of conduct put forward by a society or some other group such as religion C. the principle of doing good for the patient D. the obligation to treat all patients fairly A sign of generalized cold emergency, or hypothermia, is cool skin on the A. feet or hands B. ears C. face D. abdomen Which of the following indicates that a patient with hyperthermia is in serious danger? A. hot skin B. moist skin C. muscles cramps D. dizziness Your patient has been stung by a bee, and the stinger is present in the wound. You should attempt to remove it by: A. grabbing it with sterile tweezers B. cutting around it with a knife C. scraping it away with a rigid object D. grabbing it with your fingers In legal terms, a tort is a(n) A. civil wrong committed by one individual against another B. criminal wrongdoing C. action by an employee for a workers' compensation claim D. breach of contract Which of the following are signs of early respiratory distress in children and infants? A. breathing rate of less than ten per minute, limp muscle tone, slow or absent heart rate, weak or absent distal pulses B. increased rate of breathing, nasal flaring, intercostal or supraclavicular retractions, mottled skin color, abdominal muscle tone C. altered mental status, respiratory rate of over 60 or under 20 breaths per minute, severe retractions, severe use of accessory muscles D. inability to cough, crying with tears but no sounds, cyanosis, abdominal or chest-wall movements with absent breath sounds Your patient is an 8-year-old female who had a single, brief seizure at school. Her mother arrives at the same time you do and reports that her daughter has seizures often and is under medical treatment. What should you do? A. request advanced life support (ALS) and law enforcement backup so you can transport your child B. administer a dose of the child's prescribed seizure-control medication C. maintain ABCs, monitor vital signs and transport the patient immediately D. ensure a patent airway and request medical direction regarding transport All of the following are signs of possible child abuse except: a. the presence of multiple bruises in various stages of healing B. a single, severe traumatic event that occurred for no reason C. injuries inconsistent with the mechanism described D. conflicting histories of the injury from the guardians/parents The head of a newborn infant has just been delivered. You should A. suction the baby's mouth and nostrils with a bulb syringe B. push down on the baby's upper shoulder to facilitate the rest of the delivery C. push up on the baby's lower shoulder to facilitate the rest of the delivery D. ventilate the baby with a pediatric bag-valve mask and high-flow oxygen Emergency care for a responsive 7 year old child with a foreign body airway obstruction includes A. holding the child on your knee and performing back blows B. standing behind the child and performing sub-diaphragmatic thrusts C. placing the child supine on the floor and attempting to see the obstruction D. placing the child supine on the floor and performing abdominal thrusts A 2 year old male is in respiratory failure when he has A. altered mental status and breathing rate of 68 per minute B. limp muscle tone and weak or absent distal pulses C. nasal flaring and mottled skin color D. breathing rate of 6 per minute and heart rate of 50 per minute A sign or symptom of a predelivery emergency is: A. the mother's skin is dry B. profuse vaginal bleeding C. the presence of a bloody show D. a contraction every 20 minutes Select the correct-sized oral airway for a small child by measuring from the corner of the patient's mouth to what structure: A. pinnea of the ear B. angle of the jaw C. corner of the mouth D. mastoid process Vitreous humor is found: A. behind the lens of the eye B. in the bone marrow of the upper arm C. in front of the lens of the eye D. in the joint lubrication of the upper arm You are assisting with childbirth in the field. As the infant's head is delivered, you discover that the umbilical cord is wrapped tightly around the neck. You should immediately: A. place the mother on her side and transport B. deliver the infant with the cord wrapped around its neck C. clamp the cord in two places and cut it between clamps D. suction the infant's mouth and nose to clear secretions You have just assisted in delivering an infant with a pink body, a pulse rate of 106 per minute, and a good muscle tone. The infant is crying lustily. How should you care for this newborn? A. wrap the newborn in clean towels and give her to the mother to hold during transport B. provide positive pressure ventilations at the rate of 60 per minute with a bag valve mask C. monitor the infant for one minute and reassess vital signs to see if the heart rate increases D. administer free-flow oxygen by holding an oxygen mask or tubing over the newborn's face - ` The presence of a bloody show during the first stage of labor is a sign that A. the delivery of the patient is imminent B. the newborn is in danger of respiratory distress C. labor is progressing normally D. the second stage of labor has begun - Your patient has experienced a spontaneous abortion or miscarriage. You should A. remove any tissues from the vagina B. discard any expelled tissues C. place a sanitary napkin in the vagina D. treat the patient for shock What is the first treatment when a mother bleeds excessively from her vagina after delivery? A. massage her abdomen gently B. administer oxygen C. transport her immediately D. treat her for shock - Emergency care for an infant when meconium is present in the amniotic fluid includes A. stimulating the infant to cough to expel the meconium B. performing bag-valve-mask ventilation to improve lung compliance C. performing back blows and chest thrusts to remove the meconium D. suctioning and notifying the hospital that meconium was present In addition to caring for injuries, emergency care for a rape victim should focus on which of the following? A. performing a pelvic or rectal exam on the patient B. collecting evidence of the rape and bagging it in plastic C. allowing the patient to shower and change clothes D. preserving evidence in a paper bag and reassuring the victim The reason to position a pregnant woman on her left side is to A. reduce the pressure of the fetus on maternal circulation B. make labor