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Module 1 Review Quiz (16 questions), BIOD 171, Portage Learning

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Module 1 Review Quiz (16 questions), BIOD 171, Portage Learning Microbiology is the study of what? Correct answer- My answer: Microbiology is the study of microorganisms and their biological pr... ocesses at what is called the "micro" or "microscopic" level. Answer Key: Microbiology is the study of microbes (microorganisms and viruses) and their biological processes. What is the smallest biological unit of life? Correct answer- the cell What is a macromolecule? Correct answer- My answer: Macromolecules are large and complicated molecules that are made up of smaller molecules. Examples of macromolecules are polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. More info: - Proteins are made up of amino acids (of which there are 20 different types). - Nucleic Acids can be either DNA or RNA. Nucleic acids are made up of nucleotides. For DNA, the nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and thymine (T). For RNA, the nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C) and uracil (U). - Lipids are made up of hydrocarbons. - Polysaccharides are made up of monosaccharides. Answer Key: A macromolecule is classified as a complex molecule that is composed from smaller subunits. What are the four main types of macromolecules? Correct answer- My answer: polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids, proteins Answer Key: Proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and polysaccharides What various functions do proteins have in a cell? Correct answer- My Answer: Proteins have several functions in the cell; 1. To assist materials in moving in and out of the cell 2. To act as a catalyst enzyme which speeds up a biochemical process 3. To provide structure in the cell 4. To enable movement (e.g. filaments) Answer Key: Proteins may facilitate the movement of materials in or out of a cell. Some can act as enzymes that catalyze, or speed up, biochemical processes. Others play a structural role while other proteins, such as filaments, enable movement. What are the two major types of nucleic acids and their roles? Correct answer- My Answer: The two major types of nucleic acids and their roles are as follows; 1. DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid DNA is located in the nucleus of the cell. DNA's role in the cell is to store hereditary information. 2. RNA: Ribonucleic acid RNA is located in nucleus as well, but can also travel outside of the nucleus into other parts of the cell. Answer Key: There are two major types of nucleic acids: DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Nucleic acids are chemical molecules that carry genetic information within the cell. DNA contains a vast amount of hereditary information and is responsible for the inheritable characteristics of living organisms. RNA is responsible for deciphering the hereditary information in DNA and using it to synthesize proteins. What is the plasma membrane, and what is it made up of? Correct answer- My answer: The plasma membrane, as the outer portion of the cell, serves to contain and protect the cell's cytoplasmic space from outside elements. It's semipermeable which means it has the ability to allow only certain substances to pass through. The plasma membrane is a lipid bilayer made up of phospholipids. One layer has its hydrophilic heads pointed to the outside of the cell, with hydrophobic tails inside the cell membrane. The second later has its hydrophilic heads pointed to the inside of the cell, with the hydrophobic tails inside the cell membrane as well. Essentially, the hydrophobic tails are pointed toward each other (touching neither the outside nor inside of the cell) with the outer hydrophilic heads pointing outside the cell and the inner hydrophilic heads pointing inside the cell. Answer Key: The plasma membrane serves the cell as a surrounding barrier that separates the inside of the cell from the outside surrounding environment. The plasma membrane also restricts the movement of materials (water, nutrients, etc) either in or out of the cell, thus allowing a cells to absorb and keep what is needed (influx) while also preventing the escape (out flux) of essential nutrients. The plasma membrane is composed of lipids (hydrophobic hydrocarbons). What are the three main components of polysaccharides? Correct answer- My Answer: Polysaccharides are made up of monosaccharides. The three main components are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in varying amounts of each one. Answer Key: Polysaccharides are composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen atoms. Examples would include, C6H12O6 (glucose) C12H22O11 (sucrose) and C6H10O5 (cellulose). What is the primary difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells? Correct answer- My answer: There are a lot of differences between prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells, but the biggest one is that the eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus while prokaryotic cells do not. Eukaryotic cells also possess other membrane-bound organelles which prokaryotic cells do not possess. Answer Key: Eukaryotic cells contain a nucleus, a membrane enclosed region within the cell that contains the ge [Show More]

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