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Hesi a2 anatomy (2022/2023) Rated A+

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Hesi a2 anatomy (2022/2023) Rated A+ parietal covers an area around an organ pleura lungs peritoneum surrounds cavity around abdimonal cavity -parietal & visceral peritoneums lymphatic IMMUNE... SYSTEM fights infections rough ER ribosomes located here cytoplasm ribosomes here centrosome helps with cell divison hypertonic, isotonic, hyoptonic hypotonic- cells are filled with ions (K+, Na ions), water outside the cells "hypotonic" cell wants to burst open hypertonic- the cell is lacking ions/solutes, water outside the cell is hypertonic, cell is shriveled/deprived osmosis- water likes to diffuse to area of high concenetration, where the solutes are differentiation cells become specialized to do something cytokinesis cytoplasmic divison mitosis nuclear division prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cytokinsis fibroblasts produce fibers and collagen skeletal muscles are controlled by the somatic nervous system smooth muscles are controlled by the autonomic nervous system neurotransmitter that stimualtes muscles to contract acetylcholine how many pairs of cranial nerves are there 12 how many pairs of spinal nerves are ther 31 ANTERIOR pituitary hormones-- adenohypophysis acryonm to remember: FLAT PIG FSH, LH, ACH, TSH, PRL, GH POSTERIOR pituitary hormones (neurohypophysis) oxytocin and ADH calcitonin regulates blood calcium level parathyroid hormone takes calcium from the bones to make it available for the blood adrenal gland Epinephrine & Norepinephrine - Aldosterone - a mineralcorticoid, helps kidneys conserve sodium and excrete potassium, maintaining blood pressure Cortisol - keeps blood glucose levels stable, stress hormone Adrenal Sex Hormones - androgens (male) and estrogens (female) pancreas very large gland behind your stomach... stimulates liver to break down glycogen What cell structure is missing from blood cells? nucleus how is the pituitary gland regulated? the hypothalamus trochlear nerve eye movement trigemenal nerve muscles for chewing vestibulocochlear nerve hearing and balance abducens nerve eye movement where does the liver get its blood from the liver receives blood from two major blood vessels. 1. The hepatic artery - brings oxygen-rich blood from the heart. 2. The hepatic portal vein - brings blood rich in digested nutrients from the intestine. right atrium and right ventricle pumps blood into the LUNGS/pulmonary arteries left atrium and left ventricle recieves blood from PULMONARY VEINS veins pericardial sac surrounds heart and helps prevent overfilling where is cortisol realased from adrenal cortex what does the cortisol do reduce inflammation, raises blood sugar level, and inhinbits release of histamine how is the pituitary gland attatched to the hypothalamus infundibulum why are hormones of the adenohypohysis (anterior pituitrary) also called tropic hormones because they act mainly on other endocrine glands 3 parts of whole blood plasma, leukocytes, erythrocytes where are all formed elements of blood formed in the red bone marrow white blood cells active in phagocytosis neutrophiles and monocytes white blood cells that form antibodies lymphocytes where does the heart send blood to lungs for oxygenation through the pulmonary circuit, and the remainder through the systemic circuit valves between the atria and ventricles tricuspid (right side of heart) bicuspid (left side of heart) how is blood supplied to the myocardium (heart muscle) by the coronary arteries where does blood drain from and to from the myocardium directly into the right atrium thru the corony sinus where do the superior and inferior vena cava veins empty? into the right atrium of the haert what is the respiratory system controlled by the medulla oblongata regulator of blood Ph? carbon dioxide how many pairs of salivary glands are there 3 what breaks down food in the stomach HCl which enzymes act on food in the small intestine pancrease and bile from the liver small intestine 3 major regions duodenum, jejunum, ilieum where do nutrients go from small intestine for decontamination the liver! intestinal flora the lrage intestine has an abundent amount of bacteria called intestinal flora large intestine 5 portions ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, and the sigmoid colon , and then the rectum glomerulus in bowmans capsule of nephron this is where the actual filtration process happens in the kidneys main function of male and female reproductive organs production of gametes (sex cells) and production of hormones (under control of tropic hormones in pituitary gland) where does sperm develop in the seminiferious tubules of each teste intertitial cells between seminiferous tubues prouduce what testosterone where is sperm stored and done being produced in the epidiymis of each testi ejaculation pathway vas deferens, ejaculatory duct, urethra glands that produce semen seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral (cowpers) gland what is testicular activity under control of 2 anterior pituitary hormones FSH...regulates sperm production LH...stimulates intersitial cells to produce testosterone why do eggs in the ovarian follies ripen? they are under control of the FSH what initiates preparation for the endometirum of the uterus for pregnancy the estrogen what happens when the LH gets released from the pituitary gland ovulation is stimulated what secretes the progesterone and estrogen corpus luteum what stimulates development of the endometrium progetorone and estrogen if the corpus luteum does not get fertilized what happens it would degenerate and mentstration begins Levels of the Body atoms molecules cells tissues organs organ systems [Show More]

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