proceed more slowly by slowing down contractions C. help turn a breech fetus in the birth canal to the vertex position D. ensure that there is sufficient blood flow to the placenta The patient is a 29-year-old female pregnant with her second child. She is 39-weeks pregnant and a saw a bloody show approximately 4 hours ago. Her contractions are 2 minutes apart and lasting 60 seconds. Transport time is approximately 45 minutes. You should A. protect the airway and monitor vital signs while transporting B. prepare for an imminent on-scene delivery C. position the mother on her left side and begin transport D. notify dispatch of the need for ALS assistance When arriving at the scene of a possible hazardous materials incident, you would identify hazards by A. thoroughly investigating the scene yourself B. interviewing victims and bystanders C. scanning binoculars from a safe distance D. assisting law enforcement officers in the search For which of these procedures should you wear gloves, gown, mask, and protective eyewear? A. performing endotracheal intubation B. performing oral/nasal intubation C. cleaning contaminated instruments D. bleeding control with spurting blood Which of the following situations represents your abandonment of a patient? A. you begin assessing a patient, but turn responsibility for that patient over to a first responder B. you begin CPR on a cardiac arrest patient but stop when the ALS team takes over care C. with the approval of medical direction, you do not transport a patient who feels fine after having a seizure D.you refuse to help a patient administer nitroglycerin that has been prescribed for someone else You are called to a store where a holdup has been committed. Police are already on the scene searching for the gunman. Through the store window, you see the store manager, who has been shot. You should A. enter the store immediately to care for the manager B. leave immediately and seek cover a distance away C. wait until the police tell you it is safe to enter the scene D. request medical direction to determine if you can enter What is the first thing you should do after receiving orders from the medical direction physician? A.carry out the orders immediately B. repeat the orders exactly as you heard them C. question anything you did not understand D. document the orders in your report Your pregnant patient is experiencing contractions. She feels like she needs to move her bowels. This may indicate that A. birth is still some time away B. birth is imminent C. she is going into shock D. the baby is still very high in the birth control Which statement about a patient's right to refuse care is correct? A. a child who is old enough to understand danger is old enough to refuse care and transport B. an adult patient who is of sound mind and understands the consequences can refuse treatment C. no one can authorize treatment or transport for any other individual, regardless of his or her age D. EMTs should leave immediately whenever a patient says that he or she will refuse care Which situation requires that an emergency patient be moved? A. your patient has undergone cardiac arrest while seated in a chair B. your patient is found on the ground, unresponsive, and alone C. your patient is found in his bed, displaying early symptoms of shock D. your patient is showing signs of inadequate breathing and shock Bacterial meningitis has an incubation period of A. weeks to months, depending on the type B. 11-21 days C. 2-10 days D. 2-6 weeks You can assess a pregnant woman's uterine contractions by placing your gloved hand on A. her abdomen, below the navel B. her abdomen, above the naval C. the right side of her abdomen D. the left side of her abdomen The purpose of incident management system is to provide a(n) A. clear chain of command in case of legal liability B. means of evaluating the EMS system's response to an event C. orderly method for communications and decision making D. training program for first responders - A 23-year-old pregnant female is bleeding profusely from her vagina. All of the following actions are appropriate EXCEPT: A. providing high-concentration oxygen B. placing a sanitary napkin in the vagina C. replacing pads as they become soaked D. rapid transport to the hospital In a multiple casualty situation, which patient should be assigned the highest priority? A. adequate breathing, responsive, venous bleeding B. adequate breathing, responsive, suspected spine injury C. inadequate breathing, responsive, suspected broken tibia D. inadequate breathing, unresponsive, suspected internal bleeding Your patient is an 84-year-old female having difficulty breathing. Her daughter, age 45, is with her. When communicating with this patient, you should assume that she is A. incompetent; speak directly with the daughter B. hard of hearing; speaking extremely slowly and loudly C. competent and able to understand; speak respectfully D. confused explain your treatment clearly to the daughter Which statement about patient confidentiality is correct? A. patients who are cared for in a public place lose their right to confidentiality B. the right to confidentiality does not apply to minors or to wards of the state C. the patient who signs a statement releasing confidential information relinquishes all rights to privacy D. a patient must sign a written release before an confidential information can be disclosed Your patient, a 69-year-old male, is in cardiac arrest. His wife informs you that their physician has written a DNR order for the patient, but she does not have the written order. You should: A. provide all necessary care to save the patient's life B. obey the DNR order and leave immediately Your patient is a 6-year-old female who fell off her bicycle. She has a suspected broken ankle, no respiratory compromise, and no suspected internal injuries. After providing necessary care at the scene, you are transporting the child and her father to the hospital. The father loudly insists that you use your siren and lights en route. You should A. request medical direction in dealing with the father B. request permission from dispatch to use lights and sirens C. refuse, because it may cause an unnecessary hazard D. comply, it will relax the father and comfort the patient [Show More]

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