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Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone exam (Solution) Latest 2020/2021

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Ancient Greek Philosophers Milestone exam. 1 The value of the Socratic Method lies in showing students how to __________ on their own, rather than having it dictated to them. ● create an argument �... � gain knowledge ● explain rhetoric ● evaluate an opinion 2 Which of the following statements about Aristotle's metaphysics is FALSE? ● The first philosophy for Aristotle was ontology, which examines the nature of being. ● Aristotle's ultimate conclusion was that the nature of reality was change. ● Aristotle defined a particular as “a this” to distinguish it from a universal. ● For Aristotle, existence requires matter and form— not one or the other, but both. 3 Water is a __________ condition for staying alive. Apply conceptual analysis to this statement and choose the answer that correctly describes the relationship. ● neither necessary nor sufficient ● necessary, not sufficient ● both necessary and sufficient ● sufficient, not necessary According to Aristotle’s ethics, virtues should be pursued by __________. ● thinking abstractly ● finding a rational mean between two extremes ● defining what is true ● determining the purest form of action 5 Choose the example that best demonstrates a central tenet of Stoicism. ● Carlene is devastated when her outdoor party is interrupted by a thunderstorm. ● Mr. Donovan insists that he begin each morning with pastry and a cup of sweet tea. ● Bob is such a rabid Cubs fan that it isn’t fun to watch a baseball game with him. ● Stephanie is a good nurse because she is skillful and always remains composed. 6 Kendra believes that women have a right to choose to have an abortion. Select the statement that is consistent with Kendra's belief. ● “Some women use abortion as a form of birth control, which is wrong.” ● “Every woman should be a mother; it is our function and purpose as human beings.” ● “I voted for this presidential candidate because she supports a woman's right to have an abortion.” ● "The man should have an equal say in whether or not a woman ends her pregnancy.” 7 Which of the following is the most important tenet of Stoicism? ● To resist playing a role ● To let go of what we cannot control ● To feed our desires ● To understand that reality is either good or bad 8 In Plato's view, justified true beliefs must be related to his metaphysical notion of __________, which he called the Forms. ● knowledge ● wisdom ● essence ● truth 9 When Crito tries to convince Socrates that he must not betray his own life, how does Socrates respond? ● He says that he is not afraid of dying and knows that his followers will restore his good name. ● He says that what is right is often misunderstood by mortals and must be left to the gods. ● He says that life would not be worth living if the principle of justice was violated. ● He says that all life has value, but society determines the fate of man. 10 Which of the following is NOT an example of Aristotle’s notion of hylomorphism? ● Bodily organs and a human being ● The soul and a human being ● A statue and a human being ● An unborn child and a human being 11 “It is my belief that everything in the cosmos is made of water.” Which ancient philosopher would most likely have made this statement? ● Pythagoras ● Thales ● Empedocles ● Protagoras Lisa is considering whether it is morally permissible to eat meat. Which branch of philosophy can help her answer this question? ● Metaphysics ● Epistemology ● Ethics ● Cosmology 13 Which of the following statements about the atomistic worldview is FALSE? ● Philosophical atoms of different shapes and consistencies are the fundamental components of reality. ● The philosophical worldview of the early Greek atomists had great influence on philosophical, scientific, and religious thinking, but only for a brief period of time. ● Everything in the universe exists as a single atom, or a collection of atoms. ● The worldview of philosophical atomists, with some revisions, has been adopted by contemporary science. 14 According to Socrates in the Phaedo, why might death be an advantage to the philosopher? ● Death is the ultimate distinction between knowledge and opinion. ● Only humans can seek knowledge and truth, but their ability to do so ends with death. ● In life, the Social Contract requires people to behave according to the needs and wants of others. ● Eyes, ears, and other bodily organs can distract one from the attainment of truth and knowledge. 15 For Plato and his Doctrine of Forms, a person can determine whether an act is courageous if he or she can __________. ● explain what courage means in the real world ● clearly understand the value of courage ● accurately describe the Form of Courage ● imagine an unambiguously courageous action 16 While I have lived in my home, my rent has increased every year. My salary has remained the same for three years. Next year, I will probably be in a better financial situation. Evaluate the argument and select the option that describes it. ● Deductive, valid, sound ● Deductive, invalid, unsound ● Inductive, weak, uncogent ● Inductive, strong, cogent 17 Read the following statement by Socrates: “In questions of just and unjust, fair and foul, good and evil, which are the subjects of our present consultation, ought we to follow the opinion of the many and to fear them; or the opinion of the one man who has understanding?” Extract Socrates' argument from this text and choose the sentence that accurately reflects it. ● Absolute justice can only be achieved when the state agrees with the opinion of the masses. ● Non-experts have opinions, but the man who is an expert in a field has true knowledge. ● He who has experienced the administration of justice will do as the majority commands him to do. ● Any man who cares about ethics and wisdom has an obligation to listen to himself over others. 18 Select the statement that would most likely have been made by Aristotle. ● “What is true is always true, independent of wisdom, language, or knowledge.” ● “We must begin with the world we encounter every day, rather than with the abstraction of metaphysics.” ● “New things do not come into existence; rather, things change their organization.” ● “The world is unchanging and eternal, which conflicts with the illusion that life is neither.” 19 Choose the statement that both Plato and Aristotle would agree is true. ● “A human being is 'human' because he or she reflects the Form of a Human.” ● “The physical sciences are a source of eternal knowledge." ● “Ideals are similar to mathematical objects or entities.” ● “The ideals of Beauty and Truth are not of this world.” Choose the statement that describes a central theme of Parmenidean metaphysics. ● The universe consists of one, unchanging entity. ● Mortal and divine knowledge can be joined. ● The world is composed of linked opposites. ● The opinions of mortals are universally reliable. 21 Nancy is a cashier at a grocery store. A boy from her school, who she knows is underage, attempts to buy beer. Nancy hesitates before completing the transaction. According to Aristotle’s ethics, which question should Nancy ask herself? ● How can I reach a compromise? ● What kind of person should I be? ● Why is this action right, and why is it wrong? ● Are there possible consequences of this action that could harm me? 22 Which of the following statements about the metaphysical tenets of Plato’s Doctrine of the Forms is FALSE? ● There is a cause and effect relationship between Forms and their earthly counterparts. ● Forms must exist in order for knowledge to be possible. ● Perfection in the Forms does not exist in Platonic Heaven. ● The Forms exist in an intellectual realm that is fixed and never-ending. 23 Heraclitus developed __________, which stated that all things change over time. ● Parmenidean Theory ● the Doctrine of Flux ● the Philosophical Atom ● the Paradoxes of Zeno 24 Perhaps the most important way in which Socrates changed the course of Western philosophy was by focusing on __________. ● [Show More]

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